L&M CH.3

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chuchi
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24097
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L&M CH.3
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2010-06-24 22:12:54
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Mazur
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L&M CH.3 Mazur
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  1. In control systems theory, the comparator compares the ________ and the __________, and if they do not match, the comparator signals the __________.
    actual input, reference input, action system
  2. A kinesis is a ___________ movement in response to a stimulus, and a taxis is a ___________ movement in response to a stimulus.
    random, directional
  3. The main difference between fixed action patterns and reaction chains is that ___________.
    the behavior sequence occurs in a rigid order in fixed action patterns, but it is more flexible in reaction chains
  4. Abilities or behaviors that are found in all known human cultures are called ___________.
    human universals
  5. The second time a stimulus undergoes habituation, the time course of habituation is __________.
    more rapid
  6. More intense stimuli habituate ____________ than weaker stimuli.
    more slowly
  7. In opponent-process theory, with repeated stimulation, the _________ does not change, but the ________ starts earlier, becomes stronger, and lasts longer.
    a-process, b-process
  8. In drug addiction, the b-process appears as ________, whereas in parachute jumping, the b-process appears as ___________.
    cravings and withdrawal symptoms, euphoria
  9. Which of the following refers to a stereotyped pattern of movement of a body part that can be reliably elicited by presenting the appropriate stimulus?
    (Behavior without thinking)
    A. Tolerance
    B. Reflex
    C. Actual point
    D. Tropism
    Reflex
  10. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a fixed action pattern?
    (Not a type of innate behavior)
    A. The animal's ability to perform the behavior is not the result of prior learning.
    B. Only mammals display this type of behavior.
    C. The behavior occurs in a rigid order regardless of the context.
    D. It is part of the behavioral repertories of all members of the species.
    Only mammals display this type of behavior
  11. This pattern of behavior resembles a fixed action pattern, but ethologists call this behavior:
    (The hermit crab is an example of this type of behavior)
    Reaction chains
  12. According to Donald Brown (1991), behaviors that are found in all human culture is referred to as:
    (List of human behavior)
    Human universals
  13. Which of the following is NOT a general principle of habituation?
    (Properties which have been observed in human beings and other animals)
    A. Effects of stimulus intensity
    B. Effects of time
    C. Space effects
    D. Relearning effects
    Space effects
  14. To date, there are no technologies, which allow scientist to identify brain areas that are involved in habituation in humans.
    (Neuropsychological studies often use these techniques)
    False
  15. According to Solomon and Corbit (1974), what underlies an individual's emotional response is called the a-process and b-process.
    (Type of opponent process theory)
    True
  16. The second time a stimulus undergoes habituation, the time course of habituation is less rapid.
    (Repeated presentation accelerates learning)
    False
  17. Scientists who study how animals behave in their natural environment are called ____.
    (They are interested in innate and learned behaviors)
    Ethiologists
  18. The thermostat is an example of a fundamental concept in control systems theory called _____.
    (It receives 2 types of inputs)
    Comparator
  19. The strategy of studying fairly primitive creatures, which have nervous systems that are less complex, is called ________.
    (Dr. Eric Kandel work with Aplysia)
    Simple systems approach
  20. One study using _____ found habituation in many different parts of the brain in humans.
    (Brain imaging technique)
    FMRI
  21. In control systems theory, the product of an action system is called:
    Output
  22. Which of the following is a receptor that serves as the comparators of the feedback system within the muscle?
    A. Skin receptor
    B. Bionic receptor
    C. Retinal receptor
    D. Stretch receptor
    Stretch receptor
  23. ___refers to forced movements that require no intelligence or will on the part of the organism.
    Tropism
  24. A direct neuronal connection that involves just one synapse is called:
    Monosynaptic Connection
  25. A fairly specific stimulus that elicit a fixed action pattern
    sign stimulus
  26. A decrease in the effects of a drug with repeated use
    tolerance
  27. The strategy of studying fairly primitive creatures which have nervous systems that are smaller and less complex than other animals
    simple systems approach
  28. The transfer of habituation from one stimulus to a new but similar stimuli
    generalization
  29. Control system theory has
    6 major concepts (e.g., comparator, reference input, actual input and disturbance), and how it serves as a model for understanding goal-directed behavior
  30. A reflex is a form of
    stereotyped pattern of movement which is supported by the spinal reflex arc via a feedback mechanism
  31. Tropisms are grouped into two major categories:
    Kineses and taxes
  32. A fixed action pattern is
    innate behavior in which movements are performed in an orderly sequence and can be characterized in several ways
  33. Scientists use a number of techniques
    (e.g., FMRI, PET) to support the claim that human beings are born with innate abilities
  34. Habituation has several principles and it is viewed as
    a useful type of learning
  35. Many emotional reactions can be explained via
    the opponent-process theory which state that the initial response is called the a-process and the opposing response which occurs later is called b-process.
  36. A comparison between the actual state of the world and a goal state:
    • Used to explain goal directed behavior:
    • Home heating system
  37. device that compares its goal state (reference input) and the current situation (actual input) and signals the action is necessary if the two are not equal
    Comparator
  38. goal state, not a physical entity but a conceptual one (temp)
    Reference input
  39. current situation, measures some actual physical characteristic of the present environment (air temp in the vicinity)
    Actual input
  40. what the output will be (on/off command of furnace)
    Action system
  41. product of action system (entry of warm air from radiator)
    Output
  42. other factors that can affect the actual input (open window)
    Disturbance
  43. Goal-directed behavior based upon
    feedback system
  44. The role of the comparator-reference and actual input comparisons
    Control Systems Theory
  45. Product of an action system is the
    output
  46. Something that an animal doesn't need to learn to do
    innate
  47. A stimulus elicited response (stereotyped)
    Reflex
  48. Viewed as an example of a feedback system
    Reflex
  49. The role of “stretch receptors” in the reflex feedback system
    (actually moving your hand away)
  50. Involuntary forced movement
    Tropism
  51. Types of tropisms
    • Kineses
    • Taxes
  52. [nothing is guiding it] (random movement) [in relation to stimulus]
    Kineses
  53. (directed movement) [ants use the sun for guidance]
    Taxes
  54. (not learned but innate)
    Complex Behavior: Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)
  55. Part of the repertoire of all members of a species
    Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)
  56. The behavior Pattern is not learned
    Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)
  57. Once it starts, it will continue to completion
    Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)
  58. triggered by sign stimulus
    Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)
  59. FAP
    3 elements
  60. -Part of a representation of all species
    • -Not a result of prior learning
    • -Must occur in a rigid order, once it starts it will continue to completion
  61. Nut-burying behavior of squirrels (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1975)
    FAP
  62. Territorial defense response of male stickleback (Tinbergen, 1951) fish
    FAP
  63. Laying egg behavior of an oyster catcher (bird)
    FAP
  64. They know it's not working for them and walk away
    Reaction chains differ from FAP
  65. If stimulus is not present, sequenced behavior will not occur
    Reaction chains
  66. Hermit Crab
    May stop or skip steps if it's not working for them
    Reaction Chains
  67. More efficient, has more insight
    Reaction Chains
  68. Commonalities: language; children in all cultures babble
    Watson and Pinker’s concept of the blank slate
  69. One of the 1st to oppose Lock's Blank Slate
    Watson and Pinker’s concept of the blank slate
  70. Emotional responses and facial expressions
    Innate Human Abilities and Predispositions
  71. o (400)
    o Abilities or bxs that all found in all human cultures
    Brown’s (1991) list of Human Universals
  72. tool making, scavenge for food, societal rules, dancing, language, death, jokes
    Brown’s (1991) list of Human Universals
  73. (simplest form of learning)
    Habituation
  74. Go back to doing what you were doing before
    • Examples of habituation
    • Orienting responses
  75. Allow the individual to ignore insignificant stimuli that are repeatedly encounter
    Function of habituation
  76. Constant shooting, no response
    Body automatic response
  77. 6 General Principles of Habituation
    • 1) Course of habituation
    • 2) Effects of time
    • 3) Relearning effects
    • 4) Effects of stimulus intensity
    • 5) Effects of overlearning
    • 6) Stimulus generalization
  78. 1st time you hear a gunshot, 10th time decrease toward habituation
    • 6 General Principles of Habituation:
    • Course of habituation
  79. Response will reoccur , the time that it will take you to habituate again (30 min vs. 24 hrs.)
    • 6 General Principles of Habituation:
    • Effects of time
  80. Habituation is quicker, returning; quicker the 2nd time around
    • 6 General Principles of Habituation:
    • Relearning effects
  81. Proceeds rapidly w/intensity
    • 6 General Principles of Habituation:
    • Effects of stimulus intensity
  82. Below zero habituation
    • 6 General Principles of Habituation:
    • Effects of overlearning
  83. Similar stimuli habituation
    • 6 General Principles of Habituation:
    • Stimulus generalization
  84. Subject’s response to a stimulus changes as a result of repeated presentations
    Solomon and Corbit (1974) concept:
  85. Emotional reactions consist of an __________ and a later ____________
    initial response (a-process), later opposing response (b-process)
  86. Time plays a role in the
    • Opponent-Process Theory
    • emotional response
  87. Parachutists: Initial jump vs. later jumps
    Opponent-Process Theory
  88. Initial use vs. multiple use
    • Opponent-Process Theory
    • Addictive behaviors:
  89. A =
    fast acting response
  90. B =
    the body's natural response to regulate it (equilibrium)

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