frst201 midterm

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frst201 midterm
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2013-10-16 11:44:42
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midterm
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  1. factors that determine the nature of the ecosystem that develops on a given site
    • - climate
    • - topograhy
    • - soils
  2. temperature and precipitation regimes determined by
    • - latitude
    • - elevation
    • - maritime influence
    • - relief - orgraphic precipitation
  3. what affects climate
    • - elevation
    • - aspect
  4. what factors affect topography
    • - slope position
    • - aspect
  5. what factor does slope position influences, and how?
    • moisture
    • higher position of the slope more rapid drainage
  6. what is disturbance
    any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community or population structure, and changes resources, substrate availability or the physical environment
  7. examples of forest disturbances
    • fire
    • logging
    • land slide
    • pathogens
    • flooding
    • wind
    • etc.
  8. what is stand
    spatially contiguous group of trees and associated vegetation having similar structures and growing under similar soil and climatic conditions
  9. spatially contiguous group of trees and associated vegetation having similar structures and growing under similar soil and climatic conditions
    stand
  10. what is forest?
    a heterogeneous mosaic of forest stands
  11. a heterogeneous mosaic of forest stands
    forest
  12. what is landscape
    a heterogeneous mosaic of forest stands and non-forest ecosystems
  13. a heterogeneous mosaic of forest stands and non-forest ecosystems
    lanscape
  14. what is cohort
    a group of trees regenerating after a single disturbance until growing space is filled
  15. what are the stages of stand development
    • 1. stand initiation
    • 2. stem exclusion
    • 3. understory re-initiation
    • 4. old growth
  16. what happen in stand initiation stage
    • Re-colonizing the site 
    • •Available growing space and resources 
    • •Open growth 
    • •Single cohort 

    • • Many species invade 
    • • Competition with non-tree species 
    • • Foliage to the ground
  17. what happen in stem exclusion stage
    • – no available growing space 
    • – increasing competition among trees 
    • – above ground (light) 
    • – below ground (water, nutrients) 
    • •crown closure 
    • •mortality of smaller trees 
    • •self-thinning 
    • •no regeneration
  18. what happen in understory re-initiation stage?
    • •Canopy begins to open 
    • –some overstory trees die 
    • –crowns thin as trees get older 
    • –branches die, ripped off by wind 
    • •more light reaches the understory 
    • •understory trees often different species 
    • •advanced regeneration 
    • •at least two cohorts
  19. what happen in old-growth stage
    • •trees of all ages and sizes 
    • •diversity of tree and non-tree species 
    • •gaps, clumps
  20. what are the different types of crown classes?
    • •Dominant 
    • •Co-dominant 
    • •Intermediate 
    • •Suppressed
  21. what there are different crown classes?
    • •age 
    • •micro-sites 
    • •competition 
    • •genetically superior
  22. what happens in gaps in forest?
    • •openings of any size in the overstory 
    • •death of one or several trees 
    • •late-successional species perpetuate themselves 
    • •usually little disturbance of forest floor
  23. what happen when there is a stand-replacing disturbance?
    stem exclusion, understory re-initiation and old-growth stages will return to stand initiation stage.
  24. what is soil?
    a naturally occurring, unconsolidated mineral or organic material at least 10cm thick that occurs at the earth's surface and is capable of supporting plant growth

    a forest soil is any soil that has developed primarily under the influence of a forest cover
  25. why soil is important
    • - medium of plant growth
    • - influences plant species composition and productivity
    • - regulator of water supplies
    • - recycler of raw material/nutrient cycling
    • - soil contaminant reduction
    • - carbon sequestration
    • - habitat for soil organisms
    • - engineering medium
    • - protection of archaeological heritage
    • - source of biochemicals and pharmaceuticals
  26. what are the components of soil
    • Mineral particles
    • air
    • water
    • organic matter (humus, roots, organisms)
  27. types of minerals in soil component
    primary minerals: has not been altered chemically since its deposition and crystallization

    secondary minerals:resulting from the weathering of a primary mineral
  28. minerals that has not been altered chemically since its deposition and crystallization
    primary mimerals
  29. minerals that is resulting from the weathering of a primary mineral
    secondary minerals
  30. what are the impacts of the organic matter in soil component
    • - physical impacts:
    • - chemical impacts
    • - biological impacts
  31. what are the physical impacts of organic matter on soil component
    • - enhances structure       
    • - enhances water holding capacity       
    • - reduces erosion
  32. what are the chemical impacts of organic matter on soil component
    • - improves soil's CEC       
    • - accelerates decomposition of the soil minerals overtime
    • - enhances carbon sequestration
    • - enhances pesticides, heavy metals and other pollutants absorption
  33. what are the biological impacts of organic matter on soil component
    • - provides habitat for microorganisms
    • - enhances soil microbial biodiversity and activity which can help in the suppression of diseases and pests
  34. features of soil water
    • - soup of many dissolved chemicals available for plants and soil organisms
    • - composition varies with time and depth
    • - its acidity or alkalinity determines soil pH which is a master variable of soils
  35. features of soil air
    • - higher humidity (near 100%)
    • - composition changes within local pockets
    • - COis much higher and O2 is lower
  36. physical properties of soil
    • - texture (sand, clay, silt)
    • - structure
    • - porosity
  37. what does soil structure influence? how?
    influences site productivity through its effects on pore size distribution
  38. what impacts does pore size distribution have?
    • - water infiltration
    • - water retention
    • - soil aeration
  39. what are pores in soil?
    voids between soil particles
  40. what influences porosity?
    soil texture and structure
  41. what is coarse texture like?
    • - sandy, soils have larger pores, but less total pore space
    • - rapid water infiltration, low moisture retaining capacity, well aerated
  42. what is fine texture like?
    • - clayey, soils have small pores, but more total pore space
    • - slow water infiltration, high moisture holding capacity, tend to waterlog
  43. what is porosity important for
    root penetration
  44. what is permability
    a measure of how fast air and water can move through a soil

    • granular, single grain --> rapid
    • prismatic, blocky -->moderate
    • massive, platy --> slow
  45. what are soil chemical properties
    • - pH
    • - CEC
  46. how does pH influence soil?
    • - levels of H+ and OH- in the soil influence the solubility of several essential nutrients elements to plants
    • - chemical and biological reactions in the soil
  47. pH range and type of soil
    • pH 10-11: alkali mineral soils
    • pH 6.7-9: arid region mineral soils
    • pH 5-7.5: humid region mineral soils
    • pH 2.5-3.5: peat soils
  48. what is CEC
    • - refers to the number of exchangeable cations that soil solids can adsorb
    • - ability of the soil to hold onto nutrient and prevent them from leaching beyond the roots
  49. CEC is good indicator of ...
    soil fertility, quality and productivity
  50. Factors in soil formation theory
    • - climate
    • - organisms
    • - topography/relief
    • - parent material
    • - time
  51. saturated soil is...
    water retention full, permeability drops
  52. field capacity is ...
    amount of water soil can hold after gravitational water has drained out
  53. wilting point is ...
    minimum amount of water in soil needed to make a plant wilt
  54. types of parent materials
    • - cummulative
    • - residual - saprolite
    • - transported
  55. what are the modes of transportation of parent materials?
    glacier, water, wind, gravity
  56. what is the parent material in Vancouver?
    glacier moraine(till)
  57. climate influence on soil formation (temperature and precipitation)
    - as temperature increases from 0 to 20oC,  clay content % increases exponentially and nitrogen content % decreases exponentially

    - as precipitation increases from 0 to 125cm, clay content % increases
  58. types of humus
    • - mor (L,F,H horizons prominent)
    • - moder (L,F,H horizons prominent)
    • - mull (Ah horizon prominent)
  59. Biota, including plants, animals and micro-organisms, contribute to soil formation by adding organic matter and altering biochemical properties of the profile.
  60. the Time elapsed since the beginning of soil formation controls how far soil development has progressed and how different the soil has become from the underlying parent material.
  61. what are the two major soil horizons
    • Organic
    • Mineral
  62. what are the two steps in soil genesis
    • 1. accumulation of parent material
    • 2. differentiation of horizons
  63. organic horizons in forest floor
    • L - litter
    • F - fermented
    • H - humus
  64. what horizons are in Mor
    • L/F
    • H
    • Ae
    • B
  65. what horizons are in Moder
    • L/F
    • H
    • Ae
    • B
  66. what horizons are in Mull
    • L
    • Ah
    • B
  67. A horizon
    near the soil surface, characterized by processes such as eluviation and/or accumulation of organic matter

    • – Ah – enrichment with organic matter
    • – Ae – eluvial horizon
    • – Ap – mechanically disturbed horizon
    • – Ahe - enriched with organic matter but eluviated
    • – Aej – thin eluvial horizon, weakly developed
  68. B horizon
    characterized by processes such as illuviation of organic matter, clay, Fe/Al oxides

    • – Bh – enrichment with organic matter
    • – Bf – enrichment with Fe/Al oxides
    • – Bhf – characteristics from both h and f
    • – Bt – enrichment with clay
    • – Bn – presence of high % of Na ions. Distinctprismatic structure
    • – Bm – slightly modified by hydrolysis, oxidation, or solution. Has different color, structure or both
    • – Bca – enrichment with secondary carbonates from horizonsabove
    • – Bss – Presence of slickensides (smooth clay coating caused bystress in high clay soils)
    • – Bmk – Slight development and Ca-carbonates present
    • – Bg – gleyed horizon. Gray color and/or mottles
    • – Bx – horizon with fragipan character. Fragipan is loamy withhigh bulk density and low O.M.; when dry seems cemented
  69. C horizon
    limited (or no) alteration through soil forming processes operative in A and B horizons

    • – Ck – presence of Ca-carbonates
    • – Cs – presence of soluble salts
    • – Cg – gleyed horizon. Gray color and/or mottles
  70. BC horizon – transition between B and C,where B dominates
  71. other master horizons
    • W - water layer
    • R - consolidated bedrock
  72. soil order
    dominant soil process
  73. (soil) great group
    Based on the properties that reflect strengths of dominant processes (Humo-ferric Podzol) or a major contribution of a process in addition to the dominant one (Organic Cryosol)
  74. (soil) subgroup
    differentiation on basis of kind and arrangement of horizons that indicate:

    • • conformity to the central concept of the Great group (Orthic Humo-ferric Podzol)
    • • intergrading toward soils of another order (Luvisolic Humo-ferric Podzol)
    • • additional special features (Gleyed SombricHumo-ferric Podzol)
  75. (soil) family
    differentiated based on parent material characteristics

    E.g. Gleyed Sombric Humo-ferric Podzol loamy clay, mixte, slightly alkaline
  76. (soil) series
    based on detailed features of a pedon. Usually from the same area

    E.g. Penticton Orthic Brown Chernozem
  77. three diagnostic horizons
    • - chernozemic A
    • - podzolic B
    • - solonetzic B
  78. Chernozemic A (diagnostic horizons)
    • • Ah >10 cm thick,
    • • 1-17% org. C,
    • • C/N <17,
    • • b.s. >80%, and
    • • Ca2+is dominant cation
  79. Podzolic B (diagnostic horizons)
    Bf, Bhf, Bh >=10 cm thick
  80. Solonetzic B (diagnostic horizons)
    • • Have both Bn and Bnt horizons
    • • Ca exchangeable/Na exchangeable ≤10
  81. 10 soil orders of Canada
    • - Cryosolic order
    • - organic order
    • - vertisolic order
    • - podzolic order
    • - gleyslic order
    • - solonetzic order
    • - chernozemic order
    • - luvisolic order
    • - brunisolic order
    • - regosolic order

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