L&M CH.2

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L&M CH.2
2010-06-24 19:28:15

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  1. Aristotle’s three principles of association were _________, ___________, and _____________.
    contiguity, similarity, contrast
  2. Never tested his theories
    Aristotle’s Three Principles of Associations (Behaviorist)
  3. 5 sec. word association exercises
    Aristotle’s Three Principles of Associations (Behaviorist)
  4. An item often leads to the thought of its opposite
  5. Thought of one concept often leads to the thought of a similar concept
  6. The more closely together in space or time two items occur, the more likely the association
  7. when complex ideas combine
    Duplex ideas
  8. This theory doesn't hold true
    James Mills and Complex Ideas
  9. 2 or more __________are repeatedly presented together, a product of their union may be a ______
    • James Mills
    • simple sensations, complex idea
  10. According to the British Associationists, experience consists of _____________ and memory consists of ______________.
    simple sensations, simple ideas
  11. Learning a poem after repeating it many times illustrates Thomas Brown’s principle of _________.
  12. Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve shows that the rate of forgetting in the first few minutes after studying is ____________ than the rate of forgetting a week later.
  13. Ebbinghaus tested the strength of backward associations by ____________.
    learning a list in one order and later relearning it in reserve order
  14. In communication in between neurons, a chemical transmitter is released by the ___________ of one neuron and received by the ____________ of another neuron.
    axon terminals, dendrites
  15. The “simple cells” in the visual cortex found by Hubel and Wiesel respond specifically to ___________.
    lines of specific orientations
  16. Three main types of changes that can occur in the brain as a result of a learning experience are _________, ____________, and ____________.
    chemical changes, growth of a new synapses, growth of new neurons
  17. 1. Which of the following philosophers is considered to be the first associationist?
    (His birth date is B.C.)
    A. John Locke
    B. Aristotle
    C. Karl Lashley
    D. Thomas Hobbes
  18. The theoretical position that some ideas are innate and do not depend on an individual's past experience is called:
    (Opposite from the notion of blank slate)
  19. According to James Mill (1829), repeated pairings of 2 or more sensations produce:
    (Example: red and rectangular may form new idea called a brick.)
    Complex ideas
  20. Continuing to practice after performance is apparently perfect is called:
    (Associated with Brown's principle of the effects of repetition)
    Over learning
  21. According to Thomas Brown (1820), the frequency of pairings directly affects the strength of an association.
    (Overlearning is an example of this principle)
  22. According to the single neuron doctrine of perception, the visual system is arranged in a hierarchy of increasing complexity, and at the highest level, neurons respond to very specific features of the stimulus.
    (This finding supports Mill's theory of complex ideas.)
  23. In humans, studies have shown that ___ or the branching of dendrites occurs in the first few years of life.
    (Learning can alter brain structure)
  24. The growth of new neurons is called ____.
    (Learning can influence this process)
  25. Hubel and Wiesel found that ______ fire most often when the visual stimulus was a line of specific orientation, presented in a specific part of the visual field.
    (Presentation of stimulus at a 45 degree angle)
    Simple cells
  26. Another name for the philosophical term "blank slate" is ________ .
    (John Locke's reference to the mind of a newborn child)
    Tabula rasa
  27. Which of the following is NOT a factor that can affect the strength of an association according to Thomas Brown?
    A. Financial status
    B. Emotional state
    C. Health of the body
    D. Prior habits
    Financial status
  28. To avoid using stimuli that had preexisting associations, Ebbinghaus invented:
    Nonsense syllables
  29. The term ____ refers to a small gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron.
  30. When Penfield stimulated small areas of the brain in his patients, who were anesthetized but awake, they reported:
    Hearing music, Experiencing the sights of a circus, Vivid sensations
  31. Continuing to practice after performance is apparently perfect.
  32. The vividness of a sensation that affects the strength of an association according to Brown.
  33. The combining of complex ideas from simple sensations.
    Duplex ideas
  34. The decrease in the number of repetitions needed to relearn the list.
  35. The increase in the strength of excitatory synapses as a result of electrical stimulation, and the effects can last for weeks.
    Long-term potentiation
  36. Aristotle’s 3 principles of association were
    contiguity, similarity, and contrast
  37. The British Associationists believed that every person acquires knowledge through
  38. The essences of Mill’s Theory of complex ideas is
    the notion of a hierarchy
  39. After repeated pairings of 2 sensations,
    an association forms between their respective ideas
  40. Thomas Brown (1820) added
    9 more principles of associations
  41. Herman Ebbinghaus (1885) was the first to
    put the associationists’ principles to an experimental test
  42. Neurons are specialized cells which function in
    the transmission of information
  43. The chemical transmitter released into the synaptic cleft causes
    the post synaptic neuron to either fire or not fire
  44. The receptors of the nervous system are
    the only structures which make contact with the external environmental stimuli
  45. Hubel and Wiesel (1965, 1979) found several different types of
    feature detector neurons in the visual cortex that respond to more complex shapes or a line of specific orientation
  46. The 3 main types of changes that can occur in the brain as a result of learning are
    chemical changes, growth of new synapses, and neurogenesis
  47. Thomas Brown's 9 Secondary Principles of Association are:
    • 1) length of time
    • 2) liveliness
    • 3) frequently
    • 4) recently
    • 5) free from strong Association
    • 6) constitutional differences
    • 7) emotional state
    • 8) state of the body
    • 9) prior habits
  48. 2 sensations coexist together the more likely you'll see a relationship (driving to school)
    Length of Time
  49. Intensity to an emotional event (trauma) its more closely related; vividness
  50. 2 sensations have been passed recently
  51. Free from associations (meeting a group of people, remember only uncommon name)
  52. 1st time you meet someone their emotional
    Emotional State
  53. 1st time they're drunk = drunk person from party
    State of the Body
  54. Smells/behaviors associated w/someone
    Prior Habits
  55. sensatios which are not linked to other associations, such as, if you meet someone with an uncommon name you are more likely to remember them.
    Free From Strong Associations
  56. other factors than can affect the strength of an association among different individuals
    Constitutional Differences
  57. who was the 1st to test his theories on himself
  58. avoid stimuli that had pre-esting associations
    • Ebbinghaus,
    • the use of nonsense syllables
  59. nonsense syllables consits of
    2 constraints seperated by a vowel
  60. The decrease in the number of repetitions needed to relearn the list
    The concept of savings
  61. Confirmation of Brown’s Secondary Principles of Association
    Frequency, recently
    Ebbinghaus’s Memory Experiments
  62. Learning theory
    Ebbinghaus’s Memory Experiments
  63. Correlation between list length and study time
    Ebbinghaus’s Major Findings
  64. Repetition strengthens the association
    Ebbinghaus’s Major Findings
  65. over time you know the material better
  66. Rapid is immediate
    • Ebbinghaus’s Major Findings:
    • The Forgetting Curve
  67. The further apart words are the harder it is to learn
    • Ebbinghaus’s Major Findings:
    • Association strength dependent upon proximity
  68. Order still matters b/c of the order you learned it originally = doesn't work
    • Ebbinghaus’s Major Findings:
    • The concept of Backward Association
  69. the longer the list,
    the longer the time necessary to learn it
  70. Nervous system of all creatures are composed of
  71. The neuron consist of
    cell body, dendrite, axon, transmitter, and synapse
  72. branch like structure on the receptive side of neuron; is sensitive to transmitters released by the axon terminals of other neurons
  73. long, branch like part of neuron that transmits electrical pulses when neuron is stimulated; releases chemical transmitters that stimulate the dendrites of other neurons
  74. chemical released into the synapse by the axon terminals of a neuron
  75. small gap b/w the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron into which transmitters are released
  76. specialized cells that transmit information
  77. receptive to chemicals called “transmitters” that are released by other neurons
    Dendrites and cell body
  78. produce excitation or inhibition in the postsynaptic cell
  79. reflects the combined influences of all its excitatory and inhibitory inputs
    neuron’s firing rate
  80. Transmission of information can
    inhibit or excite a response
  81. Specialized neurons designed to break down incoming stimuli into simple sensations
  82. Types of receptors (congruent to the 5 senses
    • o Tactile
    • o Taste
    • o Auditory
    • o Olfactory
    • o Visual
  83. Work of Hubel and Wiesel (1965, 1979)
    Complex Ideas
  84. Simple Cells respond to lines at a 45-degree angles
    • Hubel and Wiesel
    • Feature detectors in visual cortex
  85. Single Neuron Doctrine of Perception
    • Hubel and Wiesel
    • Feature detectors in visual cortex
  86. Chemical Changes: Long-Term Potentiation (Theory)
    • -Increased release of neurotransmitter
    • -Increase strength of excitatory synapses
    • -Implicated in storage of long-term memory
  87. branching of new dendrites
  88. growth of new neurons
  89. most important to learning, where learning occurs
    Cerebral cortex