What are the 2 opposing viewpoints on why animals behave in certain ways?
- behavior is mechanical
-most animals are not aware of why or what they do
(behavior = built that way)
-animals are aware of what they do/ consequences
-attributing human-like purpose to animals
both can be misapplied in a fundamentalist manner
(SO animals are little people, or animal behave is only mechanical)
attributing human-like purpose to animals
-not necessarily bad
****C. Loyd Morgan ****
early counter to anthropomorphic reasoning
used only observational skills
only data gathered by direct experiment and observation could be used to make generalization sand develop theories
(made laws of animal welfare and behavior)
What was Morgan's Canon****
*don't interpret animals behavior above simplest of that which makes sense
"in no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of higher psychological faculty if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale"
axiomatic in animal behavioural studies
invoke only those mental processes necessary to explain the observed behaviour
very influential in the comparative psychology tradition
Turkey hen takes care of chicks. why? anthropomorphic explanation and behaviorist explanation.
what happens if turkey is dearened?
what happens if speaker playing turkey chick vocalizations is placed on a kitten?
anthropomorphic: she loves them
behaviorist explanation: its about conditioning and stimuli. mother responds to chick b/c it gives out right stim for response
dear turkey: hen ignores or kills chick
speaker on kitten: turkey mothers kitten
so behavior is a mechanical response to the vocalizations dependent only in auditory stimuli
What is Tinbergen's main Q that gets split into 4?
WHY DO ANIMALS BEHAVE IN CERTAIN WAYS?
What are Tinbergen's 4 questions on animal behaviour?
Causation: what factors both internal and external cause the behavior to occur
developmental: how the behavior of the animal changes as it matures (immediate)
function: how does behavior improve survival and reproductive success?
phylogeny: how I changed over the course of evolutionary time (not immediate)
?What question was not asked b Tinbergen
What animals perceive, feel and know in relation to their OWN behavior
father of cognitive ethology
questioned mechanistic view that non-human animals lack of awareness and purposeful behavior
traces of awareness and purposefulness should be in animals (they should have phylogenetic history)
Descriptive and experimental research
Both are important
Descriptive research: often generates hypotheses that leads to experimental research
Experimental research: is preceded by complete descriptions and definitions of what animal does
Proximate vs ultimate
ie why do birds sing in the spring?
proximate causation: daylight
ultimate causation: optimal time for mating so that breeding falls in season of abundant food
proximate and ultimate perspectives on imprinting in graylag geese
behavior: young geese follow and imprint on their bother
proximate cause: see stimuli of mother moving away during early critical development stage
ultimate cause: geese that follow and imprint mother receive more care and learn necessary skills and thus survive better