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Origin & insertion of the 3 scalene muscles
O: Transverse Processes of C3-7
- I: Anterior: Rib 1
- Middle: Rib 1
- Posterior: Rib 2
What are the actions of the 3 Scalene muscles?
- Anterior: Elevation of rib 1, Latral flexion and rotation of neck.
- Middle: Elevation of rib 1, lateral flexion of neck.
- Posterior: Elevation of rib 2, lateral flexion of neck.
List 3 important facts about the scalene muscles
- -Neck movements are produed when rib is fixed.
- -Important accessory muscles for respiration
- -Roots of brachial plexus found between anterior and middle scalene.
How to length test the scalene's?
- Middle Scalene: Laterally flex the patient's head to opposite side without rotation.
- Anterior Scalene: Rotate the head to the same side and then laterally flex the head to the opposite side.
Inability to laterally flex or rotate the cervical spine fully indicate shortening of the respective scalene muscles.
How to stretch the scalenes?
- Middle:Laterally flex the neck with no rotation.
- Anterior:Maintain lateral flexion and ask client to turn head towards the side of the neck being stretched. (only rotate about 20-30 degrees)
- Posterior: Maintain lateral flexion and ask the client to turn head away from the side being stretched.
Origin and insertion of SCM?
- O: Clavical and sternum
- I: Mastoid process of temporal bone
What are the actions of the scm?
- Unilateral: Rotation of head to opposite side and laterally flexes to the same side.
- Bilateral: Cervical Flexion
Muscle length test (Stretching) for SCM.
To test the right SCM- Position the client w/shoulders at the end of the table and the head extending beyond te edge. Rotate the head to the left and thn align the mastoid process with the sternum. Slowly lower the head downward so that the mastoid moves away from the sternum.
What is the origin and insertion of the Levator Scapula muscle?
- O: TP of C1-4
- I: superior angle and medial border of scapula
What are the actions of the Levator Scapulae muscle?
- -Elevation of scapula (shrugging shoulders)
- -With Scapulae stabilized bilateral contraction will cause extension of the neck while unilateral contraction will cause rotation to the same side with lateral flexion.
How to stretch the levator scapula muscle?
Flex the cervial spine and rotate the head to the opposite side. Then depress the scapula.
Muscle length testing for the upper trapezius
To test the right upper traps, laterally flex the neck to the left and then rotate the head to the right. Then depress the right scapula.