psych of music ch2
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The science of the production, transmission, and reception of sound
Subdisciplines of acoustics (for
example): Architectural acoustics
achieving good sound within buildings
Subdisciplines of acoustics: Bioacoustics
studies the hearing and calls of animals, how animals are affected by the sounds of their habitat
Subdisciplines of acoustics: Environmental acoustics
studies noise caused by traffic, aircraft, industrial equipment, etc
Subdisciplines of acoustics: Musical acoustics
how musical instruments produce sound, how room design and sound reproduction processes affect musical sound and the perception of sound as music
Sound waves occur when the vibration of an object causes changes in the air pressure around the object/ repeating pattern of air pressure changes traveling through air.
More about sound waves
chapter 2 slide 3
- simple sine wave pressure vibration. Most
- sounds are NOT pure tones, but more complex waves! Tuning forks produce a very simple sound wave known as a pure tone
number of times per second that the pressure wave goes through an entire cycle. Unit of measurement is Hertz (Hz). Determines the pitch of the tone (higher frequencies = higher pitch), refer to ch 2 slide 5
- size of the air pressure changes, determines
- loudness of the tone. refer to ch2 slide 6
Simple (pure) tone : single frequency
200 Hz sine wave (pure tone)
200 Hz complex tone
refer to ch2 slide 7
- •vibrations at more than one
•still perceived as a single tone
- multiple component frequencies give
- single tone a different sound quality (timbre)
- the distinctive quality of a particular tone.
- Distinguishes between the same pitch played by a guitar or oboe or piano or saxophone, etc
- Any complex sound can be explained
- as a series of sine functions of different frequencies
- A Fourier analysis on this complex
- tone would represent this wave with 4 sinusoidal waves.
- The complex wave is simply the sum
- of each of the component waves.
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