Behavior: Animal Welfare

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Behavior: Animal Welfare
2013-10-15 23:14:41
Lecture Nine

Animal Welfare
Show Answers:

  1. Vets and Animal Welfare: why
    • High credibility
    • Opportunities to interact and impact various audiences
    • Need to be cognizant of background, perspective, and needs.
  2. Vets and animal welfare: how
    • Evaluating the welfare of animals
    • Educating clients about the welfare of animals
    • Educating other stakeholders (including public) about animal welfare
    • Developing standards for animal care
    • Drafting laws to protect the welfare of various species
    • Enforcing welfare standards within voluntary or regulatory frameworks
  3. Vets and Animal Welfare: Past
    • Focus has been primarily on health
    • Conflict of interest (essentially self-evaluation)
    • Historically Vets have had little role in setting welfare standards
    • Role increasing, nationally and internationally
  4. Vets and welfare: future
    • Balanced view of needs to be met and advise clients accordingly
    • Vets must promote animal welfare based on science
    • Work in a world of perceptions and animal mythologies
  5. Welfare vs rights
    • Rights: in general they opposed use of animals
    • Welfare: animal use is ok, humane treatment of animals

    Problem is the welfare vs rights is incorrect as it is more a continuum rather than a dichotomy, and the majority of people lay in the middle.
  6. Animal mythology influence
    • The influence that allows for different treatment of animals that have similar attributes (mental ability, capacity to suffer)
    • An example of this is dog, man's best friend, and it's close relative, the wolf, the arch enemy of man...
  7. Animal mythology definition
    • Fundamental popular beliefs and values regarding animals often embedded in a culture's art and stories
    • Today's agricultural animals are viewed as commodities to be processed and traded, which clashes with our culture's animal mythology
  8. Science and evolving mythology
    • Change in beliefs about the nature of animals is correlated with changes in our ethical beliefs about how animals should be treated.
    • Uniqeness of humans is one of the longest running debates in western thought
  9. Human uniqueness
    • Appearance, no fins, fur, wings, 2 legs
    • Historical origin - biblical tradition that humans have special relation with Creator
    • Animals were intellectually inferior, did not use rational thought, no language, no soul
  10. Science has eroded these claims
    • Comparative anatomy, 13th century dissecting theaters
    • Darwin and evolution
    • Animal behavior
  11. Altered understanding of animals
    • Rethinking of ethical conduct towards them
    • Heightened concern for animals such as wolves, chimps, or whales is reflection of broader revision of human thinking about the nature of animals, re-evaluating worth, and question ways of treating them that were uncontroversial in earlier decades
    • Implications for agriculture are profound
  12. Virtuous pastoralist
    • Pastoralist society
    • Raising of domestic herds an important economic activity
    • Ownership of animals
    • Living possessions had to be given appropriate care
    • Raising and killing of animals was legitimate and even virtuous
  13. Agrarian ideal
    • Deeply rooted in American political philosohpy
    • Family farm, living in a harmonious relationship with the land
    • Family farm on a moral pedestal
    • Diligent animal care
    • Reverence for the family farm living in harmony with the land and their animals
  14. Challenges with Customer's & public perception
    • Understanding of argiculture
    • Few have any connection to agriculture
    • Few understand agricultural practices
    • Where do they get their information?
    • Perception is reality and we are dealing with mythology of Old McDonald's farm, and also the new perception of agriculture...
  15. Animal welfare definition
    Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal
  16. Common properties of animal welfare definitions
    • State of the animal
    • Ranges from very positive to very negative
    • Assessment of welfare requires consideration of multiple facets of the animal's state
    • The definition can be applied across species and environments
  17. Animal welfare
    • Encompasses pysiological health, hygiene and comfort as well as the mental or psychological health of the animal
    • Good definition provides a guide for considering all the relevant info
    • Practical limitations may limit actions to improve welfare but should not impact the assessment of the animal's welfare
    • It is about science and about values (ethics)
    • Involves:
    • value notions
    • Sense of better or worse for the animal
  18. Origins of Animal Welfare
    • The principles of Humane Experimental Techniques by Russel and Burch 1959 (three R's)
    • Ruth Harrison, "Animal machines: the new factory farming industry" 1964
    • Brambell Committee/Report 1965
  19. Five Freedoms
    • Freedom from hunger, thirst & malnutrition
    • Freedom from discomfort
    • Freedom from pain, injury and disease
    • Freedom to express normal behavior
    • Freedom from fear and distress
  20. Conceptions of Animal Health
    • Function: productivity health
    • Feelings: suffering, pleasure
    • Natural behavior
    • All three conecpts have been used as to define animal welfare and therefore suggest what should be measured
    • Productivity: Curtis, McGlone
    • Natural behavior: Kiley Worthington, Rollin
    • Feelings: Duncan
  21. Conceptual model illustrating welfare problems associated with animal adaptations and artificial environments
    Circle A Adaptions possessed by the animal

    Circle B: challenges faced by the animal in its current circumstances
  22. Area 1: Adaptations which no longer serve an important function
    • Stripes of zebra in zoo
    • Motivation to suck/forage
    • Motivation for a sow to build a nest

    Leads to abnormal behaviours and negative emotional states.
  23. Area 2: Challenges for which the animal lacks corresponding adaptations
    • Pigs little avoidance of ammonia
    • Fish lack avoidance of phenols
    • Obesity with available diets
    • Lack to pathogen avoidance

    Leads to impaired function with little evidence of avoidance or suffering until its too late
  24. Areas 3: Challenges for which the animals had corresponding adaptations
    • Fluctuating temperatures - thermoregulatory adaptations exist
    • Problems can still occur depending on degree of challenge

    Good relationship between feelings and functioning
  25. Different approaches with area 1, 2 and 3
    • Functioning approach: welfare problems in Areas 2 & 3, clear impact on function
    • Feelings approach: welfare problems in Areas 1 & 3, little subjective experiences in area 2
    • Natural living: welfare problems in Areas 1 & 2, animals adapted in area 3