Anth 103 Midterm

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jessiemclean
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240782
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Anth 103 Midterm
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2013-10-15 22:30:10
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Anthropology Archaeology UBC 103 Tatiana Nomokonova
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Study cards for Anth 103 Midterm @ UBC
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  1. Person
    1960s
    Processual / New Archaeology
    Scientific, quantitative
    Lewis Binford
  2. Person
    19802
    Post-processual / Interpretive Archaeology
    Less method, more human agency
    Ian Hodder
  3. Person
    1949, Invented Radiocarbon dating
    Willard Libby
  4. Person
    Invented box-grid system
    Vertical & Horizontal excavation
    Mortimer Wheeler
  5. Person
    Used military methods
    Built survey techniques
    Precision / Organized excavations
    General Pitt-Rivers
  6. Person
    Discovered Troy with Homer's Iliad
    "Tyranny of the Text"
    H. Schliemann
  7. Definition of Archaeology
    Study of human past through material remains
  8. Definition of material remains
    Artifact, ecofact, feature
  9. What archaeology covers
    Everything, anytime if it's made or done by humans.
  10. Types of Anthropology (four primary fields)
    • Linguistics
    • Physical / Biological
    • Cultural
    • Archaeological
  11. The Leakey family found:
    • Australopithecus boisei
    • Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis)
  12. Why Leakey's discovery was important:
    Human origins in Africa, not Asia.
  13. Historical Archaeology v. Classical Archaeology
    • Historical: Modern historic civilizations
    • Classical: Ancient historic civilizations
  14. What is archaeometry?
    Scientific techniques in Archaeology
  15. What is Geoarchaeology?
    Using earth sciences to examine archaeological topics.
  16. What is zooarchaeology?
    Examining faunal remains to study past human-faunal relationships.
  17. What is paleobotany?
    Examining floral remains to study past human-botanical relationships.
  18. What is Cultural Resource Management?
    Protection and management of cultural heritage; can be artifacts from a development site, etc.
  19. Person
    Discovered archaeological relationship with stratigraphic layers
    Excavated mounds
    Thomas Jefferson
  20. Order of Archaeological Work (5 steps)
    • 1) Site selection
    • 2) Survey
    • 3) Sensing
    • 4) Sampling
    • 5) Excavation
  21. Aerial Survey: Oblique v. Vertical Image
    • Oblique: better for perspective (diagonal)
    • Vertical: better for maps
  22. What is LIDAR?
    • LIght Detection And Ranging
    • Can be used for sites covered in vegetation
    • Was used to find most Mayan cities
  23. What is a matrix?
    The material in which the artifacts are found (surrounding soil, sediment, etc.)
  24. What is the Golden Rule of Preservation?
    The absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.
  25. What is "archaeological context"?
    Artifacts, ecofacts, features; matrix; provenience; association (co-occurrence)
  26. What is provenience?
    horizontal, vertical, 3D location of objects within the matrix
  27. What is taphonomy?
    Study of organic remains pre-death, burial, decay, preservation.
  28. Typology based on 4 types:
    • Morphological
    • Functional
    • Stylistic
    • Temporal
  29. Person
    Swedish botanist
    Invented taxonomy system
    Carl Linnaeus
  30. What is phylogeny?
    Evolutionary history of a species (all ancestral species in a line)
  31. What is the Molecular Clock?
    Calculates timing of split between lineages.
  32. Earliest primate - what period?
    Eocene, 55 mya.
  33. Taxonomy of human?
    Order > Superfamily > Family > Genus > Species
    Primate > Hominoidea > Hominidae > Homo > H. sapien
  34. Nuclear v. Mt DNA?
    • Nuclear: Inherited from both parents
    • Mitochondrial: Maternal lineage.
  35. Period of split between human and chimpanzee?
    Late Miocene
  36. Geological frame after dinosaurs (Jurassic Period, 199 mya)?
    (145 mya > 65 mya > 2.6 mya)
    Cretaceous Period > Tertiary Period > Quaternary Period
  37. Tertiary Period to Quaternary Period Epochs? (7)
    Palaeocene > Eocene > Ogliocene > Miocene > Pliocene > Pleistocene > Holocene
  38. Egyptian archaeological site along the Nile, dating from Miocene?
    Fayum Depression
  39. Hominin characteristics:
    bipedalism, changes to skull, cognitive traits, brain mass larger than proportion to body mass

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