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Before what flight time or ESAD is it likely that the flight will be Landing Weight Limited
- Less than 8 hours flight time
- or Less than 3600nm ESAD
Flight may be ZFW limited, if A-C distance is greater than what?
- Calc total fuel by multiplying nm distance of whole flight x 12,
- Can then subtract this from BRW to give MZFW (which will be limiting if over 4500nm)
Define Gross Fuel Flow
Fuel Burnt per unit of Distance flown
Expressed usually as "kgs per ground NM"
Found in Fuel efficiency calculations
Wind components + & -
+ is added to the G/S (tailwind)
- is subtracted from the G/S (headwind)
How does Altitude and Temp effect thrust
Lower Density at altitude lowers thrust, but falling temp at altitude increases thrust.
However falling pressure and density has a much greater effect, so thrust decreases
How does humidity effect effect thrust?
high humidity decreases air density and so performance suffers
what happens to TAS and Mach Number during a constant IAS climb
What Happens to TAS and IAS during a constant Mach Climb?
Both Decrease up to the tropopause
TAS is maximum at the crossover point of the climb profile (goes from constant IAS to Constant Mach No)
How does weight and speed effect fuel flow?
For a constant speed cruise, lower weights mean lower settings so decreased fuel flow.
For a constant Power cruise, speed increases for lower weight aircraft.
How do H/W and T/W components affect Econo Cruise speeds
H/W increases Econo Cruise Speed
T/W decreases Econo Cruise Speed
Max Range Cruise is how much of VMD (min drag)
Max Range Cruise = 1.32 VMD
How does an increase in Weight, a H/W, or increase in Temp affect Max Range Cruise
All require a higher TAS
Temp because LSS increases, so to hold steady Mach No, TAS must increase too.
LRC gives what percentage increase in Mach No for what decrease in Specific range
4% better Mach No
1% loss of Specific Range
Max Endurance Cruise is at what speed
VMD (min drag)
How does speed for max endurance relate to Speed for max Range
Max endurance speed < Max Range speed
For the Speciman A/C what is the decent Sched
- M 0.78 down to crossover
- 282kts IAS down to 250kts below 10,000
How does CI affect TOD?
Higher CI means higher speed in the decent, so delays the TOD and gives a steeper and shorter (and faster) decent profile.