Unit 3: Jeffersonian Revolution AP American History
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What federalists called Jefferson, who was not very religious.
Revolution of 1800
Another name for the election of 1800, Wherein Thomas Jefferson won.
Pirates off of the North coast of Africa who kidnapped foreign ships and held them at ransom. Demanded "tribute" (money) to stop capturing ships.
French leader who emerged during the French Revolution and led France through the Napoleonic wars, which were named after him.
When the United States under Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana territory from France in 1803.
American Minister at Paris, and negotiated the Louisiana Purchase. Signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty.
Sent to France to negotiate Louisiana Purchase. Signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty. Also the 5th President of the United States.
A slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Republic of Haiti.
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. His genius transformed an entire society of slaves into the independent black state of Haiti.The success of the Haitian Revolution shook the institution of slavery throughout the New World.
Lewis and Clark Expidition
Also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, it was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States, making their way westward through the continental divide to the Pacific coast.
Often remembered for his Anglophile attitudes, and pushed for pro-British policies. He later became involved with the Hartford Convention, and along with many other Federalists opposed the War of 1812.
The highlight of Burr's tenure as President of the Senate was the Senate's first impeachment trial, of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase. In 1804, the last full year of his Vice Presidency, Burr killed his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. The death of Hamilton, ended Burr's political career. President Jefferson dropped him from the ticket for the 1804 presidential election, and he never held office again.
Fourth Chief Justice of the United States. His court opinions helped lay the basis for United States constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States an equal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches. Secretary of State under President John Adams from 1800 to 1801.
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the US. It helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches.
William Marbury was a highly successful American businessman and one of the "midnight judges" appointed by President John Adams the day before he left office. He was the plaintiff in the landmark 1803 Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison.
Judicial review is when legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A specific court with judicial review power must annul the acts of the state when it finds them incompatible with a higher authority. Judicial review is an example of check and balances in a modern governmental system.
Samuel Chase was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and earlier signed the Declaration of Independence. Near the end of his career, he became well known as a staunch Federalist and was impeached for allegedly letting his partisan leanings affect his court decisions. Chase was acquitted by the Senate.
- In 1796, he was named U.S. minister to France (though he wasn't
- recognized by the French Directory) and participated in the XYZ Affair. Pinckney ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. presidency in 1804
- and 1808
- A naval engagement that occurred off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, 1807, between the British warship HMS Leopard and American frigate USS Chesapeake, when the crew of the Leopard pursued, attacked and boarded the American frigate looking for deserters from the Royal Navy. Four
- crew members were removed from the American vessel and were tried for
- desertion, one of whom was subsequently hanged.
- The Chesapeake Affair created uproar among Americans. Jefferson's political failure to coerce Great Britain led him towards economic warfare: the Embargo of 1807.
James Barron was an officer in the United States Navy. As Commander of the frigate USS Chesapeake, he was court-martialed for his actions in 1807, which led to the surrender of his ship to the British.
- Impressment refers to the act of taking men into a navy by force and with or without notice. It was used by the Royal Navy, beginning in 1664 and during the 18th and early 19th centuries, in wartime, as a means of crewing warships. People liable to impressment were "eligible men of
- seafaring habits between the ages of 18 and 45 years".
The Embargo Act of 1807
The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general embargo enacted by the United States Congress against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars.The Embargo was in fact hurting the United States as much as Britain or France.In March 1809, Jefferson signed the repeal of the failed Embargo.
- Thomas Jefferson replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the almost unenforceable Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809. This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French
- ports. The intent was to damage the economies of the United Kingdom and
- France. Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly
- ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of 1812. In addition, it seriously damaged the economy of the United States.
Macon's Bill #2
- It became law in the United States on May 14, 1810, was intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars.If either one of the two countries ceased attacks upon American
- shipping, the United States would end trade with the other, unless that
- other country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American
- ships as well.
- Napoleon immediately saw a chance to exploit Macon's Bill. A message was sent to the United States, stating the rights of the
- American merchant ships as neutral carriers would be recognized.
- President James Madison,
- an opponent of the bill, accepted Napoleon's offer.
- However, Napoleon had no intention of ever following through on his
- promise. The British were still highly offended by the agreement and
- threatened force.
- Democratic-Republicans and were primarily from southern and western states. The War Hawks advocated going to war against Britain for reasons related to the interference of the Royal Navy
- in American shipping, which the War Hawks believed hurt the American
- economy. Of more direct concern to them, War Hawks
- from the western states also believed that the British were instigating
- American Indians, and so the War Hawks called for an invasion of British Canada to punish the British and end this threat.
- He worked as a frontier lawyer before becoming a Kentucky senator and then speaker
- of the House of Representatives. He was secretary of state under John Quincy Adams
- in the 1820s, later returning to Congress, and pushed for the
- Compromise of 1850, with overall conflicting stances on race and
John C. Calhoun
- In 1817 President James Monroe
- appointed John C. Calhoun secretary of war. An ardent Jeffersonian
- Republican who called for war with Britain as early as 1807, he was
- elected to South Carolina's state legislature in 1808 and to the United
- States House of Representatives in 1811. He was elected vice president
- in 1824 under John Quincy Adams and was reelected in 1828 under Andrew Jackson.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Fought on November 7, 1811, between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison and Native American warriors of Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Tecumseh and his brother Prophet were leaders of a confederacy of Native Americans from various tribes that opposed U.S. expansion into Native territory.
- He opposed the United States during the
- early 1800s and attempted to organize a confederation of tribes to
- resist white settlement. During the War of 1812, Tecumseh and his
- followers joined the British to battle the United States. He was killed
- in the Battle of the Thames in Canada on October 5, 1813.
A Native American religious and political leader of the Shawnee tribe, known as The Prophet or the Shawnee Prophet. He was the brother of Tecumseh, leader of the Shawnee.
William Henry Harrison
The ninth president of the United States in 1841. Died in office because of a cold caught during a speech. In office for one month.
Declaration of the War of 1812
- President James Madison sent a message to Congress recounting American
- grievances against Great Britain, though not specifically calling for a
- declaration of war. After Madison's message, the House of
- Representatives deliberated for four days behind closed doors before
- voting in favor. The conflict began
- formally on June 18, 1812, when Madison signed the measure into law and
- proclaimed it the next day.
Causes of the War of 1812
- 1) A series of trade restrictions introduced by Britain to
- impede American trade with France, a country with which Britain was at war 2) the impressment (forced recruitment) of U.S. seamen into the Royal Navy 3) the British military support for American Indians
- who were offering armed resistance to the expansion of the American
- frontier to the Northwest 4), a possible desire on the part of the
- United States to annex Canada. 5) British insults (Chesepeake)
- Military general and first emperor of France, Napoleon Bonaparte was. One of the most
- celebrated leaders in the history of the West.
A United States fort built in 1803. The original fort was destroyed following the Battle of Fort Dearborn in 1812.
Fort established in 1701. The location of the former fort is now in the city of Detroit in the U.S. state of Michigan.
- Early American politician and naturalist who was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal.
- Clinton believed that infrastructure improvements could transform
- American life, drive economic growth, and encourage political
Commodore Oliver Perry
- During the War of 1812 against Britain, Perry supervised the building of a fleet at Erie, Pennsylvania. His leadership materially aided the successful outcomes of all nine
- Lake Erie military campaign victories, and the fleet victory was a
- turning point in the battle for the west in the War of 1812.
Francis Scott Key
- Witnessed the British attack on Fort McHenry during
- the War of 1812. The fort withstood the day-long assault, inspiring Key
- to write a poem that would become the future U.S. national anthem, "The
- Star-Spangled Banner."
Duke of Wellington
Served as the ambassador (UK) to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the allied army which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.
Commodore Thomas MacDonough
- 19th-century American naval officer noted for his roles in the
- first Barbary War and the War of 1812. Macdonough achieved fame during the War of 1812, commanding the American naval forces that defeated the British navy at the Battle of Lake Champlain, part of the larger Battle of Plattsburgh, which helped lead to an end to that war.
General Andrew Jackson
- A lawyer and a landowner, he became a
- national war hero after defeating the British in New Orleans during the
- War of 1812. Jackson was elected the seventh president of the United
- States in 1828. Known as the "people's president," Jackson destroyed the
- National Bank, founded the Democratic Party and is known for his
- support of individual liberty.
Battle of New Orleans
The final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
Treaty of Ghent
Peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom. It restored the borders of the two countries to the line before the commencement of hostilities.
- New England Federalists met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812
- and the political problems arising from the federal government's
- increasing power. Despite radical outcries among Federalists for New
- England secession, radical proposals were not a major focus of the debate
- News of Major General Andrew Jackson's overwhelming victory in New Orleans discredited and disgraced the Federalists,
- resulting in their elimination as a major national political force.
- Represented Massachusetts in the Continental Congress and at the Constitutional
- Convention. King was one of the framers and signers of the U.S.
- Constitution and was a vocal lifelong opponent of slavery. In 1789, King became one of New York's first U.S. senators and later served as U.S. ambassador to Great Britain.
- Fought under George Washington and studied law with Thomas Jefferson.
- He was elected the fifth president of the United States in 1817. He is
- remembered for the Monroe Doctrine, as well as for expanding U.S
- territory via the acquisition of Florida from Spain.
Economic plan that played a prominent role in American policy during the first half of the 19th century. Rooted in the "American School" ideas of Alexander Hamilton, the plan "consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: a tariff; a national bank; and Infrastructure, and high price of public land.
- The first tariff passed by Congress to protect U.S. manufactured items from foreign competition.
- It recieved strong support it received from Southern states. The bill was conceived as part of a solution to the purely domestic matter of avoiding a projected federal deficit.
Second Bank of the United States
Second federally authorized Hamiltonian National Bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1817 to January 1836.
Internal Improvements Act 1816
- Creation of a transportation infrastructure: roads, turnpikes, canals, harbors and
- navigation improvements. Improving the country's natural advantages by
- developments in transportation was, in the eyes of many, a duty incumbent both on governments and on individual citizens.
- Legislation proposed by John C. Calhoun to earmark the revenue "bonus", as well as future dividends, from the recently established Second Bank of the United States for an internal improvements fund. Although President James Madison
- approved of the need and stated goals of improvements, he vetoed the
- bill as unconstitutional under his strict constructionist ideals
Era of Good Feelings
- Period in the political history
- of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a
- desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars. The period is so closely associated with Monroe's presidency and his administrative goals that his name and the era are
- virtually synonymous.
- Economic sectionalism refers to the different economics needs of the
- different sections in this country--the North, the South, the East and
- the West. This was a major reason for
- the outbreak of the Civil War, in addition to slavery.
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the United States. In his pre-presidential years, Adams was one of America's greatest diplomats (formulating, among other things, what became the Monroe Doctrine); in his post-presidential years, he conducted a fight against the expansion of slavery. Though full of promise,his presidential years were difficult due to his cabinet's noncooperation.
Treaty between the United States and Britain limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, following the War of 1812. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America.
John Marshall's Court
- Some of his decisions were unpopular. Nevertheless, Marshall built up
- the third branch of the federal government, and augmented federal power
- in the name of the Constitution, and the rule of law.
McCulloch v. Maryland
- Landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes
- of banks not chartered in Maryland. The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution,
- which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly
- provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
Missouri Compromise 1820
It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States (regardless of whether Whitney intended that or not).
Stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement.
United States Secretary of War from 1815 to 1816 and United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1816 to 1825, and was a candidate for President of the United States in 1824.
After the votes were counted in the U.S. presidential election of 1824, no candidate had received a majority of the Presidential Electoral votes, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives. To the surprise of many, the House elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. It was widely believed that Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House at the time, convinced Congress to elect Adams, who then made Clay his Secretary of State.
"Judas of the West"
Name given to Henry Clay by Andrew Jackson.
Tariff of Abominations
The Tariff of 1828 was designed to protect industry in the northern United States. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Southern economy.The major goal of the tariff was to protect industries in the northern United States which were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods by putting a tax on them.
Political party organized by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. It stood in opposition to the Federalist Party and controlled the Presidency and Congress, and most states, from 1801 to 1824. It split after the 1824 presidential election into two parties: the Democratic Party and the short-lived National Republican Party (later succeeded by the Whig Party)
The right to vote was expanded to all white men, not just white men who owned land.
A ticket refers to a single election choice which fills more than one political office or seat. For example, in the U.S., the candidates for President and Vice President run on the same "ticket", because they are elected together on a single ballot question rather than separately.
Political convention held every four years in the United States by most of the political parties who will be fielding nominees in the upcoming U.S. presidential election.
Practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party.
Peggy Eaton Incident
Peggy was renowned for having a "vivacious" temperament — the implication being that she was overtly flirtatious and sexual at a time when "respectable" women, as a group, were not — and it was alleged that her husband had been driven to suicide because of her affair with Jackson's Secretary of War John Henry Eaton. Peggy and Eaton were married shortly after her husband's death, scandalizing the respectable women of the capital.
American politician and diplomat from Tennessee who served as U.S. Senator and as Secretary of War in the administration of Andrew Jackson.
The Kitchen Cabinet was a term used by political opponents of President of the United States Andrew Jackson to describe the collection of unofficial advisers he consulted in parallel to theUnited States Cabinet (the "parlor cabinet") following his purge of the cabinet at the end of the Eaton affair and his break with Vice President John C. Calhoun in 1831.
Martin Van Buren
Eighth President of the United States. Before his presidency, he was the eighth Vice President and the tenth Secretary of State, both under Andrew Jackson. Hand picked by Jackson to be his successor.
Led by Denmark Vesey, who was a literate and very intelligent black man who had purchased his freedom in January of 1800; he was the only free black to take part in the revolt. The revolt was planned to occur on an unknown date in May of 1822 near Charleston, South Carolina. Never happened.
An African-American man who was most famous for planning a slave rebellion in the United States in 1822. After purchasing his freedom, he is believed to have planned a slave rebellion. Word of the plans was leaked, and authorities arrested the plot's leaders at Charleston, South Carolina, before the uprising could begin. Vesey and others were convicted and executed.
"(Our) peculiar institution" was a euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Written in December 1828 by John C. Calhoun, then vice president under John Quincy Adams and later under Andrew Jackson. The document was a protest against the Tariff of 1828, also known as the Tariff of Abominations. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede. It stated also Calhoun's Doctrine of nullification, i.e., the idea that a state has the right to reject federal law.
Debate on the topic of protectionist tariffs. The heated speeches between Webster and Hayne themselves were unplanned, and stemmed from debate over a resolution by Connecticut Senator Samuel A. Foot calling for the temporary suspension of further land surveying until land already on the market was sold (this would effectively stop the introduction of new lands onto the market). Webster's "Second Reply to Hayne" was generally regarded as "the most eloquent speech ever delivered in Congress."
Robert Y. Hayne
An American political leader who served in the United States Senate, as Governor of South Carolina and as Mayor of Charleston. He was notable as a proponent of the states' rights doctrine, in collaboration with John C. Calhoun.
A leading American statesman and senator from Massachusetts during the period leading up to the Civil War. He first rose to regional prominence through his defense of New England shipping interests. Webster's increasingly nationalistic views, and his effectiveness as a speaker, made him one of the most famous orators and influential Whig leaders of the Second Party System.
Jefferson Day Dinner
- Dinner where Jackson toasted, "Our Union must be preserved" and Calhoun
- responded by toasting "Union, next to Liberty, most dear". Calhoun thus
- goes agaisnt the basic beliefs of Jackson and says that liberty is
- important as Union to the country
Theory of Nullification
- The theory of nullification is based on the concept that the States are
- the final decision-makers when it comes to the limits of the federal
- government. The theory indicated that the federal laws can be rejected
- by the States if they believe the laws are beyond the constitutional
- powers of the federal government.
- Eastern Indian tribes were forced out of their
- homelands to barren areas that contained poor soil, though they
- had a prosperous relationship beforehand. The reason given to justify
- the Indian removal stated by Thomas Jefferson
- was to "give them a space to live undisturbed by white people as they
- gradually adjust to civilized ways". Though a problem occurred where
- westward expansion was on the rise and areas in the west were becoming
- full with settlers
- Antagonistic to whites settling in his
- people's territory, Black Hawk joined the British in several battles in
- the War of 1812. In 1832 Black Hawk led his people across the
- Mississippi to resist further white encroachments. They met heavy
- resistance and Black Hawk was eventually captured.
As a man in the 1830s, Osceola led a small band of warriors in the Seminole resistance during the Second Seminole War, when the United States tried to remove the Seminoles from their lands. He became an adviser to Micanopy, the principal chief of the Seminole from 1825 to 1849.
Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States. Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and East Tennessee.
Worcester v. Georgia
- A case in which the United States Supreme held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native
- Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license
- from the state was unconstitutional.
Trail of Tears
The forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. moved them from their homelands to Indian Territory in eastern sections of the present-day state of Oklahoma.
He commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy.
- The purpose of this tariff was to act as remedy for the conflict created by the Tariff of 1828. Mainly, the protective
- Tariff of 1828 was created in such a way that it intended to protect the
- industry in the north. So the Tariff of 1828 seemed unfair on the part of
- the government to favor the North by sidelining the south. Tariff of 1832 brought it down to 35% from 45%.
- African American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 60 white deaths. Whites responded with at least 200 black deaths. He gathered supporters in Southampton County, Virginia.
- Turner was convicted, sentenced to death, and hanged. In the aftermath,
- the state executed 56 blacks accused of being part of Turner's slave
- rebellion. Two hundred blacks were also killed after being beaten by
- white militias and mobs reacting with violence.
Authorize U.S. President Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force necessary to enforce Federal tariffs. It was intended to suppress South Carolina's refusal to collect tariffs during the Nullification Crisis. Opponents of the bill referred to it as Jackson's Bloody Bill or War Bill.
The political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States during the Andrew Jackson administration.
Nicholas Biddle was an American financier who served as the president of the Second Bank of the United States.
Andrew Jackson, seventh President of the United States, nicknamed "Old Hickory".
- Term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury
- to receive surplus government funds in 1833. They were also named
- "wildcat banks". Made Because President Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter for the Second Bank of the United States. Most pet banks eventually lost money and failed.
Paper money Issue
The pet banks and smaller "wildcat" banks flooded the country with paper currency.
An executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 and carried out by succeeding President Martin Van Buren. It required payment for government land to be in gold.
- Political party active in the early 19th century in the United States. Four Presidents
- of the United States were members of the Whig Party. The party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party.
Finance Panic 1837
Soon after the War of 1812, the Second Bank of the United States was chartered for 20 years, 1816–1836. However, the Jacksonian Democrats strongly opposed the bank and began to dismantle its role in federal policy in the mid-1830s. Panic of 1837 caused by pet banks, paper money issue, and specie circular.
Executive Order 1840 "lone policy"
President Martin van Buren Executive Order for a 10 Hour Workday tried to set limits on the length of the workday.
William Henry Harrison
Ninth President of the United States, first president to die in office. Harrison died on his 32nd day in office of complications from pneumonia, serving the shortest tenure in United States presidential history. His death sparked a brief constitutional crisis, but that crisis ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment.
- Tenth President of the United States. He became the first to succeed to the office of President on the death of the incumbent, succeeding William Henry Harrison. Opposition from both the Democratic and the Whig parties crippled his presidency.
- Near the end of his life he would side with the South in its secession from the United States.
A public or private roadway for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage. INFRASTRUCTURE
An American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat.
Canal in New York that originally ran about 363 miles from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie, at the time completing a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. INFRASTRUCTURE
He contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs, was a co-inventor of the Morse code, and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.
"Father of the American Industrial Revolution" (a phrase coined by Andrew Jackson). He brought British textile technology to America.
"Joint Stock" company
A joint-stock company is a business entity which is owned by shareholders.
Francis Cabot Lowell
An American businessman for whom the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, is named. He was instrumental in bringing the Industrial Revolution to the United States.
Cotton-producing region of the southern United States up until the Civil War.
- Triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe
- for African markets with manufactured goods, which were traded for
- purchased or kidnapped Africans, who were transported across the
- Atlantic as slaves; the slaves were then sold or traded for raw
- materials, which would be transported back to Europe to complete the voyage.
A career United States Army officer and a Confederate general officer in the American Civil War. He was killed in action during the Battle of Cedar Mountain. (fought against natives)
Fought in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. He commanded the Baltimore brigade of the Maryland Militia in the Battle of North Point on September 12, 1814, which formed a part of the larger Battle of Baltimore, and was a turning point in the War of 1812.
The wife of James Madison. She was noted for her social gifts, which boosted her husband’s popularity as President.
12th President of the United States and an American military leader. His military career ended with far-reaching victories in the Mexican–American War. His status as a national hero won him election to the White House despite his vague political beliefs. His top priority as president was preserving the Union, but he died 16 months into his term, before making any progress on the status of slavery, which had been inflaming tensions in Congress.
An American military officer who served as the commander of Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore in the War of 1812.
General Ross (British)
He is most well known for the Burning of Washington, which included the destruction of the White House and the The Capitol. He died at the Battle of North Point before the infamous Bombardment of Fort McHenry the next day.
General Pakenham (British)
Appointed as commander of British forces in North America in 1814, he was killed in action at the Battle of New Orleans.
General Proctor (British)
- British Major-General who served in Canada during the War of 1812. He is best known as the commander who was decisively defeated in 1813
- by the Americans and left western Ontario in American hands. Procter is
- regarded by many as an inept leader who relied heavily on textbook
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