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A constitutional arrangement in which the power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments while both cooperatively exercising direct authority over individuals.
Different types of federalism and what the mean?
Dual - is the idea that the union and the state share power but the Federal Government holds more than the individual states. This is currently how the U.S. system works.
Cooperative - is the idea that the federal government and the state government share power equally. It has never been attempted but it seems unlikely that it would work as the state governments and the federal government would be locked in a stalemate unable to reach compromises over important legislation.
Competitive - views the national government, the 50 stats, and the thousands of local government as competing with each other over ways to put together packages of services and taxes
Permissive - implies that, although federalism provides "a sharing power and authority between between the nations and state government, the states' share rests on the permission and permissiveness of national government.
New - was created in response to the power the state governments lost due to the enforcement of civil rights and President Roosevelts New Deal in the 1960's. This type of federalism returned rights to the local and state governments and turned federal government powers over to the lesser governments. President Nixon prominently enforced this by returning the provision of block grants and revenue sharing to the state and local governments.
Difference between confederation, unitary, and federalism?
Unitary System-A constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government
Confederation-A constitutional arrangement in which sovereign nations or states, by compact, create a central government but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority over individuals.
Most countries have what type of government?
What is the supremacy clause?
The Supremacy Clause means that the constitution is the ultimate law in the United States. Nothing can conflict with the constitution.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of federalism?
- -Federalism Checks the Growth of Tyranny
- -Federalism Allows Unity Without Uniformity
- -Federalism Encourages Experimentation
- -Federalism Provides Training and Creates Opportunities for Future National Leaders
- -Federalism Keeps Government Closer to the People.
- -Dividing Power Makes It Much Difficult for Government to Responds Quickly National Problems
- -The Division of Power Makes It Difficult for Voter to Hold Their Elected Officials Accountable
- -The Lack of Uniformity Can Lead to Conflict
- -Variation in Policies creats Redundancies and Inefficiencies
What are the different types of powers?
1.The Expressed Powers- Those delegated to the National Government in so many words - spelled out expressly in the Constitution.
2.The Implied Powers- Those that are not expressly stated in the Constitution but are reasonably implied by those powers that are.
3.The Inherent Powers- Those that belong to the National Government because it is the national government of a sovereign state in the world community.
What is commerce clause?
The Commerce Clause means that the federal government has the authority to make laws that pertain to international and interstate trade.
What is he full faith and credit clause?
1. requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and of accept their public records and acts as valid.
(E.g. If you are married in one state and move to another you are legally accepted)
For the full faith and credit clause, what is the exception?
What are interstate privileges and immunities?
An agreement among two or more states, Congress must approve most such agreements.
What is extradition?
The legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state t officials of he state in which the crime is alleged t have been committed.
What are centralists and decentralists?
- C-People who favor national action over action at the state and local levels.
- D-People who favor or action rather than national action.
What are the different types of grants?
Categorical grants provide for specific programs and include requirements. Highway programs and education grants are Categorical grants
Block grants provide funding for eligible activities identified in authorizing legislation. Community development, education, health service and crime controls are some examples of Block grants. Large block grants include Community Development Block Grant (CDBG)* and Local Law Enforcement Block Grant (LLEBG).
Community Development Block Grant’s (CDBG) must fall within one of the approximately 25 categories, including: Historic preservation; real property acquisition, demolition, site preparation and disposition; economic development and job creation; housing assistance; public service activities; assistance to nonprofit entities.
Project grants are similar to categorical grants and fund specific projects and services.
Formula grants are allocated based on a decision rule, such as x dollars per public school pupil. The purpose is to allocate funding based on quantifiable variables.
Matching grants require that the recipient contribute something towards the project costs. Some block grants also have a match requirement.