A&P Lab Practical Midterm

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A&P Lab Practical Midterm
2013-10-15 06:47:40
Lab Practical Midterm

Lab practical midterm
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  1. What is the normal erythrocyte count for men and women?
    • Men 4.5-6.3 million/uL
    • Women¬†4.2-5.5 milllion/uL
  2. What is the normal hemoglobin content for men and women?
    • Men: 14-18 g/dL
    • Women: 12-16 g/dL
  3. What is hematocrit and what is the normal value?
    • Hematocrit is the percent of formed elements in the blood (RBCs, WBCs, and platelets).
    • Normal value is 37-54%
  4. What are these cells:

  5. What is the main function of erythrocytes?
    • To transport O2 to tissues and transport CO2¬†away from tissues
  6. What structure is the gas binding site on a molecule of hemoglobin? How many are located on 1 hemoglobin, and what element do the gases bind with?
    • Heme
    • 4
    • Iron
  7. What are the main functions of leukocytes?
    • Defend against pathogens
    • Remove waste and toxins
    • Attack abnormal cells
  8. What is the normal WBC count?
    5-10 thousand/uL
  9. What are the 5 types of leukocytes and what percentage of leukocytes do they make up?
    • 1. Neutrophils (50-70%)
    • 2. Lymphocytes (20-30%)
    • 3. Monocytes (2-8%)
    • 4. Eosinophils (2-4%)
    • 5. Basophils (<1%)
  10. Which leukocytes are the granular?
    • 1. Neutrophils
    • 2. Eosinophils
    • 3. Basophils
  11. Which leukocytes are the agranular?
    • 1. Lymphocytes
    • 2. Monocytes
  12. What type of cell is this and what is its function?
    Neutrophil: Digest and kill bacteria, attract other leukocytes, cause local inflammation
  13. What type of cell is this and what is its function?
    Eosinophil: attack objects coated with antibodies, reduce inflammation
  14. What type of cell is this and what is its function?
    Basophil: release histamine and heparin, causes inflammation
  15. What type of cell is this and what is its function?
    • Lymphocyte: activates the immune system
    • T cells: cell mediated immunity
    • B cells: humoral immunity, produce antibodies
    • NK cells: gangsta, immune surveillance
  16. What type of cell is this and what is its function?
    • Monocyte: grow into macrophages, engulfs debris and pathogens to destroy
    • Monster
  17. What is a normal platelet count?
    150-500 thousand/uL
  18. What are platelets and what are their functions?
    • Cell fragments from megakaryocytes
    • Involved in blood clotting
    • Platelet adhesion: attachment to endothelial surfaces, basement membranes and collagen fibers
    • Platelet aggregation: form platelet plug to close small breaks in blood vessels
  19. Starting at "12oclock", label:
    • 1. Aortic arch
    • 2. Descending aorta (thoracic)
    • 3. Ligamentum arteriosum (ductus arteriosus)
    • 4. Left pulmonary artery
    • 5. Pulmonary trunk
    • 6. Superiour vena cava
    • 7. Ascending aorta
  20. What are the FIRST arteries branching off from the aorta?
    • 1. Coronary arteries
  21. What are the three arteries arising from the aortic arch?
    • 1. Brachiocephalic
    • 2. Left common carotid
    • 3. Left subclavian
  22. What is the depression in the right atrium called? What was it called as a baby in the womb?
    • 1. Fossa ovalis
    • 2. Foramen ovale
  23. What does an electrocardiogram measure?
    The depolarization and repolarization of the heart
  24. On an EKG, what does the P wave represent?
    Atrial depolarization
  25. On an EKG what does the QRS complex represent?
    Ventricular depolarization
  26. On an EKG, what does the T wave represent?
    Ventricular repolarization
  27. On an EKG, when does atrial repolarization occur?
    During the QRS complex
  28. What instruments are used to measure blood pressure?
    • sphygmomanometer
    • stethoscope