(7a)A&P Chemistry

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(7a)A&P Chemistry
2013-10-23 12:22:51
7a Chemistry

Chemistry terms
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  1. Anything that takes up space and has mass.
    Determines an object's weight's based on gravitational pull
    Liquids, gases, and solids inside & out of the human body
  2. Fundamental substances that compose matter
    Most living organisms need about 20 to survive
  3. Tiny particles that compose elements
    The smallest complete unit of an element
    Very in size, weight, and interaction
  4. Each atom consist of:
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
    • Electrons
  5. A single, positively charged particles inside the nucleus of an atom
  6. Uncharged or "neutral" particles in the nucleus of an atom
  7. Single, negatively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of an atom
  8. The number of protons in an atom is known as
    Atomic number
  9. The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
    Atomic weight
  10. 1 of 2 or more forms of an element having the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons; they may or may not be radioactive.
  11. Particles made up of two or more joined atoms
  12. MAJOR elements of the human body
    • Oxygen          Phosphorus
    • Carbon          Potassium
    • Hydrogen       Sulfur
    • Nitrogen        Chlorine
    • Calcium         Sodium
    • Magnesium
  13. Atoms that either gain or lose electrons
  14. A chemical bond where oppositely charged ions attract each other
    Ionic bond
  15. Ions with a positive charge
  16. Ions with a negative charge
  17. A chemical bond where atoms complete their outer electron shell by sharing electrons
    Covalent Bonds
  18. Four types of chemical reactions:
    • Synthesis
    • Decomposition
    • Exchange
    • Reversible
  19. What do chemical reactions do?
    Change the bonds between atoms, molecules, and ions to generate new chemical combinaions
  20. Occurs when 2 or more reactants (atoms) bond to form a more complex product or structure.
    Always involves the formation of new chemical bonds
    Important for growth and repair of tissues
    Synthesis Reactions
  21. The formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen molecules is an example of what type of reaction
    Synthesis Reactions
  22. A reaction that occurs when bonds within a reactant molecule break, forming simpler atoms, molecules, or ions.
    Decomposition Reactions
  23. What type of reaction is it when a typical meal contains molecules of sugars, proteins, and fats that are too large and too complex to be absorbed and used by the body.
    Decomposition Reactions
  24. A chemical reaction where parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around to produce new products
    Exchange reactions
  25. A chemical reaction where the products of the reaction can change back into the reactants they originally were
    Reversible Reactions
  26. Chemicals are basically divided into two main categories:
    Organic and Inorganic
  27. Fats, fat-like substances (cholesterol and Phospholipids), and oils that supple energy for food processes and building of certain structures
  28. Substances (including sugars and starches) that provide much of the energy required by the body's cells, as well as helping to build cell structures.
  29. Organic substances include:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  30. The most abundant organic components of the human body, in many ways the most important. Are vital for many body functions, including structures and their function, energy, enzymatic function, defense, and hormonal requirements
  31. Inorganic substances included:
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Compounds (salt & water)
  32. What type of chemical bond allows two atoms to share an electron?
    Covalent bond
  33. A cell of the nervous system; typically consist of a cell body, which contains a nucleus and receives incoming nerve impulses, and an axon, which carries impulses away from the cell body. Also called nerve cell
  34. The long portion of a neuron that conducts impulses away from the body of the cell. Also called nerve fiber.