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Why was the first dry kibble made? When? By who?
In 1860, James Spratt made dog cake for exploration
What was the first dog biscuit?
What are the three largest pet food companies in terms of market share?
- Nestle Purina
- Iams company
- Mars (masterfoods usa)
What is largest value pet food?
Dry dog food
What are the benefits of dry kibble?
- Complete feed in each kibble
- Stays good for long periods of time
What is the difference between dry kibble and a treat?
A treat is not a complete food
Name monogastric species that are companion animals?
What is the broad role of the digestive system?
What are some other functions of the GIT?
To break down large food molecules into simple forms that can be absorbed by the body for use.
Absorption, stomach kills pathogens (first line of defense)
Which has a larger intestine relative to body length, the cat or dog? Why?
The dog has a larger small intestine relative to body length than the cat because a cat has a high fat diet and emulsification of fats begin in the stomach.
What is the significance of having a longer small intestine?
A longer intestine is correlated with a longer retention time of feed.
What structures in the gut increases absorptive surface area?
Mucosal folds, villi and microvilli.
What type of diet does a dog have?
A dog is adapted to be omnivorous and has a diet containing a high proportion of animal tissues.
Which macronutrient is the most difficult to digest (dogs and cats)
Fiber is the most difficult macronutrient.
What is the consequence of fermenting fibers
Fermentation results in volatile fatty acids and gas.
What is the diet of a cat?
Cats are strict carnivores that eat small prey animals and have a high protein and fat diet
What stimulates saliva in the mouths of dogs?
The smell of, and presence of food
What stimulates the production of saliva in the mouths of cats?
The smell and presence of saliva
What are the four salivary glands in dogs and cats?
What affects saliva quantity and composition?
- The type of food ingested
- Moisture content of food ingested
What causes for saliva production in horses?
Mastication of food
Is there more saliva produced with wet or dry food? Why?
Dry food produce more saliva because saliva acts as a lubricant.
What is the purpose of saliva
- Aids in mixing/chewing of food
- Lubrication before swallowing
What do dogs and cats lack in their saliva?
Amylase which initiates starch digestion
What is an important, unique function of saliva to dogs?
It is important in evaporative cooling
What are the main categories of teeth?
What is a difference between the teeth of dogs and cats?
Dogs have cutting canine teeth for ripping and tearing meat, and large molars and premolars that can grind and chew large or tough pieces of food.
Cats teeth are suited for holding and killing small prey animals. Less efficient in chewing and grinding food
What is there in the esophagus that helps the passage of food?
The cell-lining produces mucus
How does food move down the esophagus
- Uses peristalsis to move food to the stomach
- Cardiac sphincter relaxes when swallowing which allows entry of food into stomach.
What is the cardiac sphincter? What is its role?
The cardiac sphincter is located at the base of the stomach and relaxes to allow for food to enter from the esophagus.
It immediately closes to prevent the reflux of food from the stomach into the lower esophagus.
What are the 4 purposes of the stomach?
- A food reservoir
- Mixes food
- Regulates flow of digesta into the SI
- Initiates chemical digestion of protein
Describe how the stomach disrupts 3D structure of food
Proteins are large complex structures, and the low pH of the stomach breaks them down
Which part of the stomach is responsible for temporary food storage?
The proximal stomach expands during food storage which allows dogs to eat discrete meals.
What is gastric secretion influenced by?
- The amount of protein in the meal, meal volume and hormones
- pH varies depending on the type of meal consumed (buffering capacity of the food)
Describe gastric emptying. What is it controlled by?
Gastric emptying is simply the emptying of the stomach.
The rate is controlled by: stomach volume, body weight, water intake and diet type.
What hormone is produced by the stomach?
Pepsinogen, the precursor of pepsin which breaks down proteins
How does an animal tell it is full?
When the stomach expands hormones are released which sends a full signal to the animal.
What is the difference of half-emptying times for cats and dogs?
On average, the half-emptying time of cats exceeds that of dogs. Although it depends on diet.
What is a difference between the stomach of cat and dog?
The stomach of the cat is simpler and is less important as a storage reservoir compared to dogs.
Cat stomach is smaller will a smaller glandular fundus (storage part)
How long does it take starches and fats to be broken down in the stomach?
No digestion of starches or fats.
What part of the digestive tract is the primary site of chemical digestion and absorption of fat, carbohydrates and proteins?
The small intestine
What does proximal mean? Distal?
- Proximal: closer to brain
- Distal: further from brain
Describe how feed intake of the wild cat and dog varies
Cats typically eat lots of small meals in a day while dogs eat a large meal at a time
What greatly increases the rate of gastric emptying?
A lot of water
Why do cats typically have a longer half-emptying time than dogs?
Because they have a very high protein diet
What stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice? What is its function?
Acidic chime moving form the stomach into the SI stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice which increases the pH of the digesta
What increases surface area of the SI to improve nutrient absorption
How is chyme moved through the small intestine?
What is Chyme?
Digesta that has entered the SI
What are the three parts of the small intestine in order?
What is the function of the duodenum
Chyme is mixed with enzymes from the pancreas and duodenal mucosa in the duodenum
Prepares for absorption and digestion within the Jejunum
What is the primary part of the small intestine? Why?
The jejunum is the primary part of the small intestine because it is long with a lot of absorption.
What is the pH within the SI of cats/dogs?
What is the function of the pancreas?
Releases pancreatic juices that act as a buffer to stomach acids
Has exocrine function that releases enzymes: inactive proteases, lipases and amylases
Endocrine that secretes hormones into blood (Important in insulin release)
What are the exocrine functions of the pancreas
Secretes bicarbonate salts into gut and secretes enzymes (proteases, lipases and amylases)
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?
Secretes hormones into the blood (Insulin)
What is a unique property of the pancreatic juice of the dog?
It has antibacterial properties
How do nutrients reach the liver?
Small intestine to Portal vein to liver
What is produced by the liver that helps with fat breakdown?
What is bile? Where is it made? Stored?
Bile emulsifies dietary fat and activates enzymes to aid in fat digestion. It is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
When is bile produced?
Bile is produced in response to chyme entering the small intestine
Describe how small intestine microbiology varies between dogs and cats
Cats may have a great amount of bacteria in their SI
What is a method that is used to measure transit time of digesta through SI?
Using indigestible markers are used to measure time elapsed from when first fed to time in feces.
A common marker is Chromic oxide.
Describe the difference between transit time of soluble and insoluble fiber
Soluble fiber moves through the gut slower and insoluble fiber has a faster transit time
Why are sugar transport systems not adaptive to dietary carbs in cats?
Because cats don't have a sugar taste receptor
Why does it make sense evolutionary for a cat to not have an adaptive sugar transport system in the gut?
- Free sugars and carbs are normally a negligible percent of the diet
- No energy wasting to change carrier systems
What is a difference between pancreatic amylase between dogs and cats?
Cat amylase production is about 5% of that in dogs and nonadaptive in cats
What are the main functions of the large intestine?
- Absorption of water and electrolytes
- Fermentation of dietary fiber and undigested nutrients from the SI
What are the three parts of the large intestine in cats and dogs? Which is the largest?
The cecum, colon and rectum. The colon is the longest
Describe the villi of the large intestine
No villi on the surface - very deep crypts in the colon
What is excreted fecal matter made up of?
- Undigested food
- Sloughed cells
- Endogenous losses
What does bacterial fermentation produce?
Short-chain fatty acids, lactate, CO2 and hydrogen gas
What is the definition of an incretin? what are the two major types?
An incretin is an intestinal hormone. The two major types are GIP and GLP-1
What is GIP
- Glucose dependent isulinotropic peptide (GIP)
- An incretin that is released in the fed state
What is GLP-1
- Glucagon like peptide-1
- An incretin released in response to GIP that targets beta cells in the pancreas
Describe how incretins affect blood glucose
- GIP is released in response to a fed state
- GLP-1 is released in response to GIP
- GLP-1 targets Beta cell in pancreas
- Beta cell produces insulin
- Insulin targets the liver and decreases glucose production
- Less glucose in bloodstream
What are the 8 intestinal hormones?
What is the function of gastrin, where is it produced and what is its stimulus for secretion?
- Gastrin is produced in the stomach in response to peptides and AA's in the stomach and distention of the stomach.
- it stimulates secretion of gastric acid and pepsinogen and glucagon
- Inhibits gastric emptying
What time of monogastric is a horse?
A hind-gut fermenter
Why do horses have a large, large intestine?
Because horses are find gut fermenters and have a very large cecum.
Describe how chewing varies between cats/dogs and horses?
Horses chew around 90 times a minute to stimulate saliva production while cats and dogs chew minimally.
What is the significance of bicarbonate in the saliva of the horse?
It provides a buffer against stomach acids and allows for some microbial fermentation in the stomach
Describe the teeth layout of horses
Incisors, then space before premolars and molars. Wolf teeth removed when young - no apparent purpose
What is tooth floating in horses? Why is it done?
Horses have constantly erupting teeth and points develop on the edges because of chewing patterns. Floating teeth is the filing of the teeth to keep them smooth.
Describe aging by teeth in horses.
- At around 2.25 years permanent incisors appear, a full mouth is apparent at 5 years and at 10 years all teeth have cups.
- Galvaynes groove moves up and down the teeth after 10 years of age.
What are the three regions of the stomach
- Oesophageal region
- Fundic region
- Pyloric region
What is the cell lining of the oesophageal region of the stomach? The fundic region? pyloric region?
- Oesopgageal: squamous
- Fundic region and Pyloric: Glandular epithelium
What is produced in the glandular epithelium in the stomach?
- Fundic region:
- -Parietal cells produce HCL
- -Zymogen cells produce pepsin
- Pyloric region
- - secretes gastrin
What part(s) of the stomach can microbial fermentation occur in the stomach (of a horse)
The oesophageal and fundic regions
What macronutrient moves very quickly through the stomach (of a horse)
How does the emptying time of horses compare to dogs and cats?
It is more consistant and longer.
When does flow of feed into the small intestine cease in horses?
When feeding ends (part of a fight or flight response)
What is a difference in bile production between cats/dogs and horses
the horse does not have a gall bladder and the bile continuously drains into the SI
What are the three VFA's produced by microbial synthesis?
Butyrate, acetate and proprionate
Describe the large intestine of the horse (compartments and flexures)
- Right ventral colon then reaches sternal flexure (90 degree turn)
- then left ventral colon (hits pelvis) then pelvic flexure (90 degree turn)
- then left dorsal colon (hits diaphragm) diaphragmatic flexure (90 degree turn)
- right dorsal colon
then small colon!
What is a common place for feed to become blocked in the GIT of horses? What is this called? What can we do to prevent it?
A common place for impaction to occur is the pelvic flexure because it is half as wide as the rest of the GIT. Impaction can be prevented by lots of water intake.
What is the absorptive order of VFA's
What are the VFA's from fermentation used for?
- Acetate => fatty acid synthesis (fats)
- Propionate => glucose storage
- Butyrate => Ketones
Why is butyrate absorbed less readily than acetate and propionate in horses
Potentially because it is very good for gut health and potentially used by the cells itself.
In what form(s) is/are nitrogen absorbed in the gut of a horse?
Ammonia, urea and amino acids
What is absorption?
Passage of nutrients from the lumen to the blood stream
What is the absorptive area of the gut?
The mucosa. It is comprised of epithelium and lamina.
How do nutrients get from the lumen of the gut into the blood stream?
- Brush Border Membrane
- epithelial cell
- basolateral membrane
- capillary bed (blood)
Transporters enable nutrient transport
What enzymes are secreted in the pancreas?
What are the three classes of amino acids?
Cationic, anionic, neutral
Describe the transport of proteins across the epithelium
Transport of proteins, polypeptides and certain dipeptides across epithelium is very limited
What are the two ways dipeptides pass the membranes
- 1. transport with hydrogen across the brush border and breaks down into single aa's to pass into the blood
- 2.binds to brush border membrane and broken down by peptidase then pass the two membranes as single aa's
How many primary transporters for cationic amino acids are there?
How do carbohydrates pass the brush border membrane? the basolateral membrane? What do they transport?
- GLUT5 allows for passive transfer of fructose
- SGLT1 uses a sodium transporter to allow for glucose and galactose across membrane.
GLUT2 allows transport across basolateral membrane for fructose, glucose and galactose.
What is the glucose taste receptor? What does it cause?
- When it detects glucose it causes for an increase in SGLT-1 (not in cats!)
How do fats get absorbed?
They diffuse across the membrane because they are lipid soluble.
What is synonymous with short chain fatty acid?
Volatile fatty acid
What do short chain fatty acids require to get absorbed?
MCT1/SMCT on brush border membrane
What are the five key needs for nutrients
- Act as structural components
- Enhancing or being involved in chemical reactions of metabolism
- Transporting substances into, throughout or out of the body
- Maintaining body temperature
- Supplying energy
What is an essential nutrient?
Nutrient can not be synthesized by the animal, must be obtained in the food
What is a conditionally essential nutrient
A non-essential nutrient that becomes an essential nutrient certain physiologic conditions result in relative deficiency (lactation etc.)
What is a non-essential nutrient?
Nutrient can be synthesized in adequate quantities by animals and are not specifically required in the food
The percentage of food's gross nutrient content released following mechanical and chemical digestive process
What is digestibility influenced by?
- Food characteristics
- Digestive efficiency of the host
The degree to which a nutrient becomes available to support metabolism after digestion and absorption.
What is apparent digestibility
Nutrient intake minus nutrient excretion in feces
What is true digestibility?
Nutrient intake minus nutrient excretion in feces corrected for intestinal endogenous losses
What are intestinal endogenous losses?
Excretion of nutrient into gut due to cell turn over, intestinal secretions, sloughing of intestinal cells.
Name three monosaccharides
Name three disaccharides
Maltose, sucrose, lactose
Name three polysaccharides
Starch, cellulose, glycogen
What is often the limiting amino acid
What is a protein that is cross linked with a protein
- Meyer reaction
- -Lysine and sugar in a heat process is absorbed but can not be used because of the sugar => excreted through urine.
What type of glycosidic bond is in starches? fibers?
- Starch: alpha bond
- Fiber: Beta bond
What do microbes break down in fibers allowing ruminants to use them?
The beta glycosidic bond
What is dietary fiber?
Nonsoluble polysaccharide + lignin
What type of starch is commonly in pet food?
Rapidly digestible starch
What is the difference in starch digestibility of amylose and amylopectin?
- Amylose is like a helix, rigid and not as well digested
- Amylopectin is a branched structure and is more digestible.
What are some sources of starch?
What is a prebiotic?
A selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes both in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health.
Can mammals digest prebiotics?
No because be do not have the correct enzymes
What is the function of dietary fiber?
- Regulate normal bowel function
- Fermentation end products (VFAs) important in maintain health of colon
- Fementation decreases colonic pH (pathogenic bacteria sensitive to pH)
What is a colonocyte? what is an example
Butyrate is one. Maintains health of gut.
What is the protein requirement for dogs and cats?
They have no protein requirement. They have an essential amino acid requirement.
What is crude protein?
It is a nitrogen measurement. Multiply nitrogen by 6.25 to find crude protein.
What is Taurine? What is it essential for?
- It is needed for taurocholic acid and essential in cats because they do not make it.
- Meat is a good source
How many amino acids are there?
What are the biological functions of proteins?
- Immune factors (antibodies)
- Fluid balance
- Acid-base balance
- Source of energy and glucose
What is the concept of the first limiting amino acid
Protein synthesis cannot proceed without an adequate supply of all amino acids that contribute to the primary structure of that protein
Protein synthesis stops when not enough of one balance
What is biological value? What is an idea value?
- The ability of a specific dietary protein to supply acids in the relative amounts required for protein synthesis by body tissues
- 100 is ideal protein
What is an idea protein that gives a high biological value?
What are some srouces of protein?
Meat, Milk, egg, pulses, seeds
What are the major lipid classes (5)
- Fatty acids
What are the functions of lipids?
- Energy storage
- essential fatty acids
- fat-soluble vitamin absorption
Where is fat stored in the body?
What does changing the dietary fat content change?
- caloric density
- concentration of other nutrients
What is lipogenesis? Can it be reversed?
The body has pathways that turns proteins and carbs into fats. Not the other way around!
What are sources of fats
- Fat stores of land and marine animals
- seed oils
What are the main fat sources for cats and dogs in a diet
- Fish oils
- Usually added in a liquid form (lard often not added)
- Animal tissues
Describe how the length of fatty acids affects the chain
- The longer the chain
- -more water-insoluble
- -solid at room temperature and higher melting point
- -decrease in volatility
How many carbons are there in short-chain fatty acids? medium? long?
- Short: <8
- Medium: 8-12
- Long >12
Where are short-chain fatty acids produced in the body?
A by product of fermentation (VFAs)
How does saturation affect digestibility?
long chain saturated fatty acids less digestible.
What is required in the diet with poly-unsaturated fatty acids? Why?
More dietary vitamin E is required because it is an antioxidant that stabilizes pure fats in the diet.
What are the three classes of unsaturated fatty acids?
What are omega 3 and 6 fatty acids important in?
Cell membrane fluidity and skin health
What are some omega 6 fatty acids? What are they important for?
- Linoleic, y-linolenic and arachidonic acid
- Growth, reproduction. Precursors of eicosanoid and prostaglandin synthesis.
What are some examples of omega 3 fatty acids? what are they important in?
- a-linolenic, eicosapentenoic and docosahexonic acid.
- Bran and retinal function
What is glycolysis
break down of glucose for co2 and chemical energy
how are excess amino acids broken down and used for energy?
deaminated and oxidized to create energy
What is a method to measure gross energy content
What is a calorie
The amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree
Describe the energy system of food digestibility
- Gross energy -> digestible energy (minus energy in feces)
- ->metabolizable energy (minus energy in urine and methane)
- ->Net energy (heat increment)
- ->Net energy for production (net energy for maintenance)
What are advantages between net energy system? Disadvantages?
More precise than metabolizable energy or digestible energy calculations
Heat loss is very difficult to measure
What is basal metabolic rate?
The energy requirement for a normal animal in a thermoneutral environment, awake but with no movement and in a postabsorptive (fasting) state
What is resting fed metabolic rate?
The energy requirement for a normal but unfasted animal at rest in a thermoneutral environment.
Includes energy needed for digestion, absorption and metabolism of food (heat increment)
What is a maintenance energy requirement?
- The energy requirement of a moderately active adult in a thermoneutral environment
- Does not include energy need to support additional activity
What is the outcome of control of digested nutrients?
- Nutrient utilization and deposition
- Feed intake and feeding behavior
Why is the feeding behavior of dogs, cats and horses not well defined?
Because of domestication and all rely on humans for food
Describe the natural feeding behavior of a dog
hunt in packs and eat various foods. They are opportunistic scavengers, will eat fruits and berries as well.
Describe the natural feeding behavior of a cat
Hunt solitarily (except lions) and are strictly carnivorous
Describe the natural feeding behavior of a horse
Graze continuously, prefer herds and are strict herbivores
Describe the difference in meal quantity between dogs, horses and cats.
Dogs eat fewer, larger and more variable meals a day. Usually during light period
cats eat many meals a day ad lib. Approx same size meals and evenly spread out over 24 hours
Horses will graze 10-17 hours/day left on pasture. Eat when light
Why do horses exhibit seasonal patterns of feed intake? why is this not seen in cats/dogs
Increase weight in spring, reach max weight in summer and weight loss in fall and winter (due to snow)
Does not occur in cats and dogs because the live/eat indoors and are unaffected by season changes
How does water intake vary between horses/dogs/cats
- Dogs have more water per BW than cats
- Cats have adapted to periods of water unavailability
- Drink when they eat (require most water)
What are feeding recommendations of dogs? cats? horses?
Dogs: only need to be fed once a day
Cats: many small meals throughout the day
Horses: should be allowed to graze/forage throughout the day
Describe social facilitation behavior in dogs.
- Eating too rapidly
- -perhaps related to competitive behavior.
- -Dogs will eat more in the presence of other dogs.
Why do dogs eat out of garbage?
They have a preference of food in an advanced stage of decomposition (stronger smells and salivation)
Why do dogs eat grass?
Helps with gut health
Why do dogs practice coprophagy?
- Behavioral problem
- Bitches eat feces of puppies during first 3 weeks of lactation (hide scent)
What is Pica?
Defined as perverted appetite with craving for and ingestion of non-food items
Causes: mineral deficiencies, permanent anxiety and psychological disturbances, zinc intoxication
What is the significance of the strong predatory drive of cats?
A cat will stop eating to make a kill. May not eat prey.
What flavors do cats find appealing?
Flavors that reflect nutritional characteristics of their natural foods (proteins, fats)
What does nephilic mean?
The cat will choose new food over a currently fed food.
What does neophobic mean?
In a new or stressful situations a cat will refuse to eat new food
What is a difference between how cats and dogs eat prey carcass.
Dogs eat viscera first. Cats do not eat viscera at all
What dictates the direction of feeding of a cat on a corpse?
The direction of hair on the prey.
Why is coprophagia practiced in cats?
Cats always want to eat their own feces to hide scent. If they can't hide it, they will eat it.
When are food preferences developed in a cat?
During the first six months of a kittens life.
When is Cannibalism common in cats? Reasons?
Queens cannibalize aborted, dead and female cats. Reduces spread of disease, conserves maternal resources and optimize survival of the most fit kittens. Queen has nutritional benefits from consuming dead kittens.
Tomcats kill unrelated kittens
What is polyphagia?
Means increased hunger. In cats. typically occurs in presence of other cats.
Why do horses prefer to eat new grass?
Because it has more nutrition in it.
What feedstuffs do horses have a low tolerance for?
Barley stray or maize silage.
What affects group feeding of a horse?
- Social status
- Variation in appetites
- Intake rate
What is grazing time affected by?
A horse that is not eating is:
Define coprophagy in a horse
Not a normal behavior
Exception: foals consume dams feces up to 2 months of age to establish micro-biota of gut
What is Geophagia? What is it common in?
- Eating dirt.
- In horses to obtain salt and trace minerals.
Why is wood chewing in horses related to less dietary fiber?
Less fiber = less grazing = more time?
When is a horse considered to be mature?
At around 36 months of age when they reach 86% of mature BW.
Reach max height at this age.
Why do horses require more energy in cold environments?
What are the different heat productions that indicate energy?
- Heat of basal metabolism
- Heat of voluntary activity
- heat of thermal regulation
- heat of product formation
- Heat of digestion and absorption
- Heat of waste formation and excretion
- Heat of fermentation
Which heat production factors contribute to heat increment?
- heat of product formation
- Heat of digestion and absorption
- Heat of waste formation and excretion
- Heat of fermentation.
What has a larger heat increment, hay or grain? Why?
Hay because of fermentation.
Why does a fat horse require less energy than a lean horse>?
lean horse has more muscle and therefore has a higher resting metabolism. Also likely more active.
What is the average DEm of horses?
- 30.3 kcal/kg BW/day = minimum
- +10% average
- +20% elevated
What is the average temperature of a horse?
100 degrees F
What are five climatic variables
- Ambient temperature
- Wind velocity
- Global solar radiation
- relative humidity.
What is the best indicator of energy requirements of a horse?
Body condition scoring
What is the effect of a cold environment on horses
- Increased eating
- increased hair coat
- Decreased rectal temperature
- Decreased respiratory rate
What is the effect of heat on horses
- Increased sweating rate
- increased respiratory rate
- Decreased feed intake
- Increased water intake
What is the significance of the adaptive period in horses in regards to the thermoneutral zone?
When horses move to a new climate, they take up to 21 days to adapt to the climate.
What is the thermoneutral zone of horses?
-15 to 35
How should DE intake change when in a cold environment for horses?
DE intake should increase by 2.5% for each degree below lower critical limit (-15)
When can water restriction not be tolerated in horses? why?
When they are eating. Impaction with no water.
What are the four ways an animal can lose water?
- Fecal losses
- Urinary losses
- respiratory losses
- cutaneous losses
What is the main way a horse will lose water?
How much water does a horse require a day?
at least 50L
What is metabolic water
Water that is produced during oxidation of the energy containing nutrients in the body.
What are the ways animals can gain dietary water (3)
- Direct drinking
- Metabolic water
Why does water intake decrease when a horse is on pasture opposed to hay?
There is moisture in the pasture
What are the 10 essential AA's
Arg, His, Iso, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Val
What are the symptoms of protein deficiency?
- Weight loss in adult horses
- Fetal loss in pregnant mares
- Decrease in milk production
- Loss of muscle in exercising horses
What are the consequences of excess urea?
- Increase water loss
- increased water requirements
- decreased growth in young horses
- increase Ca and P loss in weaning horses
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
A D E and K
What is the recommended Ca:P ratio in horses?
What is the lysine requirement of a horse
CP x 4.3% for all horses
What do fats help eliminate in a horse diet, in terms of behavior?
Why is it hard to detect calcium deficiency in horses?
Because they maintain homeostasis of blood calcium. Will pull from bones if needed.
How does the Ca:P ratio differ in growing horses?
It should be closer to 2:1 instead of 1.4:1
What are the four types of horse exercise?
- Very heavy
What are muscles made out of (horses)
- three fiber types
- Type 1: slow-twitch for endurance
- Type 2A and 2X: fast twitch for sprints
What type of muscles need more glycogen, slow-twitch of fast-twitch? why?
Slow-twitch for endurance.
Describe the splenic reserve of red blood cells in horses
Horses increase erythrocytes in blood by 30-60%. Evolved for flight response.
What is the respiration rate of a horse during a gallop?
1 breath: 1 stride
What happens to bones during exercise? how long does it take?
- Bone remodeling of long skeletal bones.
- It takes 6 months to occur
When are bones the weakest during bone remodeling?
After 2-4 months.
What are factors affecting horse exercise?
What is the energy requirement for the average horse?
(0.0333 x BW) x 1.2 = DE (Mcal/d)
Where is energy acquired from during exercise of a horse?
Muscle glycogen, blood glucose, hepatic glycogenolysis or hepatic gluconeogenesis
What is the max level of carbs in a diet for horses?
Does carb loading work in horses?
No because it overloads the digestive system.
How long does it take to replenish glycogen stores of a horse
at 68 hours post - exercise muscle glycogen replenished to 85% of initial rates
more than three days
what type of feeds replenish blood glycogen faster in horses?
What are benefits of supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3's) in horse diets?
- alter cell membrane of platelets, erythrocytes neutrophils and monocytes
- -increase fluidity of red blood cells
- -decrease inflammatory response
What is a consequence of a high protein diet?
- Overload the urea cycle
- -kidney issues
- -more ammonia
How is the mineral requirement of horses typically met when exercising
Typically met through energy increases in diet.
What are four disorders associated with exercise in horses
- gastric ulcers
- post-exhaustion syndrome
- exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome
- polysaccharide storage myopathy
What can we do to prevent gastric ulcers in exercising horses?
- Decrease size of carb meals
- allow for more grazing behaviour
What is post-exhaustion syndrome in horses. what can prevent it/
Muscle stiffness occurring 2-4 days after exercise.
- Addition of electrolytes to diet
- Feeding calcium carbonate
- Adequate slow cool-down after heavy exercise (reabsorbs some lactic acid)
What is exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in horses. Prevention?
- Muscle pain and cramping associated with exercies
- Sporadic or chronic
- reduce dietary starch
- increase dietary fat
What is polysaccharide storage myopathy in horses. Prevention?
- Characterized by high concentrations of glycogen.
- Exercise intolerance, muscle stiffness, back pain, colic signs, muscle atrophy, gait changes
Prevention: feed minimum of 1.5% BW, use alternative energy sources, daily exercise regimen.
How long does it typically take for a foal to stand after birth? walk, trot gallop?
- 30 minutes
- within 12 hours
What are the nutritional phases during the first 12 months. What is this referred to as?
All considered growth phase
- -nursing for first few weeks
- -incorporate solid feeds within 10 days postpartum
- wean around 6 months
- continue rapid growth to 12 months of age
What is colostrum high in
Protein, dry matter, vitamin a, immunoglobulins
How much milk does a foal consume during its first 24 hours in terms of body weight?
15% (nurses 10 times an hour first 24 hours)
What is the digestibility of milk for a foal
How does the mare milk composition change as the foal ages. why?
Decreases in energy, protein, fat, minerals as the foal ages. lactose % increases.
At 5 weeks the mare will go into heat and will put more energy into reproduction
how much of a foals diet is solid when they are 21 weeks of age?
What is creep feeding? what is its purpose?
Providing nutrient dense source of feed to foals but is protected from ingestion by mares
reduces weaning stress, and increases ADG
When does the largest increase in height occur in foals. Why?
during 0-3 months because of growth of long bones at the metaphyseal plate (growth plate)
What does calcium deficiency in a foal cause?
osteopenia : poor mineralization of osteoid tissues
What does phosphorous deficiencies cause in foals? excess?
- Rickets like changes
- Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidisim
How long is the estrous cycle of a horse
how much light do mares need to cycle
16 hours light
mare with a BCS of over what are more likely to conceive? what BCS has longer anestrous
How long is gestation in a horse
How many hours of light is required to achieve reproductive effieciency in mares
What is the full birth weight of a foal
When do fetal and non fetal tissues increase greatly in mares?
after d 150
When is fetal growth the greatest in horses?
Last 60 days of gestation
what can we do to eliminate fetal abortions?
2.8 g CP/kg BW/d eliminates this problem
What do mares need to sustain fetus growth?
What happens to calcium and phosphorous levels during late gestation of a mare
they almost double
What happens to vitamin e and a during late gestation of a mare?
What should occur before birth in horses. Why?
Feed intake should be reduced to prevent colic due to high levels of hormones
What is the most important time period for getting milk from a mare?
the first 12 hours. Ca and P very high.
What is lactation yield influenced by
- Feed consumption during late gestation
- water availabilty
- Nutrient and energy intake
How does feeding a high energy concentrate diet decrease milk fat and protein?
Drink more water so it is dilute.
What is the energy requirement for lactation?
DEmaintenance + DEmilk production
What is the lysine requirement for lactating mares? Why is it different
CP x 4.3% + milkproduction (kg.d) x 3.3 g lys/kg milk
Lysine is being given in the milk
What happens to the bone density of mares during lactation
Bone density decreases during the first 12 weeks of lactation because of Ca demand
What do we need to account for in terms of minerals with lactation
We need to account for endogenous losses
What is the energy requirement for a heavy use stallion
20% higher than maintenance.
What is an aged horse
20 years old or higher
What are two conditions with blood glucose related to aged horses with cushings disease
What is the protein requirement of an aging horse
Decreases with age of old horse
What is the maintenance energy requirement for a dog?
132 kcal ME x Bw ^0.75
How much more energy does standing take than lying in a dog?
40% more energy
What determines lower critical temperature of dogs?
What is metabolic body weight
Takes into account body mass and surface area
What is the significance of arginine?
key intermediate in urea cycle.
What are the three critical phase during the first 12 months of life for a growing dog?
What stimulates intestine growth in puppies in the first 24 hours?
What is high in canine milk?
- Protein, fat, energy.
- Low in lactose
What is the majority of body weight gain in the first month of a puppies life?
What is the benefit of lactose in puppy milk
favours colonization of beneficial bacterial species
What must be high in the puppy before birth? Why?
Iron must be high in the liver because bitch milk is low in iron.
When do puppies start eating solid food?
3-4 weeks of age
What are the energy requirements for a bitch?
energy + gestation + lactation
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