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  1. Muscular foot
    ciliated ventral foot
  2. Mantle
    dorsal mantle secretes shell
  3. Radula
    a rasplike structure, containing chitin, of tiny teeth used for scraping food particles off a surface and drawing them into the mouth
  4. Chitin
    major constituent in the exoskeleton of arthropods and other animals can't digest it
  5. Odontophore
    a projection of cartiledge in the mouth of most mollusks that supports the radula
  6. Complete digestive system
    food processing occurs within a tube-like enclosure, the alimentary canal, running lengthwise through the body from mouth to anus
  7. Trochophore
    a free-swimming, feeding, larval stage having a ring of large ciliated cells in front of the mouth
  8. Veliger
    • the final larval stage of certain mollusks, having two ciliated flaps for swimming and feeding
    • develops from a trochophore
    • has the beginning of a foot, shell, and mantle
  9. Umbo
    oldest part of shell in bivalves
  10. Hinge ligament
    what opens the shell of bivalves
  11. Adductor muscles
    what closes the shell of bivalves
  12. Valves
    connected shells
  13. Incurrent and Excurrent Siphons
    muscular siphons allow the clam to burrow into the mud or sand and extend the siphons to the water above
  14. Gills and lungs
    Gills function in respiration and as food filter
  15. Sense organs
    an organ of the body that responds to external stimuli by conveying impulses to the sensory nervous system
  16. Coelom (body cavity)
    • the body cavity in metazoans, located between the intestinal canal and the body wall
    • a true body cavity
    • contains vital organs
    • in mollusca
  17. Suspension Feeders
    animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water (filter feeders) in bivalves
  18. Torsion
    the process in which the relative positions of body parts change in gastropods
  19. Funnel
    the foot of cephalopods forms a funnel for expelling water from the mantle cavity
  20. Ink sac
    most cephalopods have an ink gland that secretes a dark fluid when they're alarmed to confuse an enemy
  21. Pen
    in squids, most of the shell has disappeared, leaving only a thin, flexible strip called a pen
  22. Chromatophores
    special pigment cells in the skin of most cephalopods produce color changes by expanding and contracting
  23. Cryptic coloration
    coloring that conceals or disguises an animal's shape
  24. Mollusca
    • 90,000 living species and 70,000 fossil species
    • soft body, some secrete calcium carbonate shell
    • ex: clams, squid
    • most are small
    • most are marine, some freshwater or terrestrialĀ 
    • herbivore, carnivore, filter feeder, or parasite
  25. Mollusca- Lesser Known Groups
    • Aplacophora- burrowing marine animals
    • Monoplacophora- one-shelled marine animals
    • Scaphopoda- tusk, or tooth shelled animals
  26. Mollusca- Better Known Groups
    • Polyplacophora- Chitins
    • Bivalvia- Mussels, Clams, Scallops, Oysters, etc.
    • Gastropoda- Snails, Slugs, Limpets, Sea Slugs, etc.
    • Cephalopoda- Nautiluses, Squids, Octopuses, Cuttlefish
  27. Polyplacophora- Chitins
    • shell flattened with 8 dorsal plates
    • head reduced
    • gills suspended in mantle cavity
    • foot is powerful at adhesion
    • marine, prefer rocky intertidal surfaces
    • Radula scrapes algae from rocks
    • sexes separate, with external fertilization
  28. Bivalvia- Mussels, Clams, Scallops, Oysters, etc.
    • tiny to large
    • loss of radula
    • shell divided into 2 halves "valves"
    • suspension feeders using mucous on gills
    • separate sexes with 3 larval stages
    • most are marine, some in freshwater
  29. Gastropoda- Snails, Slugs, Limpets, Sea Slugs, etc.
    • largest diversity within mollusca
    • mostly marine, some freshwater or terrestrial
    • well developed head
    • shell coiled
    • gills lost in terrestrial species--mantle cavity becomes a lung
  30. Cephalopoda- Nautiluses, Squids, Octopuses, Cuttlefish
    • marine predator is the most complex mollusk
    • some have venom for immobilizing prey
    • modified foot--funnel and tentacles
    • beak like jaw
    • nautilus with coiled shell (regulates buoyancy)
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Bio 101 lecture 9 vocab and key ideas
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