med vocab ch 9.txt

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med vocab ch 9.txt
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med vocab ch 9
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  1. Nose
    Anatomic structure positioned above the hard palette that provides air passageway, acting as filter to moisten & warm inhaled air
  2. Cilia
    Fine hair-like projections on the mucous membranes inside the nose
  3. Nasal septum
    Dividing wall between right & left nasal cavities
  4. Paranasal sinuses
    Paired air-filled cavities in bones of face that are connected to nasal cavity
  5. Pharynx (throat)
    Space behind mouth that serves as passage for food from mouth to esophagus & air from nose & mouth to larynx
  6. Adenoids
    Two lymphatic structures located on posterior wall of nasopharynx that enlarge during childhood & shrink during puberty
  7. Tonsils (palatine tonsils)
    Two structures of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the throat
  8. Larynx
    Air passageway located between the pharynx & the trachea that holds vocal cords
  9. Epiglottis
    Flap of cartilage that covers the upper region of larynx during swallowing to prevent food or other matter from entering lungs
  10. Glottis (vocal cords)
    Vocal structure of larynx
  11. Trachea (windpipe)
    Air passage extending from larynx into the thorax
  12. Bronchi
    Two subdivisions of trachea serving to convey air to & from lungs
  13. Carina (tracheal bifurcation)
    Cartilaginous ridge that divides into & is continuous with two main or principal bronchi
  14. Alveoli
    Saclike cavities located off the bronchioles where gas is exchanged between lungs & blood
  15. Bronchioles
    Finer subdivisions of bronchi located in lungs
  16. Lungs
    Pair of spongy organs of respiration in which blood is aerated
  17. Lobes
    Subdivisions of lungs (3 on right & 2 on left)
  18. Pleura
    Membrane surrounding lungs & lining walls of pleural cavities
  19. Parietal layer
    Outer layer of pleura that attach to chest wall
  20. Pleural cavity
    Space between layers of pleura
  21. Visceral layer
    Inner layer of pleura that attaches to lungs
  22. Thorax (chest)
    Anatomic region formed by sternum, thoracic vertebrae & ribs, extending form neck to diaphragm
  23. Diaphragm
    Muscular partition between abdominal & thoracic cavities, contraction & relaxation of diaphragm causes inspiration & expiration
  24. Mediastinum
    Area of thoracic cavity between lungs that contains heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea & thymus
  25. Airway
    Any part of respiratory tract through which air passes during breathing
  26. Eupnea
    Normal breathing
  27. Expiration
    • Exhalation
    • Process of breathing out
  28. External respiration
    • Breathing
    • Process of inspiration & expiration
  29. Inspiration
    • Inhalation
    • Process of breathing in
  30. Internal respiration
    Exchange of gases between blood in capillaries & cells of body
  31. Patent
    Open/exposed (as in airway)
  32. Respiration
    Process involving exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide between environment & body cells
  33. Sputum
    Expectorated matter, especially mucus/mucopurulent matter expectorated in diseases of air passage
  34. Ventilation
    Distribution of gas into & out of lungs
  35. Adenoid/o
    Adenoid
  36. Alveol/o
    Alveolus
  37. Aspir/o
    To breathe in or suck in
  38. Atel/o
    Incomplete
  39. Ausculat/o
    Listening
  40. Bronchi/o
    • Broncho/o
    • Bronchus
  41. Capn/o
    • Capn/i
    • Carbon dioxide
  42. Cost/o
    Rib
  43. Diaphragmat/o
    • Phren/o
    • Diaphragm
  44. Epiglott/o
    Epiglottis
  45. Laryng/o
    Larynx
  46. Lob/o
    Lobe
  47. Mediastin/o
    Mediastinum
  48. Muc/o
    Mucus
  49. Nas/o
    • Rhin/o
    • Nose
  50. Ox/o
    • Ox/a
    • Oxygen
  51. Pector/o
    Chest
  52. Pharyng/o
    Pharynx
  53. Phono/o
    Sound, voice
  54. Pleur/o
    Pleura
  55. Pneum/o
    • Pneumat/o
    • Pneumon/o
    • Lung, air
  56. Pulmon/o
    Lung
  57. Sept/o
    Septum
  58. Sinus/o
    Sinus
  59. Spir/o
    Thorax, chest
  60. Tonsil/o
    Tonsil
  61. Trache/o
    Trachea
  62. A-
    • An-
    • Without, not
  63. Dys
    Painful, difficult, abnormal
  64. Em-
    In
  65. Eu-
    Good, normal
  66. Hypo-
    Below, deficient
  67. In-
    Not
  68. Pan-
    All, entire
  69. Per-
    Through
  70. Tachy-
    Rapid, fast
  71. -algia
    Pain
  72. -al, -ar, -ary, ic
    Pertaining to
  73. -cele
    Herniation, protrusion
  74. -centesis
    Puncture to aspirate
  75. -ectasis
    Dilation, stretching
  76. -ectomy
    Excision, surgical removal
  77. -emia
    Blood (condition of)
  78. -graphy
    Process of recording
  79. -itis
    Inflammation
  80. -metry
    Measurement of
  81. -phonia
    Condition of the voice
  82. -plasty
    Surgical repair, reconstruction
  83. -plegia
    Paralysis
  84. -pnea
    Breathing
  85. -rrhagia
    Flowing forth
  86. -rrhea
    Flow, discharge
  87. -sopy
    Process of examining, examination
  88. -spasm
    Involuntary movement
  89. -stomy
    Surgical opening
  90. -tomy
    Incision
  91. Alveolar
    Pertaining to (pt) the alveoli
  92. Anoxic
    pt absence of oxygen
  93. Apneic
    pt suffering from apnea
  94. Bronchial
    pt the bronchus
  95. Diaphragmatic
    pt the diaphragm
  96. Endotracheal
    pt within the trachea
  97. Hypoxic
    pt a low level of oxygen
  98. Intercostal
    pt area between ribs
  99. Larygneal
    pt larynx
  100. Lobar
    pt any lobe of lungs
  101. Mediastinal
    pt mediastinum
  102. Mucous
    pt mucus or mucous membrane
  103. Nasal
    pt nose
  104. pectoral
    pt chest
  105. Pharyngeal
    pt pharynx
  106. Phrenic
    pt diaphragm
  107. Pleural
    pt pleura
  108. Pleuritic
    pt pleurisy
  109. Pulmonary
    pt lungs
  110. Respiratory
    pt respiration
  111. Thoracic
    pt thorax (chest)
  112. Tonsilar
    pt tonsils
  113. Tracheal
    pt trachea
  114. Acute respiratory distress syndrome
    • ARDS
    • Respiratory failure that can occur with underlying illnesses or injury
  115. Aphoria
    Loss of voice as a result of disease/injury to larynx
  116. Apnea
    Absence of breathing
  117. Asthma
    Chronic severe breathing disorder characterizes by attacks of wheezing due to inflammation & narrowing of airways
  118. Atelectasis
    Decrease or loss of air in lung, causing loss of lung volume & possible lung collapse
  119. Bronchiectasis
    Irreversible widening of portions of bronchi resulting from damage to the airway wall
  120. Bronchitis
    Inflammation of the bronchi
  121. Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia
    • BOOP
    • Obstructive lung condition characterized by granulation tissue plugs in bronchioles that extend into alveoli
  122. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • COPD
    • General term used for those disorders with permanent/temporary narrowing of small bronchi, in which forced expiratory flow is slowed
  123. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    Respiratory pattern that involves alternating periods of apnea & deep, rapid breathing
  124. Croup
    Acute obstruction of upper airway in infants & children characterized by barking cough with difficult & noisy respiration
  125. Diaphragmatocele
    Hernia of the diaphragm
  126. Dysphonia
    Vocal difficulty
  127. Emphysema
    Lung condition that involves the permanent destruction of very fine airways & alveoli, thus decreasing respiratory function
  128. Empyema
    Localized collection of pus in thoracic cavity resulting from an infection in the lungs
  129. Epistaxis
    Bleeding from the nose
  130. Hemothorax
    Blood located in the pleural cavity
  131. Hypoxemia
    Decreased level of oxygen in the blood
  132. Hypoxia
    Decreased levels of oxygen in the tissues
  133. Influenza
    • Flu
    • Acute contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses
  134. Interstitial lung disease
    • Pulmonary fibrosis
    • ILD
    • Group of chronic lung disorders affecting the tissue between air sacs of lungs causing irreversible inflammation & fibrosis or scarring
  135. Laryngitis
    Inflammation of the larynx
  136. Laryngospasm
    Involuntary movement of larynx
  137. Nasopharyngitis
    Inflammation of nasal cavity & pharynx
  138. Orthopnea
    Discomfort in breathing that is brought on or aggravated by lying flat
  139. Pansinusitis
    Inflammation of all sinuses
  140. Pertussis (whopping cough)
    Acute infectious inflammation of the larynx, trachea & bronchi caused by bacterium Bordetella pertussis
  141. Pharyngitis
    Inflammation of the pharynx
  142. Pleural effusion
    Collection of fluid/blood in pleural space around lung
  143. Pleuritis
    Inflammation of the pleura
  144. Pneumonia
    Bacterial infection & inflammation within lobes of lungs
  145. Bacterial pneumonia
    Pneumonia caused by bacterial infection
  146. Bronchopneumonia
    Infection of smaller bronchial tubes of lungs
  147. Lobar pneumonia
    Infection of alveoli caused by fluid & pus filling an entire lobe of the lung
  148. Pneumococcal pneumonia
    Forma of pneumonia caused by bacterial species Streptococcus pneumonia
  149. Pneumonitis
    Inflammation of the lungs
  150. Pneumothorax
    Presence of air/gas in pleural cavity
  151. Pulmonary edema
    Buildup of fluid in lungs
  152. Pulmonary embolism
    Obstruction of pulmonary circulation by blood clot
  153. Rales
    • Crackles
    • Crackling/bubbling lung noises heard on inspiration that indicate fluid in alveoli/fibrosis
  154. Reactive airway disease
    • RAD
    • Respiratory condition characterized by wheezing, shortness of breath & coughing after exposure to an irritant
  155. Respiratory failure
    • RF
    • Condition in which level of oxygen in blood becomes dangerously low &/or level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high
  156. Rhinitis
    Inflammation of mucous membranes within the nasal cavity
  157. Rhonchi
    Abnormal whistling, humming or snoring sounds heard during inspiration/expiration
  158. Rubs
    Friction sounds in the lungs caused by inflammation of pleura
  159. Sinusitis
    Inflammation of the sinus
  160. Stridor
    Whistling sound heard on inspiration that indicates partial obstruction of the trachea or larynx
  161. Tachypnea
    Abnormally fast rate of respiration
  162. Tonsilitis
    Inflammation of one/both tonsils
  163. Tracheitis
    Inflammation of the trachea
  164. Tracheorrhagia
    Bleeding from lining of trachea
  165. Tuberculosis
    • TB
    • TB
    • Infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterium that attacks the lungs & spreads through air from one person to another
  166. Upper respiratory infection
    • URI
    • Acute infection involving nose, sinus, larynx or pharynx (common cold)
  167. Wheeze
    Airy, whistling type sound made on inspiration & expiration
  168. Acid-fast bacilli
    • AFB
    • Clinical test performed on sputum to determine presence of acid-fast bacilli, bacteria that cause tuberculosis
  169. Arterial blood gasses
    • ABGs
    • Test performed on arterial blood to determine levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide & other gases present
  170. Purified protein derivative test
    • PPD
    • Skin test used to determine whether patient has developed an immune response to bacterial that causes TB
  171. Chest radiograph
    • CXR
    • Radiographic image of chest used to evaluate lungs & heart
  172. Computed tomography
    • CT
    • Xray producing computer-generated cross-sectional images
  173. Magnetic resonance imaging
    • MRI
    • Imaging uses magnetic fields & radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures, often used to diagnose lung disorders
  174. Radiography
    Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of xrays with record of findings exposed onto photographic film
  175. Ventilation-perfusion scan
    • V/Q
    • Test used to assess distribution of blood flow & ventilation through both lungs
  176. Auscultation
    Physical examination method of listening to body sounds with a stethoscope
  177. Bronchoalveolar lavage
    • BAL
    • Procedure performed during bronchoscopy to collect cells of alveoli, saline solution is instilled into bronchi & solution is withdrawn along with alveolar cells
  178. Bronchoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of the larynx & airway
  179. Laryngoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of the larynx
  180. Nasopharyngoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of nasal passages & pharynx
  181. Peak flow monitoring
    Test that measures rate of air flow, or how fast air is able to pass through the airways
  182. Percussion
    Physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations & sounds to estimate size, border or fluid content of a cavity
  183. Pharyngoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of pharynx
  184. Polysomnography
    Monitoring & recording normal & abnormal activity during sleep, including neural & respiratory function
  185. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
    Group of tests performed to measure breathing, used to determine respiratory function or abnormalities, useful in distinguishing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from asthma
  186. Pulse oximetry
    Measurement of oxygen saturation in the blood
  187. Rhinoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of nasal cavity
  188. Spirometry
    Procedure for measuring air flow & volume of air inspired & expired by lungs using device called spirometer
  189. Thoracoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of thorax done through small opening in chest wall
  190. Video-assisted thorascopic surgery
    • VATS
    • Thoracic surgery performed using endoscopic camera, optical systems & display screen, as well as specially designed surgical instrument which enables surgeons to view the inside of chest cavity & remove tissue to test for disease
  191. Adenoidectomy
    Excision of adenoids
  192. Aspiration
    Removal of accumulated fluid by suction
  193. Bronchoplasty
    Surgical repair of bronchus
  194. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    • CPR
    • Medical procedure to ventilate lungs & artificially circulate blood if patient has stopped breathing & heart has stopped
  195. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy
    • CPAP
    • Breathing apparatus that pumps constant pressurized air through nasal passages via mask to keep airway open
  196. Endotracheal intubation
    Medical procedure in which a tube is inserted between vocal cords in larynx & into trachea to establish airway for breathing purposes, either manually or mechanically
  197. Hyperbaric medicine
    Medicinal use of high barometric pressure, usually in specially constructed chambers, to increase oxygen content of blood & tissues
  198. Incentive spirometry
    Medical procedure to encourage patients to breathe deeply by using portable plastic device called spirometer that gives visual feedback as the patient inhales forcefully
  199. Laryngectomy
    Excision of the larynx
  200. Laryngotracheotomy
    Incision of the larynx & trachea
  201. Mechanical ventilation
    Use of automatic mechanical device to perform all or part of work of breathing
  202. Pneumonectomy
    Excision of the lung
  203. Rhinoplasty
    Surgical repair of the nose
  204. Septoplasty
    Surgical repair of the nasal septum
  205. Sinusotomy
    Incision of the sinus
  206. Thoracotomy
    Incision of the chest cavity
  207. Tonsillectomy
    Surgical removal of one or both tonsils
  208. Tracheoplasty
    Surgical repair of trachea
  209. Tracheostomy
    Creation of artificial opening in trachea
  210. Tracheotomy
    Incision of trachea
  211. Antibiotic
    Drug that acts against susceptible microorganisms
  212. Antihistamine
    Drug used to stop the effects of histamine in the respiratory tract
  213. Antitubercular
    Drug contained in a vaccine used to lower the risk of getting TB in people who may be exposed to the disease
  214. Antitussive
    Drug that suppresses the cough center in the brain to stop repeated or productive coughing
  215. Bronchodilator
    Drug that dilates the bronchial wall, allowing air to pass through & relieving breathing difficulties
  216. Corticosteroid
    Drug that reduces bronchial inflammation & airway obstruction & thereby improves lung function
  217. Decongestant
    Drug that relieves congestion by shrinking swollen nasal tissue & blood vessel
  218. Expectorant
    Drug that helps bring up mucus & other material form the lung, bronchi & trachea & helps to lubricate the irritated respiratory tract
  219. Nebulizer (atomizer)
    Device for administering a drug by spraying fine mist into nose
  220. Otorhinolaryngology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis & treatment of diseases of the ear, nose & throat
  221. Otorhinolaryngologist
    Physician who specializes in otorhinolaryngology
  222. Pulmonology
    Medical specialty concerned with disease of lungs & respiratory tract
  223. Pulmonologist
    Physician who specializes in pulmonology
  224. ABG
    Arterial blood gas
  225. AFB
    Acid-fast bacilli
  226. ARDS
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  227. BAL
    Bronchoalveolar lavage
  228. BOOP
    Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia
  229. COPD
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  230. CPAP
    Continuous positive airway pressure therapy
  231. CPR
    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  232. CT
    Computed tomography scan
  233. CXR
    Chest xray
  234. ILD
    Interstitial lung disease
  235. MRI
    Magnetic resonance imaging
  236. PFTs
    Pulmonary function tests
  237. PPD
    Purified protein derivative
  238. RAD
    Reactive airway disease
  239. RF
    Respiratory failure
  240. TB
    Tuberculosis
  241. V/Q
    Ventilation-perfusion scan
  242. VATS
    Video-assisted thorascopic surgery

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