ANSC 464

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ANSC 464
2013-10-16 02:17:28
ANSC 464

ANSC 464 Companion animal nutrition
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  1. Why was the first dry kibble made? When? By who?
    In 1860, James Spratt made dog cake for exploration
  2. What was the first dog biscuit?
    Milk Bone
  3. What are the three largest pet food companies in terms of market share?
    • Nestle Purina
    • Iams company
    • Mars (masterfoods usa)
  4. What is largest value pet food?
    Dry dog food
  5. What are the benefits of dry kibble?
    • Complete feed in each kibble
    • Stays good for long periods of time
  6. What is the difference between dry kibble and a treat?
    A treat is not a complete food
  7. Name monogastric species that are companion animals?
    • Horses
    • Cats
    • Dogs
  8. What is the broad role of the digestive system?
    What are some other functions of the GIT?
    To break down large food molecules into simple forms that can be absorbed by the body for use.

    Absorption, stomach kills pathogens (first line of defense)
  9. Which has a larger intestine relative to body length, the cat or dog? Why?
    The dog has a larger small intestine relative to body length than the cat because a cat has a high fat diet and emulsification of fats begin in the stomach.
  10. What is the significance of having a longer small intestine?
    A longer intestine is correlated with a longer retention time of feed.
  11. What structures in the gut increases absorptive surface area?
    Mucosal folds, villi and microvilli.
  12. What type of diet does a dog have?
    A dog is adapted to be omnivorous and has a diet containing a high proportion of animal tissues.
  13. Which macronutrient is the most difficult to digest (dogs and cats)
    Fiber is the most difficult macronutrient.
  14. What is the consequence of fermenting fibers
    Fermentation results in volatile fatty acids and gas.
  15. What is the diet of a cat?
    Cats are strict carnivores that eat small prey animals and have a high protein and fat diet
  16. What stimulates saliva in the mouths of dogs?
    The smell of, and presence of food
  17. What stimulates the production of saliva in the mouths of cats?
    The smell and presence of saliva
  18. What are the four salivary glands in dogs and cats?
    • Zygomatic
    • Parotid
    • Mandibular
    • Sublingual
  19. What affects saliva quantity and composition?
    • The type of food ingested
    • Moisture content of food ingested
  20. What causes for saliva production in horses?
    Mastication of food
  21. Is there more saliva produced with wet or dry food? Why?
    Dry food produce more saliva because saliva acts as a lubricant.
  22. What is the purpose of saliva
    • Aids in mixing/chewing of food
    • Lubrication before swallowing
  23. What do dogs and cats lack in their saliva?
    Amylase which initiates starch digestion
  24. What is an important, unique function of saliva to dogs?
    It is important in evaporative cooling
  25. What are the main categories of teeth?
    • Incisors
    • Canine
    • Premolars
    • Molars
  26. What is a difference between the teeth of dogs and cats?
    Dogs have cutting canine teeth for ripping and tearing meat, and large molars and premolars that can grind and chew large or tough pieces of food. 

    Cats teeth are suited for holding and killing small prey animals.  Less efficient in chewing and grinding food
  27. What is there in the esophagus that helps the passage of food?
    The cell-lining produces mucus
  28. How does food move down the esophagus
    • Uses peristalsis to move food to the stomach
    • Cardiac sphincter relaxes when swallowing which allows entry of food into stomach.
  29. What is the cardiac sphincter?  What is its role?
    The cardiac sphincter is located at the base of the stomach and relaxes to allow for food to enter from the esophagus. 

    It immediately closes to prevent the reflux of food from the stomach into the lower esophagus.
  30. What are the 4 purposes of the stomach?
    • A food reservoir
    • Mixes food
    • Regulates flow of digesta into the SI
    • Initiates chemical digestion of protein
  31. Describe how the stomach disrupts 3D structure of food
    Proteins are large complex structures, and the low pH of the stomach breaks them down
  32. Which part of the stomach is responsible for temporary food storage?
    The proximal stomach expands during food storage which allows dogs to eat discrete meals.
  33. What is gastric secretion influenced by?
    • The amount of protein in the meal, meal volume and hormones
    • pH varies depending on the type of meal consumed (buffering capacity of the food)
  34. Describe gastric emptying.  What is it controlled by?
    Gastric emptying is simply the emptying of the stomach. 

    The rate is controlled by: stomach volume, body weight, water intake and diet type.
  35. What hormone is produced by the stomach?
    Pepsinogen, the precursor of pepsin which breaks down proteins
  36. How does an animal tell it is full?
    When the stomach expands hormones are released which sends a full signal to the animal.
  37. What is the difference of half-emptying times for cats and dogs?
    On average, the half-emptying time of cats exceeds that of dogs. Although it depends on diet.
  38. What is a difference between the stomach of cat and dog?
    The stomach of the cat is simpler and is less important as a storage reservoir compared to dogs. 

    Cat stomach is smaller will a smaller glandular fundus (storage part)
  39. How long does it take starches and fats to be broken down in the stomach?
    No digestion of starches or fats.
  40. What part of the digestive tract is the primary site of chemical digestion and absorption of fat, carbohydrates and proteins?
    The small intestine
  41. What does proximal mean?  Distal?
    • Proximal: closer to brain
    • Distal: further from brain
  42. Describe how feed intake of the wild cat and dog varies
    Cats typically eat lots of small meals in a day while dogs eat a large meal at a time
  43. What greatly increases the rate of gastric emptying?
    A lot of water
  44. Why do cats typically have a longer half-emptying time than dogs?
    Because they have a very high protein diet
  45. What stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice?  What is its function?
    Acidic chime moving form the stomach into the SI stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice which increases the pH of the digesta
  46. What increases surface area of the SI to improve nutrient absorption
  47. How is chyme moved through the small intestine?
    Through peristalsis
  48. What is Chyme?
    Digesta that has entered the SI
  49. What are the three parts of the small intestine in order?
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  50. What is the function of the duodenum
    Chyme is mixed with enzymes from the pancreas and duodenal mucosa in the duodenum

    Prepares for absorption and digestion within the Jejunum
  51. What is the primary part of the small intestine?  Why?
    The jejunum is the primary part of the small intestine because it is long with a lot of absorption.
  52. What is the pH within the SI of cats/dogs?
  53. What is the function of the pancreas?
    Releases pancreatic juices that act as a buffer to stomach acids

    Has exocrine function that releases enzymes: inactive proteases, lipases and amylases

    Endocrine that secretes hormones into blood (Important in insulin release)
  54. What are the exocrine functions of the pancreas
    Secretes bicarbonate salts into gut and secretes enzymes (proteases, lipases and amylases)
  55. What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?
    Secretes hormones into the blood (Insulin)
  56. What is a unique property of the pancreatic juice of the dog?
    It has antibacterial properties
  57. How do nutrients reach the liver?
    Small intestine to Portal vein to liver
  58. What is produced by the liver that helps with fat breakdown?
  59. What is bile?  Where is it made? Stored?
    Bile emulsifies dietary fat and activates enzymes to aid in fat digestion.  It is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
  60. When is bile produced?
    Bile is produced in response to chyme entering the small intestine
  61. Describe how small intestine microbiology varies between dogs and cats
    Cats may have a great amount of bacteria in their SI
  62. What is a method that is used to measure transit time of digesta through SI?
    Using indigestible markers are used to measure time elapsed from when first fed to time in feces.

    A common marker is Chromic oxide.
  63. Describe the difference between transit time of soluble and insoluble fiber
    Soluble fiber moves through the gut slower and insoluble fiber has a faster transit time
  64. Why are sugar transport systems not adaptive to dietary carbs in cats?
    Because cats don't have a sugar taste receptor
  65. Why does it make sense evolutionary for a cat to not have an adaptive sugar transport system in the gut?
    • Free sugars and carbs are normally a negligible percent of the diet
    • No energy wasting to change carrier systems
  66. What is a difference between pancreatic amylase between dogs and cats?
    Cat amylase production is about 5% of that in dogs and nonadaptive in cats
  67. What are the main functions of the large intestine?
    • Absorption of water and electrolytes
    • Fermentation of dietary fiber and undigested nutrients from the SI
  68. What are the three parts of the large intestine in cats and dogs?  Which is the largest?
    The cecum, colon and rectum.  The colon is the longest
  69. Describe the villi of the large intestine
    No villi on the surface - very deep crypts in the colon
  70. What is excreted fecal matter made up of?
    • Undigested food
    • Sloughed cells
    • Bacteria
    • Endogenous losses
  71. What does bacterial fermentation produce?
    Short-chain fatty acids, lactate, CO2 and hydrogen gas
  72. What is the definition of an incretin? what are the two major types?
    An incretin is an intestinal hormone.  The two major types are GIP and GLP-1
  73. What is GIP
    • Glucose dependent isulinotropic peptide (GIP)
    • An incretin that is released in the fed state
  74. What is GLP-1
    • Glucagon like peptide-1
    • An incretin released in response to GIP that targets beta cells in the pancreas
  75. Describe how incretins affect blood glucose
    • GIP is released in response to a fed state
    • GLP-1 is released in response to GIP
    • GLP-1 targets Beta cell in pancreas
    • Beta cell produces insulin
    • Insulin targets the liver and decreases glucose production
    • Less glucose in bloodstream
  76. What are the 8 intestinal hormones?
    • Gastrin
    • CCK
    • Secretin
    • GIP
    • GLP-1
    • GLP-2
    • Motilin
    • Somatostatin
  77. What is the function of gastrin, where is it produced and what is its stimulus for secretion?
    • Gastrin is produced in the stomach in response to peptides and AA's in the stomach and distention of the stomach.
    • it stimulates secretion of gastric acid and pepsinogen and glucagon
    • Inhibits gastric emptying
  78. What time of monogastric is a horse?
    A hind-gut fermenter
  79. Why do horses have a large, large intestine?
    Because horses are find gut fermenters and have a very large cecum.
  80. Describe how chewing varies between cats/dogs and horses?
    Horses chew around 90 times a minute to stimulate saliva production while cats and dogs chew minimally.
  81. What is the significance of bicarbonate in the saliva of the horse?
    It provides a buffer against stomach acids and allows for some microbial fermentation in the stomach
  82. Describe the teeth layout of horses
    Incisors, then space before premolars and molars.  Wolf teeth removed when young - no apparent purpose
  83. What is tooth floating in horses?  Why is it done?
    Horses have constantly erupting teeth and points develop on the edges because of chewing patterns.  Floating teeth is the filing of the teeth to keep them smooth.
  84. Describe aging by teeth in horses.
    • At around 2.25 years permanent incisors appear, a full mouth is apparent at 5 years and at 10 years all teeth have cups. 
    • Galvaynes groove moves up and down the teeth after 10 years of age.
  85. What are the three regions of the stomach
    • Oesophageal region
    • Fundic region
    • Pyloric region
  86. What is the cell lining of the oesophageal region of the stomach?  The fundic region? pyloric region?
    • Oesopgageal: squamous
    • Fundic region and Pyloric: Glandular epithelium
  87. What is produced in the glandular epithelium in the stomach?
    • Fundic region:
    • -Parietal cells produce HCL
    • -Zymogen cells produce pepsin

    • Pyloric region
    • - secretes gastrin
  88. What part(s) of the stomach can microbial fermentation occur in the stomach (of a horse)
    The oesophageal and fundic regions
  89. What macronutrient moves very quickly through the stomach (of a horse)
  90. How does the emptying time of horses compare to dogs and cats?
    It is more consistant and longer.
  91. When does flow of feed into the small intestine cease in horses?
    When feeding ends (part of a fight or flight response)
  92. What is a difference in bile production between cats/dogs and horses
    the horse does not have a gall bladder and the bile continuously drains into the SI
  93. What are the three VFA's produced by microbial synthesis?
    Butyrate, acetate and proprionate
  94. Describe the large intestine of the horse (compartments and flexures)
    • Right ventral colon then reaches sternal flexure (90 degree turn)
    • then left ventral colon (hits pelvis) then pelvic flexure (90 degree turn)
    • then left dorsal colon (hits diaphragm) diaphragmatic flexure (90 degree turn)
    • right dorsal colon

    then small colon!
  95. What is a common place for feed to become blocked in the GIT of horses? What is this called? What can we do to prevent it?
    A common place for impaction to occur is the pelvic flexure because it is half as wide as the rest of the GIT.  Impaction can be prevented by lots of water intake.
  96. What is the absorptive order of VFA's
  97. What are the VFA's from fermentation used for?
    • Acetate => fatty acid synthesis (fats)
    • Propionate => glucose storage
    • Butyrate => Ketones
  98. Why is butyrate absorbed less readily than acetate and propionate in horses
    Potentially because it is very good for gut health and potentially used by the cells itself.
  99. In what form(s) is/are nitrogen absorbed in the gut of a horse?
    Ammonia, urea and amino acids
  100. What is absorption?
    Passage of nutrients from the lumen to the blood stream
  101. What is the absorptive area of the gut?
    The mucosa.  It is comprised of epithelium and lamina.
  102. How do nutrients get from the lumen of the gut into the blood stream?
    • Lumen
    • Brush Border Membrane
    • epithelial cell
    • basolateral membrane
    • capillary bed (blood)

    Transporters enable nutrient transport
  103. What enzymes are secreted in the pancreas?
    • Trypsin
    • Chrymotrypsin
    • elastase
    • carboxypeptidase
  104. What are the three classes of amino acids?
    Cationic, anionic, neutral
  105. Describe the transport of proteins across the epithelium
    Transport of proteins, polypeptides and certain dipeptides across epithelium is very limited
  106. What are the two ways dipeptides pass the membranes
    • 1. transport with hydrogen across the brush border and breaks down into single aa's to pass into the blood
    • 2.binds to brush border membrane and broken down by peptidase then pass the two membranes as single aa's
  107. How many primary transporters for cationic amino acids are there?
  108. How do carbohydrates pass the brush border membrane? the basolateral membrane? What do they transport?
    • GLUT5 allows for passive transfer of fructose
    • SGLT1 uses a sodium transporter to allow for glucose and galactose across membrane.

    GLUT2 allows transport across basolateral membrane for fructose, glucose and galactose.
  109. What is the glucose taste receptor? What does it cause?
    • T1R2/T1R3
    • When it detects glucose it causes for an increase in SGLT-1 (not in cats!)
  110. How do fats get absorbed?
    They diffuse across the membrane because they are lipid soluble.
  111. What is synonymous with short chain fatty acid?
    Volatile fatty acid
  112. What do short chain fatty acids require to get absorbed?
    MCT1/SMCT on brush border membrane

  113. What are the five key needs for nutrients
    • Act as structural components
    • Enhancing or being involved in chemical reactions of metabolism
    • Transporting substances into, throughout or out of the body
    • Maintaining body temperature
    • Supplying energy
  114. What is an essential nutrient?
    Nutrient can not be synthesized by the animal, must be obtained in the food
  115. What is a conditionally essential nutrient
    A non-essential nutrient that becomes an essential nutrient certain physiologic conditions result in relative deficiency (lactation etc.)
  116. What is a non-essential nutrient?
    Nutrient can be synthesized in adequate quantities by animals and are not specifically required in the food
  117. Define digestibility
    The percentage of food's gross nutrient content released following mechanical and chemical digestive process
  118. What is digestibility influenced by?
    • Food characteristics
    • Digestive efficiency of the host
  119. Define bioavailability
    The degree to which a nutrient becomes available to support metabolism after digestion and absorption.
  120. What is apparent digestibility
    Nutrient intake minus nutrient excretion in feces
  121. What is true digestibility?
    Nutrient intake minus nutrient excretion in feces corrected for intestinal endogenous losses
  122. What are intestinal endogenous losses?
    Excretion of nutrient into gut due to cell turn over, intestinal secretions, sloughing of intestinal cells.
  123. Name three monosaccharides
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
  124. Name three disaccharides
    Maltose, sucrose, lactose
  125. Name three polysaccharides
    Starch, cellulose, glycogen
  126. What is often the limiting amino acid
  127. What is a protein that is cross linked with a protein
    • Meyer reaction
    • -Lysine and sugar in a heat process is absorbed but can not be used because of the sugar => excreted through urine.
  128. What type of glycosidic bond is in starches? fibers?
    • Starch: alpha bond
    • Fiber: Beta bond
  129. What do microbes break down in fibers allowing ruminants to use them?
    The beta glycosidic bond
  130. What is dietary fiber?
    Nonsoluble polysaccharide + lignin
  131. What type of starch is commonly in pet food?
    Rapidly digestible starch
  132. What is the difference in starch digestibility of amylose and amylopectin?
    • Amylose is like a helix, rigid and not as well digested
    • Amylopectin is a branched structure and is more digestible.
  133. What are some sources of starch?
    • Corn
    • Wheat
    • Rice
    • Barley
    • oats
    • Potatoes
    • Pulses
  134. What is a prebiotic?
    A selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes both in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health.
  135. Can mammals digest prebiotics?
    No because be do not have the correct enzymes
  136. What is the function of dietary fiber?
    • Regulate normal bowel function
    • Fermentation end products (VFAs) important in maintain health of colon
    • Fementation decreases colonic pH (pathogenic bacteria sensitive to pH)
  137. What is a colonocyte? what is an example
    Butyrate is one.  Maintains health of gut.
  138. What is the protein requirement for dogs and cats?
    They have no protein requirement. They have an essential amino acid requirement.
  139. What is crude protein?
    It is a nitrogen measurement.  Multiply nitrogen by 6.25 to find crude protein.
  140. What is Taurine?  What is it essential for?
    • It is needed for taurocholic acid and essential in cats because they do not make it. 
    • Meat is a good source
  141. How many amino acids are there?
  142. What are the biological functions of proteins?
    • Immune factors (antibodies)
    • Fluid balance
    • Acid-base balance
    • transport
    • Source of energy and glucose
  143. What is the concept of the first limiting amino acid
    Protein synthesis cannot proceed without an adequate supply of all amino acids that contribute to the primary structure of that protein

    Protein synthesis stops when not enough of one balance
  144. What is biological value? What is an idea value?
    • The ability of a specific dietary protein to supply acids in the relative amounts required for protein synthesis by body tissues
    • 100 is ideal protein
  145. What is an idea protein that gives a high biological value?
    Meat proteins
  146. What are some srouces of protein?
    Meat, Milk, egg, pulses, seeds
  147. What are the major lipid classes (5)
    • Fatty acids
    • Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Sterols
    • Waxes
  148. What are the functions of lipids?
    • Energy
    • Energy storage
    • essential fatty acids
    • fat-soluble vitamin absorption
    • insulation
  149. Where is fat stored in the body?
    Adipose tissue
  150. What does changing the dietary fat content change?
    • caloric density
    • concentration of other nutrients
  151. What is lipogenesis? Can it be reversed?
    The body has pathways that turns proteins and carbs into fats.  Not the other way around!
  152. What are sources of fats
    • Fat stores of land and marine animals
    • seed oils
    • nuts
    • eggs
  153. What are the main fat sources for cats and dogs in a diet
    • Fish oils
    • Usually added in a liquid form (lard often not added)
    • Animal tissues
  154. Describe how the length of fatty acids affects the chain
    • The longer the chain
    • -more water-insoluble
    • -solid at room temperature and higher melting point
    • -decrease in volatility
  155. How many carbons are there in short-chain fatty acids? medium? long?
    • Short: <8
    • Medium: 8-12
    • Long >12
  156. Where are short-chain fatty acids produced in the body?
    A by product of fermentation (VFAs)
  157. How does saturation affect digestibility?
    long chain saturated fatty acids less digestible.
  158. What is required in the diet with poly-unsaturated fatty acids? Why?
    More dietary vitamin E is required because it is an antioxidant that stabilizes pure fats in the diet.
  159. What are the three classes of unsaturated fatty acids?
    Omega 3/6/9
  160. What are omega 3 and 6 fatty acids important in?
    Cell membrane fluidity and skin health
  161. What are some omega 6 fatty acids? What are they important for?
    • Linoleic, y-linolenic and arachidonic acid
    • Growth, reproduction. Precursors of eicosanoid and prostaglandin synthesis.
  162. What are some examples of omega 3 fatty acids? what are they important in?
    • a-linolenic, eicosapentenoic and docosahexonic acid.
    • Bran and retinal function
  163. What is glycolysis
    break down of glucose for co2 and chemical energy
  164. how are excess amino acids broken down and used for energy?
    deaminated and oxidized to create energy
  165. What is a method to measure gross energy content
    Bomb calorimetry.
  166. What is a calorie
    The amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree
  167. Describe the energy system of food digestibility
    • Gross energy -> digestible energy (minus energy in feces)
    • ->metabolizable energy (minus energy in urine and methane)
    • ->Net energy (heat increment)
    • ->Net energy for production (net energy for maintenance)
  168. What are advantages between net energy system? Disadvantages?
    More precise than metabolizable energy or digestible energy calculations

    Heat loss is very difficult to measure
  169. What is basal metabolic rate?
    The energy requirement for a normal animal in a thermoneutral environment, awake but with no movement and in a postabsorptive (fasting) state
  170. What is resting fed metabolic rate?
    The energy requirement for a normal but unfasted animal at rest in a thermoneutral environment.

    Includes energy needed for digestion, absorption and metabolism of food (heat increment)
  171. What is a maintenance energy requirement?
    • The energy requirement of a moderately active adult in a thermoneutral environment
    • Does not include energy need to support additional activity
  172. What is the outcome of control of digested nutrients?
    • Nutrient utilization and deposition
    • Satiety
    • Feed intake and feeding behavior
  173. Why is the feeding behavior of dogs, cats and horses not well defined?
    Because of domestication and all rely on humans for food
  174. Describe the natural feeding behavior of a dog
    hunt in packs and eat various foods.  They are opportunistic scavengers, will eat fruits and berries as well.
  175. Describe the natural feeding behavior of a cat
    Hunt solitarily (except lions) and are strictly carnivorous
  176. Describe the natural feeding behavior of a horse
    Graze continuously, prefer herds and are strict herbivores
  177. Describe the difference in meal quantity between dogs, horses and cats.
    Dogs eat fewer, larger and more variable meals a day.  Usually during light period

    cats eat many meals a day ad lib.  Approx same size meals and evenly spread out over 24 hours

    Horses will graze 10-17 hours/day left on pasture.  Eat when light
  178. Why do horses exhibit seasonal patterns of feed intake? why is this not seen in cats/dogs
    Increase weight in spring, reach max weight in summer and weight loss in fall and winter (due to snow)

    Does not occur in cats and dogs because the live/eat indoors and are unaffected by season changes
  179. How does water intake vary between horses/dogs/cats
    • Dogs have more water per BW than cats
    • Cats have adapted to periods of water unavailability
    • Drink when they eat (require most water)
  180. What are feeding recommendations of dogs? cats? horses?
    Dogs: only need to be fed once a day

    Cats: many small meals throughout the day

    Horses: should be allowed to graze/forage throughout the day
  181. Describe social facilitation behavior in dogs.
    • Eating too rapidly
    • -perhaps related to competitive behavior.
    • -Dogs will eat more in the presence of other dogs.
  182. Why do dogs eat out of garbage?
    They have a preference of food in an advanced stage of decomposition (stronger smells and salivation)
  183. Why do dogs eat grass?
    Helps with gut health
  184. Why do dogs practice coprophagy?
    • Behavioral problem
    • Bitches eat feces of puppies during first 3 weeks of lactation (hide scent)
  185. What is Pica?
    Defined as perverted appetite with craving for and ingestion of non-food items

    Causes: mineral deficiencies, permanent anxiety and psychological disturbances, zinc intoxication

    In dogs
  186. What is the significance of the strong predatory drive of cats?
    A cat will stop eating to make a kill. May not eat prey.
  187. What flavors do cats find appealing?
    Flavors that reflect nutritional characteristics of their natural foods (proteins, fats)

    Not sugars
  188. What does nephilic mean?
    The cat will choose new food over a currently fed food.
  189. What does neophobic mean?
    In a new or stressful situations a cat will refuse to eat new food
  190. What is a difference between how cats and dogs eat prey carcass.
    Dogs eat viscera first.  Cats do not eat viscera at all
  191. What dictates the direction of feeding of a cat on a corpse?
    The direction of hair on the prey.
  192. Why is coprophagia practiced in cats?
    Cats always want to eat their own feces to hide scent.  If they can't hide it, they will eat it.
  193. When are food preferences developed in a cat?
    During the first six months of a kittens life.
  194. When is Cannibalism common in cats? Reasons?
    Queens cannibalize aborted, dead and female cats.  Reduces spread of disease, conserves maternal resources and optimize survival of the most fit kittens.  Queen has nutritional benefits from consuming dead kittens. 

    Tomcats kill unrelated kittens
  195. What is polyphagia?
    Means increased hunger.  In cats.  typically occurs in presence of other cats.
  196. Why do horses prefer to eat new grass?
    Because it has more nutrition in it.
  197. What feedstuffs do horses have a low tolerance for?
    Barley stray or maize silage.
  198. What affects group feeding of a horse?
    • Social status
    • Variation in appetites
    • Intake rate
  199. What is grazing time affected by?
  200. A horse that is not eating is:
  201. Define coprophagy in a horse
    Not a normal behavior

    Exception: foals consume dams feces up to 2 months of age to establish micro-biota of gut
  202. What is Geophagia?  What is it common in?
    • Eating dirt. 
    • In horses to obtain salt and trace minerals.
  203. Why is wood chewing in horses related to less dietary fiber?
    Less fiber = less grazing = more time?
  204. When is a horse considered to be mature?
    At around 36 months of age when they reach 86% of mature BW.

    Reach max height at this age.
  205. Why do horses require more energy in cold environments?
    Heat production
  206. What are the different heat productions that indicate energy?
    • Heat of basal metabolism
    • Heat of voluntary activity
    • heat of thermal regulation
    • heat of product formation
    • Heat of digestion and absorption
    • Heat of waste formation and excretion
    • Heat of fermentation
  207. Which heat production factors contribute to heat increment?
    • heat of product formation
    • Heat of digestion and absorption
    • Heat of waste formation and excretion
    • Heat of fermentation.
  208. What has a larger heat increment, hay or grain? Why?
    Hay because of fermentation.
  209. Why does a fat horse require less energy than a lean horse>?
    lean horse has more muscle and therefore has a higher resting metabolism.  Also likely more active.
  210. What is the average DEm of horses?
    • 30.3 kcal/kg BW/day = minimum
    • +10% average
    • +20% elevated
  211. What is the average temperature of a horse?
    100 degrees F
  212. What are five climatic variables
    • Ambient temperature
    • Wind velocity
    • Global solar radiation
    • predipitation
    • relative humidity.
  213. What is the best indicator of energy requirements of a horse?
    Body condition scoring
  214. What is the effect of a cold environment on horses
    • Increased eating
    • increased hair coat
    • Decreased rectal temperature
    • Decreased respiratory rate
  215. What is the effect of heat on horses
    • Increased sweating rate
    • increased respiratory rate
    • Decreased feed intake
    • Increased water intake
  216. What is the significance of the adaptive period in horses in regards to the thermoneutral zone?
    When horses move to a new climate, they take up to 21 days to adapt to the climate.
  217. What is the thermoneutral zone of horses?
    -15 to 35
  218. How should DE intake change when in a cold environment for horses?
    DE intake should increase by 2.5% for each degree below lower critical limit (-15)
  219. When can water restriction not be tolerated in horses? why?
    When they are eating.  Impaction with no water.
  220. What are the four ways an animal can lose water?
    • Fecal losses
    • Urinary losses
    • respiratory losses
    • cutaneous losses
  221. What is the main way a horse will lose water?
    Through feces
  222. How much water does a horse require a day?
    at least 50L
  223. What is metabolic water
    Water that is produced during oxidation of the energy containing nutrients in the body.
  224. What are the ways animals can gain dietary water (3)
    • Direct drinking
    • Food
    • Metabolic water
  225. Why does water intake decrease when a horse is on pasture opposed to hay?
    There is moisture in the pasture
  226. What are the 10 essential AA's
    Arg, His, Iso, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Val
  227. What are the symptoms of protein deficiency?
    • Weight loss in adult horses
    • Fetal loss in pregnant mares
    • Decrease in milk production
    • Loss of muscle in exercising horses
  228. What are the consequences of excess urea?
    • Increase water loss
    • increased water requirements
    • decreased growth in young horses
    • increase Ca and P loss in weaning horses
  229. What are the fat soluble vitamins?
    A D E and K
  230. What is the recommended Ca:P ratio in horses?
  231. What is the lysine requirement of a horse
    CP x 4.3% for all horses
  232. What do fats help eliminate in a horse diet, in terms of behavior?
  233. Why is it hard to detect calcium deficiency in horses?
    Because they maintain homeostasis of blood calcium.  Will pull from bones if needed.
  234. How does the Ca:P ratio differ in growing horses?
    It should be closer to 2:1 instead of 1.4:1
  235. What are the four types of horse exercise?
    • Light
    • moderate
    • Heavy
    • Very heavy
  236. What are muscles made out of (horses)
    • three fiber types
    • Type 1: slow-twitch for endurance
    • Type 2A and 2X: fast twitch for sprints
  237. What type of muscles need more glycogen, slow-twitch of fast-twitch? why?
    Slow-twitch for endurance.
  238. Describe the splenic reserve of red blood cells in horses
    Horses increase erythrocytes in blood by 30-60%.  Evolved for flight response.
  239. What is the respiration rate of a horse during a gallop?
    1 breath: 1 stride
  240. What happens to bones during exercise?  how long does it take?
    • Bone remodeling of long skeletal bones. 
    • It takes 6 months to occur
  241. When are bones the weakest during bone remodeling?
    After 2-4 months.
  242. What are factors affecting horse exercise?
    Duration, intensity
  243. What is the energy requirement for the average horse?
    (0.0333 x BW) x 1.2 = DE (Mcal/d)
  244. Where is energy acquired from during exercise of a horse?
    Muscle glycogen, blood glucose, hepatic glycogenolysis or hepatic gluconeogenesis
  245. What is the max level of carbs in a diet for horses?
  246. Does carb loading work in horses?
    No because it overloads the digestive system.
  247. How long does it take to replenish glycogen stores of a horse
    at 68 hours post - exercise muscle glycogen replenished to 85% of initial rates

    more than three days
  248. what type of feeds replenish blood glycogen faster in horses?
    Cereal grains
  249. What are benefits of supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3's) in horse diets?
    • alter cell membrane of platelets, erythrocytes neutrophils and monocytes
    • -increase fluidity of red blood cells
    • -decrease inflammatory response
  250. What is a consequence of a high protein diet?
    • Overload the urea cycle
    • -kidney issues
    • -more ammonia
  251. How is the mineral requirement of horses typically met when exercising
    Typically met through energy increases in diet.
  252. What are four disorders associated with exercise in horses
    • gastric ulcers
    • post-exhaustion syndrome
    • exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome
    • polysaccharide storage myopathy
  253. What can we do to prevent gastric ulcers in exercising horses?
    • Decrease size of carb meals
    • allow for more grazing behaviour
  254. What is post-exhaustion syndrome in horses.  what can prevent it/
    Muscle stiffness occurring 2-4 days after exercise. 

    • Prevention:
    • Addition of electrolytes to diet
    • Feeding calcium carbonate
    • Adequate slow cool-down after heavy exercise (reabsorbs some lactic acid)
  255. What is exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in horses.  Prevention?
    • Muscle pain and cramping associated with exercies
    • Sporadic or chronic

    • Prevention
    • reduce dietary starch
    • increase dietary fat
  256. What is polysaccharide storage myopathy in horses. Prevention?
    • Characterized by high concentrations of glycogen.
    • Exercise intolerance, muscle stiffness, back pain, colic signs, muscle atrophy, gait changes

    Prevention: feed minimum of 1.5% BW, use alternative energy sources, daily exercise regimen.
  257. How long does it typically take for a foal to stand after birth? walk, trot gallop?
    • 30 minutes
    • within 12 hours
  258. What are the nutritional phases during the first 12 months.  What is this referred to as?
    All considered growth phase

    • -nursing for first few weeks
    • -incorporate solid feeds within 10 days postpartum
    • wean around 6 months
    • continue rapid growth to 12 months of age
  259. What is colostrum high in
    Protein, dry matter, vitamin a, immunoglobulins
  260. How much milk does a foal consume during its first 24 hours in terms of body weight?
    15% (nurses 10 times an hour first 24 hours)
  261. What is the digestibility of milk for a foal
  262. How does the mare milk composition change as the foal ages. why?
    Decreases in energy, protein, fat, minerals as the foal ages.  lactose % increases.

    At 5 weeks the mare will go into heat and will put more energy into reproduction
  263. how much of a foals diet is solid when they are 21 weeks of age?
  264. What is creep feeding? what is its purpose?
    Providing nutrient dense source of feed to foals but is protected from ingestion by mares

    reduces weaning stress, and increases ADG
  265. When does the largest increase in height occur in foals.  Why?
    during 0-3 months because of growth of long bones at the metaphyseal plate (growth plate)
  266. What does calcium deficiency in a foal cause?
    osteopenia : poor mineralization of osteoid tissues
  267. What does phosphorous deficiencies cause in foals? excess?
    • Rickets like changes
    • Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidisim
  268. How long is the estrous cycle of a horse
    22 days
  269. how much light do mares need to cycle
    16 hours light
  270. mare with a BCS of over what are more likely to conceive? what BCS has longer anestrous
    • over 6
    • 3-3.5
  271. How long is gestation in a horse
  272. How many hours of light is required to achieve reproductive effieciency in mares
  273. What is the full birth weight of a foal
  274. When do fetal and non fetal tissues increase greatly in mares?
    after d 150
  275. When is fetal growth the greatest in horses?
    Last 60 days of gestation
  276. what can we do to eliminate fetal abortions?
    2.8 g CP/kg BW/d eliminates this problem
  277. What do mares need to sustain fetus growth?
    Crude protein
  278. What happens to calcium and phosphorous levels during late gestation of a mare
    they almost double
  279. What happens to vitamin e and a during late gestation of a mare?
  280. What should occur before birth in horses.  Why?
    Feed intake should be reduced to prevent colic due to high levels of hormones
  281. What is the most important time period for getting milk from a mare?
    the first 12 hours.  Ca and P very high.
  282. What is lactation yield influenced by
    • Feed consumption during late gestation
    • water availabilty
    • Nutrient and energy intake
  283. How does feeding a high energy concentrate diet decrease milk fat and protein?
    Drink more water so it is dilute.
  284. What is the energy requirement for lactation?
    DEmaintenance + DEmilk production
  285. What is the lysine requirement for lactating mares? Why is it different
    CP x 4.3% + milkproduction (kg.d) x 3.3 g lys/kg milk

    Lysine is being given in the milk
  286. What happens to the bone density of mares during lactation
    Bone density decreases during the first 12 weeks of lactation because of Ca demand
  287. What do we need to account for in terms of minerals with lactation
    We need to account for endogenous losses
  288. What is the energy requirement for a heavy use stallion
    20% higher than maintenance.
  289. What is an aged horse
    20 years old or higher
  290. What are two conditions with blood glucose related to aged horses with cushings disease
    • hyperglycaemia
    • hyperinsulinemia
  291. What is the protein requirement of an aging horse
    Decreases with age of old horse
  292. What is the maintenance energy requirement for a dog?
    132 kcal ME x Bw ^0.75
  293. How much more energy does standing take than lying in a dog?
    40% more energy
  294. What determines lower critical temperature of dogs?
    hair coat
  295. What is metabolic body weight
    Takes into account body mass and surface area
  296. What is the significance of arginine?
    key intermediate in urea cycle.
  297. What are the three critical phase during the first 12 months of life for a growing dog?
    • Nursing
    • weaning
    • postweaning
  298. What stimulates intestine growth in puppies in the first 24 hours?
  299. What is high in canine milk?
    • Protein, fat, energy.
    • Low in lactose
  300. What is the majority of body weight gain in the first month of a puppies life?
  301. What is the benefit of lactose in puppy milk
    favours colonization of beneficial bacterial species
  302. What must be high in the puppy before birth? Why?
    Iron must be high in the liver because bitch milk is low in iron.
  303. When do puppies start eating solid food?
    3-4 weeks of age
  304. What are the energy requirements for a bitch?
    energy + gestation + lactation