chapter 42 Cardiovascular system
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period of rest, blood is returned to the heart by veins
period of contraction or systole, blood is pumped out of the heart.
factors that may affect the cardiac rate and rhythm.
- Decreased oxygen levels
- Changes in the electrolytes in the area
- Buildup of waste products
A faster than normal heart rate (over 100 BPM) with a normal ECG pattern is called sinus tachycardia.
A slower than normal heart rate (less than 60 BPM) with a normal ECG is called sinus bradycardia.
Arrhythmias that originate above the ventricles but not in the SA node. ECG will have an abnormally shaped P wave.
Also called heart block, reflects a slowing or lack of conduction at the AV node.
Impulses that originate below the AV node originate from ectopic foci (a shift in the pacemaker of the heart from the SA node to some other site) that do not use the normal conduction pathways.
The right side of the heart sends blood to the lungs, where carbon dioxide and some waste products are removed from the blood and oxygen is picked up by the red blood cells.
The left side of the heart sends oxygenated blood out to all of the cells in the body.
causes edema in the lungs.
Left sided heart failure
causes edema in the peripheral, abdominal and liver
right sided heart failure
pulling pressure of the large vascular proteins on the venous end of the capillary.
on the arterial end.
hydrostatic fluid pressure
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