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Disturbances of an individual's behavioral or psychological function that are not culturally expected and that lead to psychological distress, behavioral disabilities, or impaired overall functioning.
If the behavior rarely occurs in society.
Disability or Dysfunction:
When a behavior (thoughts, emotion, actions) interferes w/ a person's ability to function.
When the person becomes aware that the behavior is indeed a problem, and this causes them to be distressed.
Cultural rules that guide society.
Classifying abnormal Behaviors:
The DSM-IV(TR) categorizes disorder and provides detailed decriptions.
useful for communications among professionals.
*DSM-IV(TR) does NOTexplain causes or provided treatment.
Is a type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear- can be paralyzing & can prevent from functioning in everyday life?
Generalized Anxierty Disorder (GAD):
Person worries excessively about everyday things; there is not one major situation/object. Characterized by a constant state of worry or preoccupation--chronic.
A person suffers sudden, but usually brief attacks of intense apprehension or fear. Symptoms: dizziness, trembling, difficulty breathing, inc in heart rate, fear of dying, etc.
Intense, irrational fear which leads to avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Fear of being negatively evaluated by other, often fear social or performance situations, e.g. going to parties, speaking in front of other, etc.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (ocd)
When a person has intrusive though (obsessions) and urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsions).
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (ptsd):
When a person who has gone through an overwhelming trauma has been maladaptive, severs emotional reactions such as : It exaggerated to startle responses, trouble sleeping, flashback, and nightmares.
The anxiety disorder Results from classical and operant conditioning.
Modeling & Imitation.
Suggest that people who have anxiety disorders:~are genetically predisposed~Have disrupted biochemistry or unusual brain activity.
It says that anxiety disorders are the result of distorted thoughts or beliefs, and these distorted though/beliefs cause a person to magnify the threat or failure.
Characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states.
Major Depressive Disorder:
- * Pervasive feelings of deep sadness
- * Change in sleep patterns
- * Change in appetite
- * Loss of enjoyment
- * Feelings of hopelessness/helplessness
People have depressive episodes, plus periods where they have mania-rapid thoughts high energy, impulsivity and possible delusions of grandeur.
- * disruptions in neurotransmitter (esp. dopamine and serotonin).
- * Brain Function- current research is finding that there are certain parts of the brain that might trigger mood disorder
- .* Genetic predisposition.
It emphasizes disturbed interpersonal relationships, faulty thinking, poor self-concept, and maladaptive learning (e.g. learned helplessness-Seligman).
Seasonal affective disorder (sad)
Asserts that depression is related to season of years.
Severly dpressed people can become hopeless and helpless.