Geo Practical 1

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Geo Practical 1
2013-10-15 10:36:29
natural disasters

practical 1
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  1. divergent boundaries:
    spread apart
  2. where are divergent boundaries found?
    • mid-oceanic ridges
    • rift valleys
  3. convergent boundaries:
    subduct or collide
  4. what do convergent boundaries create?
    • volcanoes
    • trenches
    • mountain ranges
  5. oceanic boundaries have what kind of rocks?
  6. continental boundaries have what kind of rocks?
  7. transform boundaries:
    slide past each other
  8. what do transform boundaries create?
    • gash-like scars
    • sag ponds
    • streams that turn at right angles
  9. hot spots create:
    • volcanoes away from plate boundaries
    • tall but not steep sided
  10. where are hot spots found?
    • Hawaii
    • Yellow Stone
  11. what is a fault?
    a break in rocks where movement occurs
  12. What is the focus or hypocenter?
    location on a fault where the earthquake begins (underground)
  13. what is the epicenter?
    location on the ground surface directly above the focus
  14. What is a seismic wave?
    • a wave of energy that is generated when an earthquake occurs
    • can be surface or body waves
  15. What is a body wave?
    wave that travels through the interior of the earth
  16. What is a surface wave?
    a wave that can only travel through the lithosphere
  17. What is magnitude?
    the amount of energy released by an earthquake
  18. What is intensity?
    the amount of damage that affects human life
  19. How are tsunami waves created? regular waves?
    • major disturbance on ocean floor
    • wind
  20. What is the wave length of tsunami waves? regular waves?
    • 100-850km
    • 30m
  21. What is the speed of tsunami waves in the open ocean? regular waves?
    • 950 km/hr
    • 18 km/hr
  22. What is the amplitude of tsunami waves? regular waves?
    • 1-2 m
    • 2-3 m
  23. What is the base of tsunami waves? regular waves?
    • unknown
    • half of the wavelength
  24. Where is the energy content of tsunami waves? regular waves?
    • entire body
    • at the top
  25. What kind of motion do tsunami waves have? regular waves?
    • straight
    • circular
  26. What is reflection?
    the bouncing of waves off of a surface
  27. What is refraction?
    when waves bend around an island
  28. What is run-up?
    the max vertical height of a tsunami as it comes ashore
  29. how do you find the period of a wave?
    period= velocity/wave length
  30. How is magma formed?
    • reduced pressure
    • introduction of water
    • when hot materials approach the surface at hot spots
  31. shield volcanoes:
    • broad
    • flat
    • grow in diameter
    • calm eruptions
    • produce mafic lava
  32. composite volcanoes:
    • tall
    • steep-sided
    • produce intermediate to felsic lava
    • violent eruptions
    • produce ash and pumice
  33. lahars:
    • move debris long distances in a short period of time
    • similar to wet concrete moving down a hill
    • water-saturated debris flow
    • aka mudflow
  34. pyroclastic flows:
    • volcanic rock and dense ash that is ejected from an exploding volcano
    • moves at 200 mph
  35. prevention methods:
    • warning sirens
    • evacuation plans
    • designate safe zones
    • practice drills
  36. velocity=
    • density/time
    • in km/hr