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List 10 Colic Etiologies
- 1. Small intestinal volvulus and strangulation
- 2. Intussusception
- 3. Impaction of the ileum
- 4. Thromboembolic mesenteric vascular disease
- 5. Large colon impaction (horse fed poor quality feed; limited access to water)
- 6. Cecal impaction
- 7. Sand Colic (Horse will eat sand along with hay if on the ground; also consume sand if they have to drink from shallow muddy ponds; often found in pelvic flexure and transverse colon.)
- 8. Large Colon Displacements
- 9. Colonic Volvulus
- 10. Enteroliths (consist of mineralized aggregates of ingested salts that form slowly in the large colon; often found in right dorsal colon, small colon)
CLINICAL SIGNS of Colic
- Heart rate: Mild 40-60 Mod 60-80 Severe 80+
- Respiratory: Mild 20-30 Mod 30-40 Severe 40+
- Temperature: mild & Mod 99 - 100.5 Sever over 103 or under 99
- Mucous Membranes: Mild pale pink Mod pale pink to dark red Severe Reddish to purple
- CRT: Mild 1-2 Mod 2-4 Severe 5+
5 ways to diagnose Colic
- a. Evaluate temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, peripheral pulse strength, capillary refill time, mucous membrane color and laboratory blood samples (PCV / TP).
- b. Abdominal auscultation
- c. Nasogastric tube intubation
- d. Rectal examination
- e. Abdominocentesis
List the parasite associated with the mouth
List the parasites associated with the stomach
- Drashia megastoma (stomach worm)
- Habronema spp. (stomach worm)
- Trichostrongylus axei (min. stomach worm)
- Gasterophilus spp. (bot larvae)
List the parasites associated with the Small Intestine
- Parascaris equorum (ascarids)
- Strongyloides westeri (intestinal threadworm)
- Anoplocephala magna (tapeworm)
- Paranoplocephala mamillana (tapeworm)
List the 4 parasites associated with the Large Intestine
- Stronglyes spp. (large strongyles)
- Cyathostomum spp. (small strongyles)
- Oxyuris equi (common pinworm)
- Anoplocephala perfoliata (tapeworm)
List the parasite associated with the Liver
Strongylus edentatus (large strongyle larvae)
List the 4 parasites associated with the Lungs
- Parascaris equorum (ascarid larvae)
- Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (lungworm)
- Draschia megastoma (stomach worm larvae)
- Habronema spp. (stomach worm larvae)
List the parasite associated with the Arteries
Strongylus vulgaris (large strongyle larvae)
List the parasite associated with the Body cavitiy
Strongylus edentatus (large strongyle larvae)
List the 4 parasites associated with the Skin and connective tissue
- Drashia megastoma,
- Habronema muscae larvae (“summer sore” nematodes)
- Onchocerca spp. (threadworm) (cervicalis)
- Strongyloides westeri (intestine threadworm)
List the 2 parasites associated with the Eye
- Thelazia lacrymalis (eyeworm)
- Onchocerca cervicalis (threadworm)
4 Core Vaccines
- Tetanus for Clostridium tetani
- Eastern/Western Equine Encephalomyelitis
- West Nile Virus
List 9 Risk Based Vaccines
- Anthrax - for Bacillus anthracis
- Botulism - for Clostridium botulinum
- Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 (EHV-1) & Type 4 (EHV-4)
- Equine Viral Arteries
- Equine Influenza
- Potomac Horse Fever caused by Neorickettsia risticii
- Rotaviral Diarrhea
- Snake Bite
- Strangles - Streptococcus equi
List 3 medications used to treat colic
Rumbling or gurgling noises produced by movement of gas in the alimentary canal and audible at a distance
What is the length of the small intestine?
What is the length of the large colon?
- 22 meters in length
- 7-8 meters in length
3 Things that can be ruled out with auscultation findings?
- A. Intestinal irritation/decreased perfusion: causes decreased motility.
- B. Simple obstruction (impaction): increased contractile activity in an attempt to move the obstruction more distally.
- C. Infectious process (enteritis, peritonitis), hypoperfusion from strangulating lesion: decreased or no contractile activity.
How do you treat based on auscultation findings?
- A. Horses with normal to increased intestinal sounds respond to medical therapy.
- B. Horses with decreased sounds generally require surgery
Equine Dental formula
2( I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/3, M 3/3) 40
- Etiology: Many Salomonella spp.
- Clinical Signs:Acute diarrhea, projectile diarrhea, Fever, Depression, Abdominal pain, congested mucous membranes
- Diagnose: Fecal culture at least 5 different cultures should be obtained because shedding in the feces is inconsistent
- Treatment: Fluid therapy, Antidiarrheals, Anti-inflammatory drugs and Antimicrobial (controversial)
- Prevention: Minimize stress, Isolate sick animals early in disease, Disinfect and clean contaminated areas
Salmonellosis is common in what horses?
Weanlings and young performance horses
Describe Dental problems as a disease of the digestive system
Dental problems may be due to uneven wear of teeth, or development of sharp points that can make chewing difficult. This can result in possible problems such as choke or intestinal obstructions. Preventative might be floating the teeth on a routine basis.
What are 2 Etiologies for Gastric Dilatation/Rupture
- Primarily due to over-consumption of grain and water
- Can be a secondary intestinal obstruction that causes reflux
What are the Clinical Signs of Gastric Dilatation/Rupture?
How do you diagnose Gastric Dilatation/Rupture?
Pass a nasogastric tube to identify presence of gas or fluids
What are 3 treatments for Gastric Dilatation/Rupture?
- Decompress stomach using nasogastric tube
- Surgical correction of intestinal obstruction
- Fluid therapy to correct any dehydration/electrolyte imbalance.
List 7 parasite control medications and how they are administered.
- 1. Ivermectin - Liquid and Paste
- 2. Fenbendazole - Granules, Paste & Suspension
- 3. Oxibendazole - Paste
- 4. Dichlovos - Granules
- 5. Thiabendazole/Piperazine - Liquid
- 6. Pyrantel Pamoate - Paste or Liquid
- 7. Pyrantel Tartrate - Granules
What is the anti-parasite product that we used at Tomball?
Zimecterin (Ivermectin & Praziquantel) - paste
Equine Infectious Anemia destroys ________ and is spread through ______.
- Red Blood Cells
- Blood-to-blood contact
Where do you access the pulse for a horse?
- Facial Artery
Where do you access the pulse for colic?
Palmer and planter digital arteries
What is the area of the horse between the stifle and the hock?
What is the area (interior of the horse) that is called the "true knee"?
What is the major bone in the hock?
List the metatarsal bones
- 3rd metatarsal bone
- 2nd & 4th splint bone
Name the 3 phalanges of horse
- Long pastern; Proximal phalanx
- Short pastern; Middle phalanx
- Coffin bone; Distal phalanx
List the proximal row of carpal bones medial to lateral
List the distal row of carpal bones
- radial, intermediate, ulnar, accessory
- 1, 2, 3, 4
Where do hold the chain twitch?
In the middle of the handle
When you used the hoof pick what areas are you cleaning?
Frog and sole
Describe floating of horses teeth
Uses an Equine dental float to float the premolars and molars because they grow to have sharp points due to lack of normal grazing.
When using a weight tape on the horse what is the +/- difference?
A warm blood horse is a cross between what 2 breeds?
Thoroughbred and Draft breed
In Texas who can legally float teeth?
Licensed veterinarian or licensed equine dental provider under the direction/referral of a licensed veterinarian.
Why is chain twitch preferred over rope twitch?
Rope twitch can be dangerous if you over tighten it
What colors can Shetland pony come in?
All colors except Appaloosa
When auscultating the stomach when should you hear sounds?
All the time. Most sounds 1 hr after eating
If you have a heart rate greater than 80 bpm what are possible causes?
Obstruction or perforation
When should you deworm a horse?
Every 2 months (8wks). Rotate deworming products due to possible parasite resistance.
Normal of a horse
- Pulse: 28 - 40 bpm
- Respiration: 8-15 rpm
- Temperature: 99-101 F
- Gestation: 11 months (335 days)
Why do you vaccine for tetanus?
Horses are prone to injuries
Eastern and Western Encephalomyelitis is transmitted by ___________. Is it zoonotic?
- Zoonotic with horse being the dead end host
Why is Rabies vaccines given?
Low predominance, but given because it is a public health risk.
What do we feed horses at Tomball?
- 1/2 sweet feed and oats
- Reno gets senior food pellet
Hay vs concentrate
1 flake of hay =
1 scoop of grain =
What is the % of hay vs feed
- 1 flake of hay = 5-7 lbs
- 1 scoop of grain = 3lbs
- % of hay vs feed = 70% hay/30% feed
What supplements are given to a horse?
Postive EIA test results in:
- Cause: retrovirus that causes anemia. Transmitted by biting flies
- Stages: acute, chronic or inapparent (?)
- Law: requires Coggins test if horse is going to be moved
- + Coggins: Euthanasia, Quarantine/Sanctuary or Donate to research. Quarantine animals must be branded on shoulder
What is the Etiology of Esophageal Obstruction/Choke?
- Eating dry grains to quickly or
- Alfalfa cubes can cause obstructions
What are 3 signs of Esophageal Obstruction/Choke?
- Regurgitating food, water and saliva through the mouth
- Anxious after eating and hold its neck straight and arched
- Enlarged cervical esophagus
What are 2 complications of Esophageal Obstruction/Choke?
Complications: Aspiration pneumonia or Stricture or rupture of the esophagus.
What are 2 ways to diagnose Esophageal Obstruction/Choke?
- Detection of cervical espohageal enlargement
- Passage of nasogastric tube to confirm luminal obstruction.
What are 2 treatments for Esophageal Obstruction/Choke?
- Pass nasogastric tube with warm water lavage - must be done under Xylazine sedation
- Surgery if initial therapeutics are not successful. Radiological & endoscopic techniques are used at this point.
What 2 treatments for Esophageal Obstruction/Choke after the obstruction is removed
- Feed small quantities of soft food - Episodes of choke can occur up to 40 days after injury even with soft diet.
- Also give broad spectrum antibiotic to prevent aspiration pneumonia
What are 2 preventative measures for Esophageal Obstruction/Choke?
- Place rocks in feed trough to slow down eating
- Regular dental care
What is the Etiology of Cantharidin Toxicity?
Ingestion of dead blister beetles (Epicanta lemniscata) that are trapped in harvested alfalfa. Beetle contains the toxin cartharidin which is highly irritating to mucous membranes. Toxin is absorbed through the intestinal tract and excreted through the kidneys.
What are 6 signs of Cantharidin Toxicity?
- a. Abdominal pain in varying degrees
- b. Anorexia
- c. Depression
- d. Elevation in temperature, pulse and respiration.
- e. Congested mucous membranes
- f. Drinking small amounts of water frequently
How do you diagnose Cantharidin Toxicity?
- a. No specific diagnostic test available
- b. Blood results will show evidence of dehydration, renal compromise (elevation in BUN, urine is isosthenuric) and decreases in calcium and magnesium.
What is the treatment for Cantharidin Toxicity?
Fluids, control pain and evacuate toxin from the gastrointestinal tract.
What is the prevention for Cantharidin Toxicity?
Beetles show up in Texas usually after June. By wary of beetles if grasshoppers are in abundance since the beetle larvae feed on grasshopper eggs.
What is meconium?
Meconium is the first fecal material a newborn foal normally excretes soon after parturition. It consists of digested cellular debris and is brown to black in color and is quite hard
What is the etiology of Retained Meconium?
Results from impaction of fecal pellets in the rectum or colon.
What are the clinical signs of Retained Meconium?
How do you diagnose ?
- Clinical signs: a. Clinical signs appear during the first 24 hours – vary from mild abdominal pain to colic. b. Foals will repeatedly attempt to defecate. c. Foals continue to nurse and remain afebrile.
- Diagnose: Based upon clinical signs or palpation of meconium at the anal sphincter
What is the treatment of Retained Meconium?
- a. Soapy enemas
- b. Mineral oil per os
- c. Analgesics to control the pain
What is the prevention of Retained Meconium?
Routine administration of enemas at birth
What are 4 etiologies of Foal Heat Diarrhea?
- 1. Physiological changes within the foal’s gastrointestinal tract. This is the best reliable etiology at this point
- 2. Hormonal changes in the mare
- 3. Changes in milk composition
- 4. Over ingestment of milk by the foal
What are 3 clinical signs of Foal Heat Diarrhea?
- 1. Foal is bright and alert
- 2. soft to watery feces
- 3. normal rectal temperature
How do you diagnose Foal Heat Diarrhea?
Timing of clinical signs
What is the treatment for Foal Heat Diarrhea?
- Diarrhea is often self limiting
- No treatment is necessary if foal remains bright and alert, continues to nurse and does not develop a fever.
What are 4 etiologies of other causes of Foal Diarrhea?
- 1. Salmonellosis
- 2. Escherichia Coli
- 3. Clostridium perfringens (acute diarrhea, high mortality)
- 4. Rotavirus/Coronavirus
What are 5 etiologies that can cause Septicemia in foals?
- 1. Salmonellosis
- 2. Escherichia Coli
- 3. Actinobacillus equuli
- 4. B- Hemolytic streptococci
- 5. Klebsiella spp
What is the treatment for Foul Diarrhea - other causes?
- a. Fluids and electrolytes
- b. Nutritional supplementation
- c. Supportive care
How do you prevent Foul Diarrhea - Other causes?
- a. Ensure adequate colostral intake
- b. Keep environment clean
What are 2 etiologies of Gastric ulcers in Foals?
- Stress of disease
- Failure of passive transfer
What are 2 signs of Gastric Ulcers in foals?
- Laying on their back to relieve pressure off their stomach
- Grinding their teeth (bruxism)
What is the treatment of Gastric ulcers?
- Tagament to decrease secretion
- Cimetidine (physical bandage for ulcer; works in acidic environments)
List 2 parasitic gastric diseases
- Etiology: Gasterophilus
- Clinical signs: Mild gastritis or no signs at all
- Treatment: Treat with botacide in Fall after the flies have disappeared
What are 3 etiologies of Habronemiasis?
- Habronema muscae
- Habronema microstoma
- Drashia megastoma
What is the treatment of Habronemiasis?
Routine anthelmintic therapy
What are 4 basic types of injection methods
- Intravenous injections are given into a vein.
- Intradermal injections are administered into the skin.
- Subcutaneous injections are given underneath the skin.
- Intramuscular (IM) injections are given into muscle