Chapter 5-- Digestive System

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jchip524
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240875
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Chapter 5-- Digestive System
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2013-10-15 20:54:59
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digestive system
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digestive system
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  1. absorption
    passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
  2. amino acids
    small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins  are digested
  3. amylase
    enzymes secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch
  4. anus
    terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
  5. appendix
    blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant); literally means hanging onto
  6. bile
    digestive juices made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules
  7. bilirubin
    pigment released by the liver in bile
  8. bowel
    intestine
  9. canine teeth
    pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors. aka cuspids or eyetheeth
  10. cecum
    first part of the large intestine
  11. colon
    portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid segments
  12. common bile duct
    carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. aka choledochus
  13. defecation
    elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
  14. deglutition
    swallowing
  15. dentin
    primary material found in teeth. it is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer on cementum in the root
  16. digestion
    breakdown of complex foods to simpler form
  17. duodenum
    first part of the small intestine; measures 12 inches long
  18. elimination
    act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces
  19. emulsification
    physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
  20. enamel
    hard, outermost layer of a tooth
  21. enzyme
    chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances.
  22. esophagus
    tube connecting the throat to the stomach
  23. fatty acids
    substances produced when fats are digested; category of lipids
  24. feces
    solid waste; stool
  25. gallbladder
    small sac under the liver; stores bile
  26. glucose
    simple sugar
  27. glycogen
    starch; glucose is stored in the form of ____ in liver cells
  28. hydrochloric acid
    substance produced bt the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
  29. ileum
    third part of the small intestine
  30. incisor
    any one of the four front teeth in the dental arch
  31. insulin
    hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. it transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
  32. anorexia
    lack of appitite
  33. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  34. borborygmus (plural borborygmi)
    rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract
  35. constipation
    difficulty in passing stools
  36. diarrhea
    frequent passage of loose, watery stools
  37. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  38. eructation
    gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
  39. flatus
    gas expelled through the anus
  40. hematochezia
    passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
  41. jaundice (aka icterus)
    yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia)
  42. melena
    black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
  43. nausea
    unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit
  44. steatorrhea
    fate in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
  45. aphthous stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth with small painful ulcers
  46. dental caries
    tooth decay
  47. herpetic stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpesvirus
  48. oral leukoplakia
    white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
  49. periodontal disease
    inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone
  50. achalasia
    failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax

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