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Processual / New Archaeology
Post-processual / Interpretive Archaeology
Less method, more human agency
1949, Invented Radiocarbon dating
Invented box-grid system
Vertical & Horizontal excavation
Used military methods
Built survey techniques
Precision / Organized excavations
Discovered Troy with Homer's Iliad
"Tyranny of the Text"
Definition of Archaeology
Study of human past through material remains
Definition of material remains
Artifact, ecofact, feature
What archaeology covers
Everything, anytime if it's made or done by humans.
Types of Anthropology (four primary fields)
- Physical / Biological
The Leakey family found:
- Australopithecus boisei
- Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis)
Why Leakey's discovery was important:
Human origins in Africa, not Asia.
Historical Archaeology v. Classical Archaeology
- Historical: Modern historic civilizations
- Classical: Ancient historic civilizations
What is archaeometry?
Scientific techniques in Archaeology
What is Geoarchaeology?
Using earth sciences to examine archaeological topics.
What is zooarchaeology?
Examining faunal remains to study past human-faunal relationships.
What is paleobotany?
Examining floral remains to study past human-botanical relationships.
What is Cultural Resource Management?
Protection and management of cultural heritage; can be artifacts from a development site, etc.
Discovered archaeological relationship with stratigraphic layers
Order of Archaeological Work (5 steps)
- 1) Site selection
- 2) Survey
- 3) Sensing
- 4) Sampling
- 5) Excavation
Aerial Survey: Oblique v. Vertical Image
- Oblique: better for perspective (diagonal)
- Vertical: better for maps
What is LIDAR?
- LIght Detection And Ranging
- Can be used for sites covered in vegetation
- Was used to find most Mayan cities
What is a matrix?
The material in which the artifacts are found (surrounding soil, sediment, etc.)
What is the Golden Rule of Preservation?
The absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.
What is "archaeological context"?
Artifacts, ecofacts, features; matrix; provenience; association (co-occurrence)
What is provenience?
horizontal, vertical, 3D location of objects within the matrix
What is taphonomy?
Study of organic remains pre-death, burial, decay, preservation.
Typology based on 4 types:
Invented taxonomy system
What is phylogeny?
Evolutionary history of a species (all ancestral species in a line)
What is the Molecular Clock?
Calculates timing of split between lineages.
Earliest primate - what period?
Eocene, 55 mya.
Taxonomy of human?
Order > Superfamily > Family > Genus > Species
Primate > Hominoidea > Hominidae > Homo > H. sapien
Nuclear v. Mt DNA?
- Nuclear: Inherited from both parents
- Mitochondrial: Maternal lineage.
Period of split between human and chimpanzee?
Geological frame after dinosaurs (Jurassic Period, 199 mya)?
(145 mya > 65 mya > 2.6 mya)
Cretaceous Period > Tertiary Period > Quaternary Period
Tertiary Period to Quaternary Period Epochs? (7)
Palaeocene > Eocene > Ogliocene > Miocene > Pliocene > Pleistocene > Holocene
Egyptian archaeological site along the Nile, dating from Miocene?
bipedalism, changes to skull, cognitive traits, brain mass larger than proportion to body mass