(7) Anatomy & Physiology

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(7) Anatomy & Physiology
2013-10-23 23:18:02
Anatomy Physiology

Anatomy & Physiology
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  1. Axillary
  2. Brachial
    Upper arm
  3. Buccal
  4. Cardiac
  5. Cervical
  6. Cranial
    Skull or cranium
  7. Cutaneous
  8. Deltoid
    Shoulder muscle
  9. Femoral
  10. Gastric
  11. Gluteal
  12. Hepatic
  13. Inguinal
    • Groin
    • (depressions of the abdominal wall near thighs)
  14. Lumbar
    • Loin
    • (lower back, between ribs and pelvis)
  15. Mammary
  16. Nasal
  17. Occipital
    Inferior posterior region of the head
  18. Orbital
    Bones surrounding the eye
  19. Parietal
    Superior posterior region of the head
  20. Patellar
    • Front of the knee
    • (kneecap)
  21. Pectoral
  22. Perineal
    Perineum; between the sacrum and pubis
  23. Plantar
    Sole of the foot
  24. Popliteal
    Posterior knee
  25. Pulmonary
  26. Renal
  27. Sacral
    Inferior most portion of the spine
  28. Temporal
    Temples of the skull
  29. Umbilical
  30. Volar
    Sole of the foot or palm of the hand
  31. Closest to the head
  32. Closest to the feet
  33. Closest to the midline
  34. Farthest from the midline
  35. Closest to the point of attachment; closer to the trunk
  36. Farthest from the point of attachment; farther from the trunk
  37. Closest to the surface of the skin
  38. Farthest from the surface of the skin
  39. The front surface of the body
    • Anterior
    • (ventral)
  40. The back surface of the patient
    • Posterior
    • (dorsal)
  41. Turning the palms upward (toward the sky)
  42. Turning the palms downward (toward the ground)
  43. The planes of the body:
    Front & Back
  44. The planes of the body:
    Top & bottom
  45. The planes of the body:
    Left & right
  46. The product of of slicing an object across or perpendicular to its long axis, as you would do if you wanted to count rings in a tree trunk
    Cross Section
  47. A view of an object cut along its long axis
    Longitudinal Section
  48. A position in which the patient is on a backboard or stretcher with the feet 6" to 12" higher than the head
    Trendelenburg Position
  49. Contraindications to the shock position:
    • Pelvic fracture
    • Severe chest injury
    • Severe head injury
  50. A semi reclining position with the head elevated to help them breathe easier and to control airway, with the knees bent or straight
    Fowlers Position
  51. Head and torso supine, lower extremities 
    elevated 6" to 12" to increase blood flow to the brain
    Shock Position
  52. Lying on side, bottom arm extended straight with head lying on it

    Top knee is bent, angling body slightly toward floor
    Recovery position
  53. The human body is primarily made up of
    four major types of tissue:
    • Epithelial tissues
    • Connective tissues
    • Muscle tissues
    • Nervous tissues
  54. Covers the surface of the skin and organs
    Forms the inner lining of the body’s cavities
    Lines hollow organs
    Epithelial (ep·i·the·li·um)
  55. Epithelia perform four essential functions:
    • Physical protection
    • Permeability
    • Sensation
    • Specialized secretions
  56. The three basic components of Connective tissue:
    • Specialized cells
    • Extracellular protein fibers
    • A fluid known as Ground substance
  57. Tissues that bind, support, protect, frame, and fill body structures; they also store fat, produce blood cells, repair tissues, and protect against infection
    Connective tissues
  58. Contractile tissue consisting of filaments of actin and myosin, which slide past each other, shortening cells
    Muscle tissues
  59. Types of muscle tissue:
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  60. A tissue specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another
    Nervous tissues
  61. Organ systems
    • Skeletal            Integumentary 
    • Muscular           Digestive
    • Respiratory       Endocrine
    • Circulatory        Unrinary
    • Lymphatic         Genital
    • Nervous
  62. Long bones (6)
    • Femur
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Ulna
    • Radius
    • Humerus
  63. Short bones
    • − Bones of wrist
    • − Bones of ankle
  64. Flat bones
    • − Some skull bones
    • − Ribs
    • − Sternum
    • − Scapulae
  65. Long bones consists of:
    • Diaphysis (shaft)
    • Epiphyses (ends)
    • Epiphyseal (growth plate)
  66. Diaphysis
    Shaft of the long bone
  67. Epiphyses
    Ends of the long bone
  68. Epiphyseal
    (e pi·physe·al)
    Growth plate of the long bone
  69. What covers external surfaces of the body? 
    1) Sebaceous gland 
    2) Germinal layer 
    3) Submucosa 
    4) Epidermis
    4) Epidermis
  70. Peripheral nerves receive signals from the body and send commands to the body originating from what part of the body?
    Spinal chord
  71. What is the maintenance of a stable internal physiologic environment known as?
  72. Movement of a solvent from an area of low concentration to an area of higher concentration is known as:
  73. What is adequate tissue oxygenation known as? 
    1) Metabolism  
    2) Perfusion  
    3) Circulation 
    4) Ventilation
    2) Perfusion
  74. A substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.
  75. What binds a specific antigen so that the complex can attach itself to specialized immune cells?
  76. An allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction to the presence of an:
  77. The primary cells of the immune system are the:
  78. An organic compound found widely in animals and plants that in humans and other mammals is released as part of the body's immune response, causing physiological changes including dilation of the blood vessels, contraction of smooth muscle (as in the airways), and increased gastric acid secretion. The itching and sneezing typical of respiratory allergies are caused by the release
  79. If a patient is having irregular respiratory patterns, what part of the body is most likely injured?
  80. A thick band of nerve fibers in the brainstem of humans and other mammals that links the brainstem to the cerebellum and upper portions of the brain. It is important in the reflex control of involuntary processes, including respiration and circulation. All neural information transmitted between the spinal cord and the brain passes through this.
  81. What type of membrane covers all external surfaces of the body?
    Cutaneous membrane
  82. How many bones in the human body
  83. The skull has how many bones
  84. The 3 anatomic groups of the skull:
    • Auditory ossicles
    • Cranium
    • Face
  85. The broad front part of the skull, forming the forehead and a horizontal portion that forms the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities.
    Frontal Bone
  86. Either of a pair of compound bones forming the sides and base of the skull
    Temporal bone
  87. a curved, compound bone forming the back and part of the base of the skull
    Occipital bone
  88. Bones of the ear
    • Ossicles:
    • * Hammer (malleus)
    • * Anvil (incus)
    • * Stirrup (stapes)
  89. The Spinal column is composed of how many bones
  90. List the sections of the spinal column
    • Cervical spine: 7 
    • Thoracic spine: 12 
    • Lumbar spine: 5 
    • Sacrum: 5 
    • Coccyx: 4
  91. The first cervical vertebra (C1)
    • Called the atlas
    • − Provides support for the head
  92. The second cervical vertebra (C2)
    • Known as the axis
    • − Located at the point at which the head rotates left and right.
  93. The Thorax consists of; and its function is:
    • 12 pairs of ribs
    • • Protects organs within the thorax
    • • Prevents collapse of the chest during breathing
  94. _____________ investigates the body's structure, whereas __________ investigates the processes or functions of living things.
    Anatomy, physiology
  95. Which organ system removes substances from the blood, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fat from the digestive tract?A)endocrine
  96. Which organ system consists of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands?
  97. Which organ system consists of hormone-secreting glands, such as the pituitary and thyroid glands?
  98. A plane that runs vertically through the body and divides it equally into right and left portions.
    Midsagittal plane
  99. In which quadrant of the abdomen would stomach pain most likely be felt?
    Upper left
  100. The space between the lungs, in the center of the chest, that contains the heart, trachea, mainstem bronchi, part of the esophagus, and large blood vessels
  101. The lungs are separated by the
    A)pelvic cavity
    C)peritoneal membranes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. The shin bone, the larger of the two bones of the lower leg
  103. The long bone on the lateral aspect of the lower leg