RT 103 Quiz 1.txt

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RT 103 Quiz 1.txt
2010-06-19 01:14:54

RT 103
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  1. Who devised the first classification system for describing the first vents
    Mu Shin
  2. Who has been trying since 1980s to update vent and mode description
  3. Historically what do classification systems attempt to accomplish
    The physical function of the vent
  4. What are 2 things chatburns classification attempt to accomplish
    • Characteristics like power source
    • Breathing pattern
  5. What is the major source of confusion regarding the different modes of ventilation
    The different names
  6. What another name for the control panel
    User interface
  7. What are 4 power sources for a ventilator
    • Pneumatic
    • Electric
    • Combination
    • Manual
  8. What are the 2 basic types of pneumatically powered vents
    Pneumatic and fluidic
  9. What are 3 types of pressure vents
    • Positive pressure
    • Negative pressure
    • Combined pressure
  10. Give an example of positive pressure vent
    • Pb840
    • Servo I
  11. Give an example of a negative pressure vent
    • Iron lung
    • Chest cuirass
  12. Give an example of a combined pressure vent
    High frequency vents
  13. What type of vent is most common
    Positive pressure
  14. Give an example of a closed loop system
    A robot pouring 1 L into a .75 L container not looking it over flows
  15. How is closed loop different from open loop
    It monitors volume delivered by the ventilator and exhaled by the patient and makes adjustments as needed
  16. What are other terms used to describe closed loop systems
    • Feedback
    • Servo controlled
    • Intelligent system
  17. What is the difference between single and double internal pneumatic circuit
    • Double has 1 gas source that powers the unit and another that goes to the patient
    • Single only has 1 gas source for both unit and patient
  18. What is another name for the external circuit
    • Vent circuit
    • Patient circuit
  19. Why do almost all new vent circuits have an external exhalation valve
    For its low resistance, large diameter and flexible plastic diaphragm
  20. What is the power transmission device for pneumatically powered microprocessor controlled system vents
    Flow control valve
  21. Give an example of Compressor or Blowers
  22. Give an example of Volume-displacement
    Cardiopulmonary venturi
  23. Give an example of Linear-drive piston
    PB 740
  24. Give an example of Rotary, or nonlinear-drive piston
    • Lifecare PLV-100, 102
    • PB Companion 2801
  25. Give an example of Spring-loaded bellows
    Servo 900c
  26. What are the three different types of Flow-controlling valves
    • Proportional solenoid valve
    • Stepper Motors with Valves
    • Digital Valve
  27. Give an example of proportional solenoid Valve
    • Hamilton Galileo
    • Drager Evita XL
    • Marquet Servo i
  28. Give an example of stepper motors with valve
    • Bear 1000
    • Bird 8400
  29. Give an example of digital valve on/off configuration
    Infant Star
  30. Give an example of a Fluidic ventilator, and where they are most often used.
    Biomed MPV 10 most often used in transport vents
  31. Older expiratory valves had what two major problems?
    Increased resistance to gas flow when expiratory flow was high or when the patient coughed into the vent
  32. How is PEEP accomplished by the expiratory valve?
    Flow resistance or threshold resistance
  33. Where is Spring-loaded PEEP valves most commonly used?
    On manual resuscitation bags
  34. What ventilators use electromagnetic expiratory valves?
    • Marquet Servo I
    • Hamilton Veolar Ventilators
  35. What are the two forces available to perform (the) work of breathing?
    • The patients muscles
    • Ventilator
  36. State the equation of motion
    Pmus+Pvent=(V/C)+(Raw x Flow)
  37. Define: mandatory breath
    The ventilator controls the timing/size of the breath
  38. Define: assisted breath
    One or all part of the inspiration is performed by the ventilator
  39. Define: spontaneous breath
    The patient controls the transition from inspiration to expiration
  40. Define: control variable
    Parameter or variable controlled by the ventilator for any given breath
  41. What are the three main control variables:
    • Pressure
    • Volume
    • Flow
  42. What are the other terms for volume-targeted ventilation?
    • Volume Ventilation
    • Volume Control
    • Volume Limited Ventilation
  43. What are the other terms for pressure-targeted ventilation?
    • Pressure Ventilation
    • Pressure controlled Ventilation
    • Pressure limited Ventilation
  44. What are the two parts of the total cycle time (TCT)?
    Inspiration and Expiration
  45. What are the four parts of the mechanical breath?
    • Trigger Variable
    • Breath Delivery (inspiration)
    • Cycle Variable
    • Limit Variable
  46. What does the Trigger Variable do?
    Begins inspiration
  47. If the ventilator is �trigged� by time, what type of breath is being delivered?
  48. What are the two major variables used to trigger (other than time)?
    Pressure and Flow
  49. Describe the three locations for the pressure transducers or sensors so the machine may sense patients� inspiratory effort.
    • Within the internal ventilator circuit near the point where the gas flow leaves
    • Where the expired gas returns to the unit from the patient
    • At the proximal airway
  50. What is another term for the background flow used in flow triggering?
    Base or Bias flow
  51. What machine can use a Neural triggering mechanism, and what is the abbreviation for this system?
    NAVA (servo i)
  52. How were the first positive-pressure volume ventilators classified?
    Based on power source
  53. How many variables can the ventilator control at a time?
  54. If the ventilator is operating in a pressure-controlled manner, are the delivered volumes and flows consistent manner when a patient�s lung characteristics change?
  55. Give two examples of time controlled breaths/modes.
    • High frequency jet ventilation
    • High frequency oscilation
  56. What does ramping mean? Are there another terms used to describe this control?
    Adjusting the slope of the pressure and flow curves at the beginning of inspiration
  57. What are the three variables graphed over time (i.e. scalars)?
    • Pressure
    • Volume
    • Flow
  58. What is the maximum safety pressure usual setting? And what are the common names used for this control?
    • 10 cm H2O
    • Pressure limit, Upper pressure limit, High pressure limit
  59. What is the purpose of Maximum Safety Pressure?
    To prevent excessive pressure form damaging lung tissue
  60. How do newer ICU ventilators prevent excessive airway pressures from developing when a patient coughs?
    The exhalation valve may float
  61. What is the term for the phase that ends the inspiratory phase?
    Cycle variable
  62. What four variables can end the inspiratory phase?
    • Volume Cycling
    • Pressure Cycling
    • Time Cycling
    • Flow Cycling
  63. What is the most frequent form of pressure cycling?
    Occurs when a vent reaches the upper pressure limit set above the peak inspiratory pressure to ventilate the patient
  64. What happens to the ventilator when the inspiratory pause is activated
    Delivery of inspiration the closing of both insp and exp valves for a fraction of a second
  65. What are some other terms used for this control setting
    • Inflation hold
    • Inspiratory plateau
  66. What does the term �tubing compliance factor� describe?
    Volume that can be lost while the circuit expands during inspiration and returns to the NL during exhalation
  67. What is the typical TCF in adult circuits?
    1-3 ml/cmH2O
  68. Which mode of ventilation most often uses flow cycling?
  69. What is the term for the pressure reading at the end of an inspiratory pause?
    Plateau Pressure
  70. How is this pressure reading used to calculate the average alveolar pressure
    C= vol/(plat-peep)
  71. What type of lung-thoracic compliance is calculated at this pressure?
    Static compliance
  72. Why would you extend the Ti out beyond the time needed to deliver the tidal volume?
    To increase MAP and potentially improve patients oxygenation
  73. Finish the sentence: �The expiratory phase is the�.�
    Time between inspiratory time
  74. Finish the sentence: �A zero baseline pressure is�.�
    Equal to atmospheric pressure
  75. Why do we perform the procedure called expiratory hold?
    To estimate the pressure in the patients lung and vent circuit caused by air trapping
  76. What happens if the patient makes an inspiratory effort during the expiratory hold?
    The reading cannot be obtained
  77. Give three interventions to reduce auto-PEEP:
    • Lower Ve
    • Increase Flow
    • Bronchodilators