biology exam II

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biology exam II
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  1. what are 2 pathways for fermentation?
    alcoholic and lactic acid
  2. glycolysis occurs in the ___
    cytosol
  3. is cellular respiration still respiration if the organisms are in an anaerobic environment?
    yes
  4. which of the following is not a part of cellular respiration?
    glycolysis
    pyruvate oxidation
    citric acid cycle
    fermentation
    fermentation
  5. What are the 4 factors affecting enzymes
  6. temperature, pH, concentration of enzymes, and concentration of substrates.
  7. what is the oxidating agent in fermentation?
    NAD+
  8. if you have blood cell (2% solute, 98% water) in a solution of 93% water and 5% salt, does the cell shrink or expand?
    shrink
  9. if a solution has a larger quantity of water than that of another, is the cell going to gain or lose water?
    lose
  10. solutes diffuse down their concentration gradient. does this mean they always go from high to low where as water goes from hypotonic to hypertonic?
    they always go down a concentration gradient.
  11. how are exothermic-endothermic reactions related to endergonic and exergonic reactions?
    Exo and endo are related to energy release whereas endo and ender relate to the heat released
  12. what is the difference between osmosis and diffusion?
    • Diffusion is a spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (ex. tea flavoring moving from an area of high to low concentration in hot water.)
    • Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a solution with a high solute concentration, down a solute concentration gradient.
  13. what is significant about pyruvate?
    Pyruvic acid triggers the Krebs cycle, the metabolic cycle that produces energy. Supplemental pyruvate is often marketed as being able to improve energy and exercise endurance.
  14. what is a redox reaction?
    Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed—that is, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.
  15. what is the cytoplasmic side of a molecule?
  16. what is the difference between concentration and molarity?
    as concentration increases, molarity increases. molarity is subunit
  17. what is the difference between a tight and gap junction?
    • Epithelia are sheets of cells that provide the interface between masses of cells and a cavity or space (a lumen).
      • The portion of the cell exposed to the lumen is called its apical surface.
      • The rest of the cell (i.e., its sides and base) make up the basolateral surface.
    • Gap junctions are intercellular channels some 1.5–2 nm in diameter. These permit the free passage between the cells of ions and small molecules (up to a molecular weight of about 1000 daltons).
    • They are cylinders constructed from 6 copies of transmembrane proteins called connexins.
    • Because ions can flow through them, gap junctions permit changes in membrane potential to pass from cell to cell.
  18. what kind of motion is responsible for diffusion?
    passive motion
  19. what do enzymes and catalysts do?
    lower the activation energy
  20. what are the steps involved with enzymes and catalysts?
    • 1. substrate and enzyme bind
    • 2. enzyme undergoes conformational change
    • 3. substrates are converted to products
    • 4. products are released
  21. what are some enzyme partners? (such as coenzymes?)
    NAD, NADP, FAD, CoA,
  22. inhibition and allosteric regulation difference?
  23. what can affect enzyme activity?
  24. cilia vs. flagella


    1400 × 981 - mononagrove.org
  25. extracellular matrix


    800 × 401 - cc.scu.edu.cn
  26. cell junctions


    612 × 449 - biology.arizona.edu
  27. membranes in regards to hydrophobic/philic layers
  28. fluid mosaic model
  29. membrane protein types and their functions
  30. selective permeability-what easily passes through the membranes and what does not?
  31. active vs. passive transport
  32. osmosis vs. diffusion
  33. hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic: what will gain water?
  34. what are ion channels and how do they work?
  35. how do proteins help substances move through the membranes?
  36. symport
  37. uniport
  38. antiport
  39. phagocytosis
  40. pinocytosis
  41. exocytosis
  42. what are the products of kreb's cycle? their functions?
  43. what are the products of glycolysis? what is their function?
  44. what are the main molecules that go into Kreb's cycle?
  45. what are the main molecules that go into glycolysis?
  46. what are the main molecules that go into fermentation?
  47. lactic acid vs. ethanol fermentation
  48. oxidation vs. reduction
  49. phosphorylation
  50. electron transport
  51. catabolism vs. anabolism
  52. exergonic vs. endergonic

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