World Issues Exam

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World Issues Exam
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  1. birth rate
    number of births per 1000 people in a country or region in a given year
  2. death rate
    number of deaths per 1000 people in a country or region in a given year
  3. immigration rate
    number of people (immigrants) arriving at a destination for every 1000 people living at that location in a given year
  4. life expectancy
    average lifespan that a newborn can expect to live if current mortality trends were to continue
  5. net migration rate
    total effect of immigration and emigration on an area's population. The rate can be an increase or a decrease
  6. population pyramid
    special type of graph that shows the distribution of a population by age and sex. Each bar graph indicates an absolute value (number of people) or a percentage of people of each sex in a specific age group
  7. replacement rate
    the fertility rate required for a population to replace itself. Usually, a fertility rate of at least 2.1 is needed, taking into account infant mortality and women who do not have children
  8. dependency load
    the percentage of a country's population that is considered dependent because it includes people not of "working age," i.e., those younger than 15 and older than 64 years of age
  9. emigration rate
    number of people leaving an area per 1000 population in a given year
  10. infant mortality rate
    number of infants under one year of age who die for every 1000 live births in the country in a year
  11. natural increase rate
    rate at which a population increases (or decreases) in a given year expressed as a percentage of the total population. This percentage can be calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate and dividing by 10
  12. population growth rate
    rate at which a population increases or decreases in a given year through natural increase and net migration, expressed as a percentage of the total population
  13. total fertility rate
    average number of children borne over the lifetime of a typical woman in a particular country. This figure answers the question, " how many children are women currently having?"
  14. rule of 70
    simple method to estimate how long it will take a population to double; calculated by dividing 70 by the population growth rate. For example, if the population growth rate of a country is 0.5 per cent, the population would double in (70/0.5) 140 years.
  15. demographic transition
    A theory that states that birth rates and death rate will decline over time as a result of economic and social development
  16. pre-transition
    · Stable population· High BR and DR· High fertility rate· High infant mortality rate· Many young/few old
  17. early transition
    · Death control· BR still high· Population explosion· Modern· Medicines/vaccines· Sanitation
  18. late transition
    · Birth control· Limit family size· Urban living· Working women
  19. post-transition
    • · Stable population· Low by equal BR and DR· Low fertility rate· Many older people
    • ◦ Countries tend to shift into post-transition stage as they begin to benefit from economic and social growth
    • Education, urbanization, health car, role of women, richness of resource base and the availability of advanced technology
  20. demographic trap
    • ○ A situation in which a developing country continues to have a high birth rate instead of experiencing the declining birth rate of the late transition stage
    • Combined with declining death rates, this situation causes a population to increase that threatens the country's economic and social development
  21. overpopulation
    • ○ An excess of people that prevents a country from meeting the needs of citizens, whether social, economic, or resource-based
    • ○ Issues arise with -food, education, employment- why important/meaning and significance, see down
    • ○ Carrying capacity reached
    • ○ Food-providing enough food
    • ○ Education-vital to move through process of transition, population explosion makes it difficult for a country to educate
    • ○ Employment-providing jobs link with access to education
  22. green revolution
    agricultural innovations 1940s-1970s, new crop varieties, agricultural methods, improvement in yields
  23. feedback loop
    a self perpetuating situation in which each consequence eventually causes the initial condition to recur
  24. trend in population 1: population explosion
    ○ Later half of the 1600s○ Accelerated through much of the 1900s○ 1960 world's population reached 3 billion○ 1999 world's population reached 6 billion○ Needs doubled (food, shelter, jobs)○ Standard of Living? Equal?
  25. trend in population 2: population decline
    ○ Since 1980 (multiple choice)○ From 2.397 per cent to 1.854 per cent○ Not throughout global village ( primarily western world-birth control)
  26. demography
    The statistical study of human populations
  27. carrying capacity
    The maximum number of people that can be sustained by an environment
  28. population trends
    - The study of Causes Vs Consequences (Local, National, Global)- Predict future needs for essentials (schools, housing, labour)- On October 12, 1999 the world's population reached 6 billion- Not only is this # important but the rate at which the population is growing is also important
  29. world reached 6 billion in..
    On October 12, 1999
  30. population growth and technological change: stage 1: hunting and gathering
    ○ Earliest stages of human history people were nomadic○ Hunters and Gatherers in order to live and survive○ Women and children gathered food (what they could find)○ Men usually hunted○ Meat would allow for the body to build up reserves of fat○ People always on the edge of starvation○ If food was abundant in a certain year, survival rates would increase, but if winter was severe or game was scarce, death rates would skyrocket○ Large land area required to support a small # of people○ Low carrying Capacity
  31. population growth and technological change: stage 2: agricultural revolution
    ○ The discovery of agricultural is the most important invention in history○ Do not know who invented it○ Developed independently in many places around the world at different times○ Practiced almost 10 000 years ago throughout what is now Israel, Jordan, southern Turkey and western Iran. Later in China, India, Africa, and the Americans (multiple choice)○ The creation of food surplus○ Able to grow crops seasonally and bank on having a supply of food○ Increase in carrying capacity. Land able to support population
  32. population growth and technological change: stage 3: industrial revolution
    ○ By the 1700's, agriculture and production of manufactured goods were becoming advanced○ Further progress hampered by "energy crisis"○ Only source of energy was human or animal power○ Required an invention of non-muscular sources of power○ Earliest sources of power known to use now as the most desirable as they relied on clean, renewable resources○ Holland=Windmills. Used to pump waste and the water-powered the gristmill and sawmills (Crucial to the development of Southern Ontario)○ Coal came in the latter half of the 18th century followed by oil a century later○ Changed the nature of life○ 1833 the invention of the plough by John Deer transformed the agricultural community (multiple choice)○ Increased the carrying capacity of the earth
  33. how long ago agricultural revolution practiced?
    Practiced almost 10 000 years ago throughout what is now Israel, Jordan, southern Turkey and western Iran. Later in China, India, Africa, and the Americans (multiple choice)
  34. what and when did john deere invent something?
    1833 the invention of the plough by John Deer transformed the agricultural community
  35. sustainability
    • The ability to be maintained or renewed indefinitely into the future.• How sustainable are we?• How can we be more sustainable?
  36. sustainable development
    • • Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
    • • Maintenance of essential ecological processes• Sustainable use of resources• Preservation of genetic diversion
  37. the bellagio principals
    • • A set of guidelines established in 1996 assess the accuracy of measurements of sustainable development
    • • Guiding Visions and Goals, Holistic Perspective, Essential Elements, Adequate Scope, Practical Focus, Openness, Effective Communication, Broad Participation, Ongoing Assessment, Institutional Capacity
  38. ecological footprint
    • A measure of sustainability in which a unit of land area is used to demonstrate the ecological pressure created by residents of a country. The EF is based on the principle that human activities are related to the amount of land needed to support them.• Canada 7.25 hectares/capita• 7.36 Toronto• Halton 8.91• 9.86 Calgary
  39. characteristics of sustainable cities
    • Efficient transportation systems that encourage use of public transit• Well development infrastructure (water sewage, waste, recycling, etc.)• Maximized alternative energy sources• Mixes of land use• Heterogeneous mixes of housing types• Quality of life through civic amenities
  40. citta lente (slow cities)
    • Collective actions• 50 Italian towns and small cities that have decided NOT to become part of the globalized world• Setting out to protect the qualities that make their community and region special• Examples: not allowing fast-food restaurants in, not allowing building of cell phone towers• Local traditions are being protected and encouraged• Ontario Niagara on the Lake, Lunenburg Nova Scotia
  41. paradigm shift
    • • A change in mind set• A change in behaviour• Limits required• Meeting basic needs of all extending to all the opportunity to fulfill aspirations for a better life• Everyone receives fair share• Those who are more affluent adopt lifestyles within the plants ecological means
    • - when anomalies or inconsistencies arise within a given paradigm pressent problems that we are unable to solve within a giben paradigm, our view of reality must change as must the way we perceive, think and value the world
    • - we must take on new assumptions and expectations that will transform our theories, traditions, rules and standards of practices, we must create a new paradigm in which we are able to solve the unsolvable problems of the old paradigm (ex sustainability)
  42. left-wing libertarian
    Feel that Government has an important role to play in the economy, but feel people should make their own social decisions.
  43. right-wing libertarian
    Minimize the role of government in all aspects of life
  44. centrist
    Believe that social and economic controls should be applied if they are in the public good or dismantled if they do not benefit society.
  45. right-wing authoritarian
    Believe that the economy works best it the government leaves it alone, but have a significant measure of social control is required to have a fair and effective society.
  46. left-wing authoritarian
    Social control is required, but believe that government control of the economy is essential.
  47. theories on population growth (optimistic) : cornucopians
    While there is a desire to expand the human population, it is important to ask whether Earth will be able to support it. Many people believe that humans will find technology to produce revolutionary increases in carrying capacity. These people are called Cornucopians. Their evidence is the agricultural and the industrial revolutions which increased world population. "What might be the nature of this next revolution?" Cornucopians will respond that no one could have predicted the agricultural and industrial revolutions, and the breakthroughs to come will solve the most serious threats to humans. Example is the innovation to use solar and wind power cheaply to solve future energy shortages and environmental damage by current energy use as well as support a much larger population.
  48. theories on population (optimistic): bogue
    1960s D.J. Bogue wrote about the Theory of Demographic Regulation. This is explained by: over a long period of time society naturally limits its population. This population will grow in response to Earth's ability to support this population. The last 150 years of population explosion seems to disprove this theory, but supporters would say it’s a matter of time-that Industrial Revolution raised Earth's carrying capacity and the world's pop. has been adjusting to this increase. It is said that in developed countries this adjustment is complete while in developing countries it is not done. Support can be found in the demographic transition model as well as countries such as China's One Child Policy which have tried to limit their population growth to accelerate China's rate of demographic transition.
  49. theories on population growth (pessimistic): malthus
    1798 hypothesis of Thomas Malthus that population grows geometrically while food production increases arithmetically. The result is that population will eventually outstrip food supply and thus fall prey to famine, disease, and warfare. Any person or idea that supports Malthus's pessimistic viewpoint is described as neo-Malthusian
  50. theories on population growth (pessimistic): catton
    1980s William Catton modernized and expanded Malthus's views. He introduced the concept of Earth's carrying capacity, which according to him can only be exceeded at the expense of environmental damage. This is related to the idea of ecological footprint. Catton suggests Earth's population has been exceeding its carrying capacity for many years, only done so because we are using up the world's fixed stock of non-renewable resources. Example, immense pop. and high standard of living requires us to burn oil and coal needed for our descendants. Using non-renewable resources produces a phantom carrying capacity which allows high pop. but is non-sustainable, so our economic and ecological systems must collapse. When this occurs we will find our true carrying capacity which has been diminished due to depletion of non-renewable resources.
  51. 5 implications of birth dearth?
    • 1. family structures
    • 2. aging populations
    • 3. labour shortages
    • 4. economic effects
    • 5. shift in world power
  52. birth dearth implication: family structures
    - Trends of small families may continue, altering family character (many families will have no brothers/sisters, aunts/uncles, cousins)- China's families have become very small in one generation of time where a single child (most commonly male) becomes spoiled by parents and grandparents ("little emperor" phenomenon)- Explosion in numbers of DINKs (Double Income, No Kids) which social scientists assume will end up as LINKs (Low Income, No Kids), living elderly years in relative poverty with no family to assist, therefore will put great pressure on government- Lone children will face pressure to look after elderly parents/ grandparents without help where friends and co-workers may play family-like roles for people
  53. birth dearth implications: aging populations
    - As a result of the post-World War II baby boom countries (Canada) spent half a century with culture dominated by younger people and now will be dominated by the elderly- Between 1990 and 2030 World Bank expects the number of people over 60 years to go from 500 million to 1.5 billion- Never has there been so large an amount of elderly, now we have no experience in dealing with this, but the need to spend large amounts of money on pensions and health care for elderly is known- Developed countries have government and private pension plans which were relatively affordable due to larger working population- Three solutions are possible to face exploding older population○ Pension benefits can be lowered, impacting LINKs○ Eligibility for pensions can be restricted based on income, some people will not receive it if they have income from other sources over a certain amount of money○ Contributions to pension programs will be increased in the form of premiums or taxes to prepare for the population change- Inter-generational conflict can occur as younger people rebel against focusing their lives on providing financial/moral support and health care for large amount of old people
  54. birth dearth implications: labour shortages
    - Many Canadian/other developed countries' residents choose to retire earlier than 65, but only benefits parents and grandparents generation, therefore will be short-lived- The shortage of worker worsens as many people spend more time in school than considered normal previously- "guest workers" or immigrants bring economic successes to many countries who struggle to fulfill all the labour requirements- Many countries are not accepting of immigration and have a harder time of maintaining their economy
  55. birth dearth implications: economic effects
    - Economy is based on never ending growth which has two components, one is additional goods and services that come from a population that is getting wealthier, the other is the need to provide for a population whose size is growing explosively for many years; if population implosion occurs, second component disappears - fewer people to provide for-not a problem since 1st half of 21st century will increase- Many people in developing countries will become more affluent- 2nd half of century, population will decline and growth in material wealth may be limited by environmental/resource constraints
  56. birth dearth implications: shift in world power
    - Security Council of United Nation is most important agency in solving international problems including five permanent members (United States, Russia, China, United Kingdom, and France) who have veto power over any resolution being voted on by Security Council- By 2050 all permanent Security Council members will face declining populations and only 12% of world's population will live in developed world- Possible shift in power to India, Indonesia, Brazil, Nigeria from Russia, United Kingdom, France
  57. immigration
    People arriving into a destination/country
  58. emigration
    People leaving an area/country.
  59. push factors
    The conditions in the 'sending country' that cause people to move away (low wages, shortages of food, overcrowded living conditions, political persecution, high crime rates, wartime conditions, lack of economic opportunity; ecological changes: degradation of agricultural land or depletion of forests or water cause mass migrations to more ecologically stable areas)
  60. pull factors
    Conditions that attract migrants (high wages, good educational opportunities, havens from political or religious persecution, high standards of living, plentiful resources such as fresh water, forests, wildlife, or agricultural land)
  61. 4 types of migration
    • ecological
    • voluntary
    • involuntary
    • illegal
  62. ecological migration
    The movement of people from one place to another due to something they depend upon for life which disappears. People participate in ecological migration due to negative change in environment. In the future, global warming may cause mass ecological migration. People living in low-lying islands/coastal plains will have their homes disappear beneath sea levels, other people from dry southern climates will move to the far north to take advantage of the now livable warmer climates. South of the Sahara Desert (semi-arid zone called Sahel) have had successful droughts of grasslands, forests, waters resources causing lowered water table, degrading soil and causing vegetation to disappear. This means the Sahara Desert is expanding to the Sahel therefore desertification is forcing people out .
  63. voluntary migration
    The movement of people of their own free will from one place to another. In the 1800 and 1914 approx 70 mil people left Europe for Canada, USA, Australia, Argentina and other countries which alleviated serious population pressures.
  64. involuntary migration
    The movement of people against their will in fear of persecution owing to their political beliefs, race or ethnicity. In 1450-1870 11 mil people forced out of Africa as slaves by Europeans. In 1930s and 1940s many Jews fled to safe havens (Spain, England, and USA).
  65. illegal migration
    The movement of people without the sanction of immigration laws which arises from people's desire for improved economic opportunities and a country to limit access (illegal immigration exists only if there are laws to prevent migration). Workers from Bangladesh cross borders into India to find jobs and improve their standard of living.
  66. benefits for sending countries as a result of international migration
    When people leave, the pressure caused by stiff competition for few employment opportunities can be alleviated. When highly trained people leave the country, it is easier for remaining people to find jobs. Emigration also relieves pressure on housing that is often scarce in urban areas. When both housing and employment pressures are relieved, political unrest are lessened. Both well-trained and unskilled workers who migrated send valuable hard currency home to relatives which boosts the local economy. Sometimes migrants come back to their country and bring new skills/knowledge which benefit the economy of their homeland.
  67. consequences of sending countries due to international migration
    When people leave, the pressure caused by stiff competition for few employment opportunities can be alleviated. When highly trained people leave the country, it is easier for remaining people to find jobs. Emigration also relieves pressure on housing that is often scarce in urban areas. When both housing and employment pressures are relieved, political unrest are lessened. Both well-trained and unskilled workers who migrated send valuable hard currency home to relatives which boosts the local economy. Sometimes migrants come back to their country and bring new skills/knowledge which benefit the economy of their homeland.
  68. benefits for receiving countries due to international migration
    Receiving countries benefit from international migration. Immigrants bring skills that are in demand in their new country. Canada welcomes tool-and-die makers, stonemasons, art restorers, chefs and diamond cutters. Immigrants provide much-needed labour both skilled and unskilled. Immigrants were important in European countries who seeked labour to rebuild their economy after WWII. Immigrants act as a ready market for goods produced in their new country. They are needed for both the work force and taxpayers to support the increasing old-age populations of developed countries. The mix of immigrant cultures help to break down the extreme nationalistic feelings and contribute a unique ambiance in the country. Despite initially requiring support from the receiving country, immigrants contribute more in tax than they ever took in support and also create jobs.
  69. consequences for receiving countries due to international migration
    Countries which welcome newcomers cause fear in citizens of loss of jobs due to increase in competition, yet immigrants generally don't take the citizen's job but instead the '3D' jobs (dirty, dangerous, difficult). Yet the perception that newcomers steal jobs increasing violence against migrant groups if the economy is experiencing serious recession, inflation, or unemployment. Immigrants are often used as the scapegoats during complex economic/social problems develop. Citizens also object to the cost of integrating immigrants into society (costs borne by taxpayers to provide for health care, temporary shelter, language instruction, other social services).
  70. refugee
    People who leave their country under threat of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, or social or political group. Environmental scarcities and declining socio-economic conditions also cause people to become refugees.
  71. internally displaced persons
    IPDs are people who are forced to move from their home area fro reasons similar to those that motivate refugees. However, IPDs remain within the borders of their country.
  72. asylum seekers
    People who enter a country claiming to be refugees but who do not qualify as such under strict requirements of the UN protocol (ie they must be fleeing persecution).
  73. why migrants considered illegal?
    • 1) They may have entered illegally by avoiding border patrols or by using false documents at border crossings.
    • 2) They may have entered legally, but work without a proper permit.
    • 3) They have entered legally, but remain in the country after their visa has expired or their application for asylum has been rejected.
  74. amnesty
    Pardon granted to people who admit to an offence (such as entering a country illegally).
  75. where do illegal immigrants come from to canada?
    Migrants from China try to enter Canada some hidden in hulls of decaying cargo ships.
  76. where do illegal immigrants come to USA from?
    Many thousands of Mexicans avoid border patrols and illegally enter southern USA
  77. alpha cities
    • More important on global scale full service(international airport, access to water, etc) (L.A., Tokyo, NY, Washington)
  78. beta cities
    • Less important on global scale, major world cities (due to government, transportation, etc) (Toronto, Sydney)
  79. gamma cities
    • Least important on global scale, minor world cities (Melbourne, Rome, Boston, Montreal)
  80. social responsibility
    - Every day we make choices. Some of those choices have an impact on our families and communities; some may reach around the world- What does it mean to be socially responsible?
  81. corporate responsibility
    - Committed to maintain the highest standards of integrity, ethical behaviour, and corporate importance- What does it mean for corporation to be responsible?
  82. multinational corporations
    - A corporation that is based out of more than one nation- REVENUE○ Income that a company receives from its normal business activities. Sale of goods and services, interest, dividends or royalties - PROFITS○ Total revenue minus total expenses in a given period- USA - 140 corporations
  83. global 500
    the 500 largest companies in the world based on their annual revenues
  84. multinational companies
    companies that operate in several countries. This term has been largely replaced by the term transnational companies because many are not clearly identified with any particular nation
  85. transnational companies
    corporations that operate in two more countries (also called multinational corporations). Transnationals are probably the major force affecting global shifts in the economic activity, since many have profits greater than GDPs of some countries.
  86. free-trade agreement (FTA)
    an agreement signed by Canada and the United in 1988 to remove all tariffs and other restrictions to trade by 1999
  87. auto pact
    signed by 1965 between Canada and the United States, this treaty eliminated trade barriers in the manufacture of automobiles produced the "Big Three"
  88. sectoral free trade
    Free trade in only one specific part of the economy (also see Auto Pact)
  89. managed free trade
    free trade that has some restrictive clauses (also see Auto Pact)
  90. north american free trade agreement (NAFTA)
    a treaty signed in 1994 by Canada, the United States, and Mexico that phased out trade restrictions among the three countries
  91. the emerging "american world culture" is a result of..
    cultural globalization
  92. global standardization of attitudes and standards of behaviour are the result of...
    sociological globalization
  93. the emergence of the "global village" has been the result of...
    technological globalization
  94. countries which are / or in most cases were communist can be described as...
    2nd world
  95. countries such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Haiti can best be described as...
    5th world
  96. countries with high levels of economic and social development are best described as...
    1st world
  97. countries such as Indonesia which are in early stages of transition towards development are best described as..
    4th world
  98. how many countries are United Nations Members?
    192
  99. what are the 2 newest UN member countries?
    switzerland and montenegro
  100. what are the 4 main characteristics of an issue?
    • 1. raises concern
    • 2. interrelated aspects
    • 3. complex causes
    • 4. complex solutions
  101. issue
    an important subject open for debate/discussion
  102. what group of people did the British give political. economic, and educational advantage?
    bantu
  103. in what year did Idi Amin overthrow Milton Obote
    1971
  104. LRA stands for..
    Lords Resistance Army
  105. over _____ children walk to safer places to sleep at night
    30 000
  106. average age of child to be abducted?
    12-13 years old
  107. who is the leader of LRA
    Joseph Kony
  108. When did Uganda gain its independence?
    1962
  109. IDC stands for?
    International Displacement Camp
  110. Who was first president of Uganda?
    Milton Obote
  111. 8 stages of genocide
    • 1. classification (ex classified by facial features)
    • 2. symbolism (looking at symbol ex star of david)
    • 3. dehumanization (equated to lowest of low ex cockroaches not humans)
    • 4. organization (calculated, planned, leadership and guidance)
    • 5. polarization (clear who's who, identification, who on what side)
    • 6. preparation (preparing for mass killing)
    • 7. extermination (the event)
    • 8. denial (thats not what was meant to happen)
  112. genocide
    • the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group by:
    • 1. killing members or group
    • 2. causing serious bodily or mental harm
    • 3. deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction
    • 4. imposing measures intended to prevent births within group
    • 5. forcibly transferring children of one group to another location
  113. genocide stage 1
    classification- people are divided into "us and them"
  114. genocide stage 2
    symbolization-"when combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members or pariah groups..."
  115. genocide stage 3
    dehumanization-"one group denies the humanity of the other group. members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases"
  116. genocide stage 4
    organization- "genocide is always organized, special army units or militias are often trained and armed
  117. genocide stage 5
    polarization- "hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda"
  118. genocide stage 6
    preparation-"victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity"
  119. genocide stage 7
    extermination-"it is extermination to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human"
  120. genocide stage 8
    denial- "the perpetrators deny that they committed any crimes"
  121. how did solution of using IDC's by president Museveni increase tension in Uganda and issues of Acholi people
    • access to food, water, shelter
    • treatment
    • men vs women
    • unemployment
  122. haiti became and independent country on...
    january 1, 1804
  123. hunters and gatherers
    the earliest stages of human history (Nomadic)
  124. population implosion
    rapid population decline in developed countries as a result of low fertility rates
  125. 3 factors affecting area's future population (influenced by social/economic conditions)
    • 1. total fertility rate of area (more births=higher pop)
    • 2. life expectancy (people live longer=pop will be greater)
    • 3. impact that migration has on pop of area
  126. IIADA stand for... (scientific research organization)
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  127. birth dearth
    low fertility rate that causes a population decline
  128. why birth dearth occurring?
    urbanization & industrialization -> working world is not meeting needs of women who want a family therefore they are unlikely to have more than one child
  129. structural change (China)
    change in a country's economic and social structure that is legislated by government. China's one-child policy is changing social structure of the country
  130. change by diffusion (Kerala, India)
    change in a country's economic or social structure that is accomplished gradually as people recognize the benefits. Kerala population growth declined as people came to recognize the benefits of smaller families
  131. movement of people without the sanction of immigration laws known as..
    illegal migration
  132. migration of approx 70 mil people from Europe to Canada, USA, Australia, Argentina and other countries btwn 1800 and 1914
    voluntary migration
  133. movement of approx 11 mil people out of Africa btwn 1450 and 1870
    involuntary migration
  134. movement of people bc of ongoing desertification described as
    ecological migration
  135. when people leave home country to save their lives
    refugees
  136. people forced to move from homes but not outside the borders of their country
    internally displaced persons
  137. technological innovations will be able to handle increases in world's population
    cornucopians
  138. using non-renewable resources produces a "phantom carrying capacity" which is ultimately non-sustainable
    catton
  139. population will grow geometrically while food production increases arithmetically
    malthus
  140. theory of demographic regulation (over extended period of time society naturally limits its population
    bogue
  141. perspective
    • - p of v or way of looking at things
    • - product of influences such as family, schooling, religion, country, friends and the media
  142. life experience
    • - participation in events and contact with ideas that affect how one perceives things
    • - result of such factors such as age, education, religion and ethnic background
  143. opinions
    beliefs you hold and the judgements you make about events in the world around you
  144. subjective
    form as a result of your personal outlook on life
  145. objective
    not distorted by personal feelings or bias
  146. facts
    indisputable truths, knowledge that is certain and incontestable
  147. bias
    the presentation of an issue from a single p of v
  148. five worlds: first world
    include those with highest level of economic and social development (Canada, Japan, France)
  149. five worlds: second world
    • - in most cases communist (Cuba, China, Russia)
    • - social development is close to first world while economic development is of poorer nations, therefore they don't conveniently fit into one of the other worlds
  150. five worlds: third world
    advanced transition to development, their level of social and economic development are btwn first and fourth (Brazil, Mexico, Malaysia)
  151. five worlds: fourth world
    those in early stages of transition towards being developed, have higher levels of social and economic development than fifth world (Indonesia, India, Ecuador)
  152. fifth worlds: fifth world
    little evidence of starting transition towards development (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Haiti)
  153. paradigm
    • - set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitutes a way of viewing reality for the community that shares them, especially in an intellectual discipline
    • - large in scale
    • - set of beliefs held by individual, group, or a civilization which they hold true and precludes them from seeing any other possibilities
    • - perspectives from which we view issues and develop solutions
  154. country
    separate Nation of State that is Politically Independent
  155. classifying development by..
    • social- education (lit rate, % of pop educated), health care (infant mortality, # ppl/dr.)
    • economic-GDP (gross domestic product), ratio cars/person, ratio telephones/person
  156. sustainability
    development that meets the needs of people today without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their needs
  157. resource
    anything that meets people's needs, includes natural resources (water, air) human made items (labour, technology), appreciated for aesthetics (landscapes, ecosystems)
  158. renewable resource
    not diminished when used, replenished in nature (tidal or wind energy, forests, fish)
  159. non-renewable resource
    finite or limited, unable to be restored or regenerated in nature (petroleum, natural gas)
  160. leadership style: authoritarian (autocratic)
    leaders tell employees what they want done and how they want it done, accomplished without getting advice of followers, used when you have all info and need to finish fast
  161. leadership style: delegative (free reign)
    leaders allow employees to make decisions, leader still responsible for decision that are made, used when employees are able to analyze sit. and determine what needs to be done and how to do it, you cannot do everything, need to set priorities and set goals
  162. leadership styles: participative (democratic)
    leader includes one or more employees in decision making process (det. what to do and how to do it)
  163. sweatshop
    • -workplace where workers subjected to extreme exploitation including absence of living wage or benefits, poor working condition and arbitrary discipline
    • -lawless operations evading wage and hour laws, paying no taxes, violating fire and building codes, seeking out and exploiting undocumented immigrants and operating in the underground economy
    • -workers experience long hours, subminimum wages, unsafe workplaces and sometimes sexual harassment, verbal and physical abuse, child labour
    • -we spend more than 12 billion a year on clothes

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