Mental Disorders:

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Mental Disorders:
2009-12-07 00:31:50
Their Nature and Causes 1. Studying Psychological Disorders

Mood Disorders: Causes of Mood Disorders
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  1. Mental Disorders:
    Disturbances of an individual's behavioral or psychological function that are not culturally expected and that lead to psychological distress, behavioral disabilities, or impaired overall functioning.
  2. Statistical Infreguency:
    If the behavior rarely occurs in society.
  3. Disability or Dysfunction:
    When a behavior (thoughts, emotion, actions) interferes w/ a person's ability to function.
  4. Personal Distress:
    When the person becomes aware that the behavior is indeed a problem, and this causes them to be distressed.
  5. Norms:
    Cultural rules that guide society.
  6. Classifying abnormal Behaviors:
    The DSM-IV(TR) categorizes disorder and provides detailed decriptions.

    useful for communications among professionals.

    *DSM-IV(TR) does NOTexplain causes or provided treatment.
  7. Anxiety disorder
    Is a type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear- can be paralyzing & can prevent from functioning in everyday life?
  8. Generalized Anxierty Disorder (GAD):
    Person worries excessively about everyday things; there is not one major situation/object. Characterized by a constant state of worry or preoccupation--chronic.
  9. Panic Disorder:
    A person suffers sudden, but usually brief attacks of intense apprehension or fear. Symptoms: dizziness, trembling, difficulty breathing, inc in heart rate, fear of dying, etc.
  10. Specific Phobia-
    Intense, irrational fear which leads to avoidance of a specific object or situation.
  11. Social Phobia:
    Fear of being negatively evaluated by other, often fear social or performance situations, e.g. going to parties, speaking in front of other, etc.
  12. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (ocd)
    When a person has intrusive though (obsessions) and urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsions).
  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (ptsd):
    When a person who has gone through an overwhelming trauma has been maladaptive, severs emotional reactions such as : It exaggerated to startle responses, trouble sleeping, flashback, and nightmares.
  14. Learning Theory:
    The anxiety disorder Results from classical and operant conditioning.

    Modeling & Imitation.
  15. Biological Theory:
    Suggest that people who have anxiety disorders:~are genetically predisposed~Have disrupted biochemistry or unusual brain activity.
  16. Cognitive Theory:
    It says that anxiety disorders are the result of distorted thoughts or beliefs, and these distorted though/beliefs cause a person to magnify the threat or failure.
  17. Mood Disorders:
    Characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states.
  18. Major Depressive Disorder:
    • Symptoms:
    • * Pervasive feelings of deep sadness
    • * Change in sleep patterns
    • * Change in appetite
    • * Loss of enjoyment
    • * Feelings of hopelessness/helplessness
  19. Bipolar Disorder
    People have depressive episodes, plus periods where they have mania-rapid thoughts high energy, impulsivity and possible delusions of grandeur.
  20. Biological Theory
    • * disruptions in neurotransmitter (esp. dopamine and serotonin).
    • * Brain Function- current research is finding that there are certain parts of the brain that might trigger mood disorder
    • .* Genetic predisposition.
  21. Psychosocail Theory-
    It emphasizes disturbed interpersonal relationships, faulty thinking, poor self-concept, and maladaptive learning (e.g. learned helplessness-Seligman).
  22. Seasonal affective disorder (sad)
    Asserts that depression is related to season of years.
  23. Suicide-
    Severly dpressed people can become hopeless and helpless.