Lab Animal - Mid Term

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Lab Animal - Mid Term
2013-10-20 13:20:09
Lab Animal Vet Tech VTHT 2213

Rodentia biology and husbrandy
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  1. Rodent
    Type of teeth:
    Name for incisors:
    • Order: Rodentia
    • Means: to gnaw
    • Type of teeth: Single pair of upper and lower incisors 
    • Name for incisors: Hipsodontic incisors - open rooted grow continously
  2. 3 Suborders of Rodentia
    • Myomorpha: mouse/rat like
    • Sciurimorpha: Squrrel-like
    • Hystricomorpha: guinea pig-like
  3. What is the is the largest rodent?
    What is the is the smallest rodent?
    • Capybara - 60kg
    • Pygmy jerboa -5 gms
  4. Mouse
    • Order: Rodentia
    • Genus: Mus musculus
  5. Who developed the breeding stocks?
    Original breeding stock by Abbie Lathrop. Then further developed by Clarence Cook Little
  6. 4 reasons why the mouse is so useful in research
    • Small
    • Inexpensive
    • Easily maintained
    • Reproduces quickly
  7. Define Outbred stocks
    List 2 common Mouse outbred stocks
    • Genetically diverse lines that are maintained by a rotational mating scheme to maximize heterozgosity and minimize brother-sister mating
    • CD-1 & Swiss webster
  8. List 4 benefits of using outbred stocks
    • Genetically diverse - Used when genetic diversity doesn't pose a problem or it is desired (Monoclonal antibody production, sentinels)
    • Larger, healtier, immunocompetent
  9. Define inbred strains
    List 2 common Mouse inbred strains
    • Breeding mice that are closely related to produce genetically identical offspring 
    • Balb/C & C57B1/6
  10. List 4 strain-related health issues found in Mouse inbred strains
    • Microphthalmia (C57B1/6) blindness (albino mice)
    • Early onset deafness
    • Mammary tumors
    • Ulcerative dermatitis
  11. What might be a reason to use Mouse inbred strains?
    For controlled studies, studies that need reproducibility of conclusions (Toxicology; Behavioral studies)
  12. 2 examples of immunodeficient mouse strains
    List 2 uses
    What do you need to consider when using these types of animals?
    • nu/nu & SCID (severe combine immunodeficiency)
    • Tumor biology research, immunology studies
    • They require special housing and husbandry procedures.
  13. What is the unique anatomical characteristic of the nude mouse?
    What is the unique anatomical characteristic of the SCID mouse?
    • Athymic (lacks a thymus gland) & Lacks T-cells
    • Lacks B-cells & T-cells
  14. Genetically engineered mice AKA _________
    Characteristics of these mice include
    What are they use for in research?
    Are the inbred or outbred?
    • "Designer mice"
    • transgenics and targeted mutations (knockouts or knockins)
    • Animal models of human diseases (obesity, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, cancer)
    • Always inbred
  15. List 5 mouse physical characteristics
    • Short coat
    • Black, brown, agouti, albino
    • 5 toes w/claws for climbing
    • 5 pairs of mammary glands
    • Whiskers for sensing (thimotaxis)
  16. Mouse
    Adult weight:
    Dental formula:
    • Adult weight: 15-40 gms
    • Lifespan: 1.5 - 3 years
    • Dental formula: 2(I 1/1 C 0/0 PM 0/0 M 3/3)16 - same for rats & hamsters
  17. What is unique about mouse gastrointestinal anatomy?
    Where does hematopoesis occur?
    • Limited ridge (can't vomit) & Large cecum
    • spleen
  18. List 4 characteristics of the mouse reproductive system
    • Bicornuate (2 horn) uterus with 1 cervix
    • Prominant seminal vesicles
    • Female has 10 nipples; males have none
    • Anogenital distance varies between the sexes with male distance > than females
  19. Mouse
    Heart rate:
    Body Temperature:
    Thermoneutral Zone:
    Unacclimated animals die at what temperature?
    • Heart rate: 400-600 bpm
    • Body Temperature: 95-102o F
    • Thermoneutral Zone: 29.6 - 30.5o C (85.28 - 86.9o F)
    • > 89o F
  20. Why do mice have such a narrow thermoneutral zone?
    Poor regulation of body heat - they can't pant, sweat and they overheat easily.
  21. What behavior do mice primarily used to acclimate?
  22. Mouse Reproduction
    Estrus cycle: 
    Mating occurs in ______ cycle 
    Gestation period: 
    Fertile postpartum estrus:
    Litter size:
    Type of breeding:
    • Estrus cycle: 4 days 
    • dark
    • Gestation period: 19-21 days 
    • Fertile postpartum estrus: 14-24 hours following, parturition 
    • Litter size: 6-10
    • Type of breeding: Polyestrus - breed year round
  23. Characteristics of the baby mouse
    Birth weight:
    Fully haired at:
    Eyes open at:
    Weaned at:
    Sexual maturity for females and males
    • Blind and hairless (depends on mom)
    • Birth weight: 1 gm
    • Fully haired at: 10 days
    • Eyes open at: 14 days
    • Weaned at: 21 days
    • 4 weeks (F) 6 weeks (M)
  24. Mouse Nutrition
    Type of eater: 
    Food intake:
    Water intake:
    Special nutritional requirement
    Does not require
    Normal habit of rodents and rabbits
    Type of feed:
    • Ominivorous 
    • Food intake: 1.5 g/10 g BW/day 
    • Water intake: 1.5 mL/10 g BW/day 
    • Linoleic acid essential - Unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid
    • Exogenous vitamin C 
    • Coprophagy (normal in rodents, rabbits) 
    • Nutritionally balanced, pelleted chow
  25. List 10 Mouse behaviors
    • 1. Prey species that exhibit hiding, running away and freezing behavior
    • 2. Social 
    • 3. Nest builders for a) Pup survival; b) Temperature regulation; c) Protection from aggressors
    • 4. Burrowers 
    • 5. Nocturnal
    • 6. Communication through pheromones and ultrasonic vocalization
    • 7. Dominance hierarchies
    • 8. Aggression is Rare towards people but is relatively common Intermale 
    • 9. Grooming 
    • 10. Cannibalism can occur due to maternal stress/disturbance
  26. Brown Rat
    Scientific Name:
    • Scientific Name: Rattus norvegicus
    • Order: Rodentia
    • Genus/species: Mesocricetus auratus
  27. Most commonly used mammal in biomedical research
    Second most commonly used mammal in biomedical research
    Third most commonly used mammal in biomedical research
    • Mouse
    • Brown Rat
    • Syrian Hamster
  28. Brown rats are used in research for
    • Toxicology,
    • physiology
    • drug studies
    • Also many naturally occurring disease models for a) Copenhagen, ACI: prostate cancer; b) Fatty Zucker: Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity; c) SHR (spontaneously hypertensive)
  29. Rats
    List 3 Outbred stocks:
    List 2 Inbred strains:
    List 1 Immunodeficient:
    • Outbred stocks: Wistar, Sprague Dawley, Long-Evans
    • Inbred strains: Fisher 344, Lewis
    • Immunodeficient: Athymic Nude rats
  30. Rat:
    Physical characteristics 
    Adult weight: 
    Heart Rate: 
    Natural life span:
    • White, brown, hooded, with 6 pairs mammary glands
    • Adult weight: 200-400 g 
    • Heart Rate: 200-400 bpm 
    • Natural life span: about 2-5 years
  31. List 4 major differences in Rat anatomy and physiology from a mouse
    • No gall bladder 
    • Bicornuate uterus with two cervixes 
    • Long bones may grow up to one year of age 
    • Thermoneutral zone broader than the mouse
  32. Rat: reproduction and development
    Estrus cycle: 
    Gestation period:
    Litter size:
    • Estrus cycle: 4-5 days 
    • Gestation period: 21-23 days 
    • Fertile: postpartum estrus 
    • Litter size: 8-12
  33. Characteristics of the baby rat:
    Birth weight:
    Fully haired at:
    Eyes open at:
    Weaned at:
    Sexual maturity for females and males
    • Blind, hairless (dependent on mom) 
    • Birth weight: 5 grams
    • Fully haired at: 10 days
    • Eyes open at: 14 days
    • Weaned at: 21 days
    • 4 weeks (F) and 6 weeks (M)
  34. Rat Nutrition
    Type of eater: 
    Food intake:
    Water intake:
    • Type of eater: Omnivores (feed same chow)
    • Food intake:  20-30 g/day 
    • Water intake: 115 mL/kg/day
  35. List 8 Rat behaviors
    • 1. More domesticated than mice 
    • 2. Social 
    • 3. Intraspecies aggression uncommon in lab setting 
    • 4. Aggression toward humans highly strain-dependent 
    • 5. "Gentling" (handled often)
    • 6. Cannibalism rare 
    • 7. Dominance hierarchies 
    • 8. Ultrasonic communication
  36. Syrian Hamsters
    Scientific name:
    • Scientific name: Mesocricetus aureus
    • AKA: golden, "teddy bear" hamsters 
    • Order: Rodentia 
    • Genus: Mesocricetus auratus
  37. How was the Syrian hamster developed?
    What are 4 areas of used in research?
    • Developed from a few animals captured in Syria in the 1930's - A desert rodent
    • Immunology, cancer research, prion research (mad cow disease), dilated cardiomyopathy
  38. Hamster
    List 5 physical characteristics
    • 1. Short, stocky body
    • 2. No tail
    • 3. 4 toes on the front feet, 5 on the back
    • 4. 4 pairs mammary glands
    • 5. Flank glands - secretions used by Males to mark territory & Females are associated with estrus cycle
  39. Hamster
    Adult weight: 
    Heart Rate: 
    Body temperature: 
    Life span:
    • Adult weight: 90-150 grams (females larger)
    • Heart Rate: 250-500 bpm 
    • Respiration: 33-125 bpm (avg 72) 
    • Body temperature: 36.2-37.5o C
    • Life span: 1-3 years
  40. What is an anatomy and physiology characteristic of the Hamsters stomach?
    Two-compartment stomach with the Nonglandular fore stomach similar to rumen (fermentation) - Glandular distal portion
  41. What is a unique characteristic of the cheek pouches of hamsters?
    What are they used fro in research?
    • "immunologically privileged" - Tumors from man not rejected 
    • Used for tumor Implantation & carcinogen studies
  42. What are 2 special considerations when using hamsters in research?
    • Don't place feed in wire bar lids - OK to feed on floor
    • Highly sensitive to many antibiotics - Clostridial enteritis
  43. Hamster Reproduction and Development
    Estrus cycle: 
    Litter Size: 
    Birth weight: 
    Exploratory behavior at: 
    Breed at:
    • Estrus cycle: 4 days - Breed on evening of the 3rd day following appearance of postovulatory vaginal discharge - No fertile postpartum estrus 
    • Gestation: 16-18 days 
    • Litter Size: 4-12 pups 
    • Birth weight: 2-3 grams 
    • Exploratory behavior at: 1 week 
    • Weaning: 25 days 
    • Breed at: 90 days and/or 90 grams
  44. Hamster nutritional requirements
    Type of eater: 
    Daily water requirement: 
    Conserve water by: 
    • Type of eater: Omnivorous 
    • Daily water requirement: 5mL/100g body weight/day 
    • Conserve water by: reduced excretion 
    • Consume: 10-15 g commercial pellet/day 
    • Diet: Nutritionally balanced, pelleted chow - Suitable stand-alone diet for all life stages in mice, rats, hamsters
  45. List 7 Hamster behaviors
    • 1. Solitary 
    • 2. Nocturnal/crepuscular - Most active during dawn and dusk
    • 3. Females larger, more aggressive
    • 4. Wake up cranky
    • 5. Often fight if housed together
    • 6. Escape artists
    • 7. Hibernate in the wild to survive the harsh winter enviornment
  46. Guinea pigs
    Scientific name: 
    • Scientific name: Cavia porcellus 
    • Order: Rodentia 
    • Genus: Cavia
  47. Although guinea pigs are not often used in research they are still used in what 3 types of studies.
    • tuberculosis
    • vitamin C metabolism
    • pregnancy complications
  48. Guinea pig Stocks and Strains
    _________ is most commonly used
    Hairless guinea pigs used in _________.
    Some _______ available, but not common
    • Outbred (Hartley) stock
    • plastic surgery studies (tattoo removal)
    • inbred strains
  49. List 8 Guinea pig physical characteristics/A&P
    • Stocky body, short legs, short tail
    • Don't jump; poor climbers 
    • 4 toes on front feet, 3 on back
    • 1 pair mammary glands
    • Large adrenal glands
  50. Guinea Pig Dental Formula
    2 (I 1/1, C 0/0, PM 1/1, M 3/3)20
  51. Guinea Pig Adult weight: 
    Birth weight: 
    Natural life span: 
    Heart Rate: 
    Respiration Rate: 
    Body temperature:
    • Adult weight: 750-1000 g (700-1200 g)
    • Birth weight: 60-100 g 
    • Natural life span: 3-5 years 
    • Heart Rate: 240-300 bpm (240-350 bpm) 
    • Respiration Rate: 40-150 bpm 
    • Body temperature: 99-103o F
  52. Guinea pig Reproduction
    Sexually mature at: 
    Gestation period: 
    Pups characteristics: 
    Birth weight: 
    Litter Size: 
    Weaning age: 
    Common complications:
    • Sexually mature at: 4-6 weeks
    • Gestation period: 59-72 days; 
    • Pups characteristics: large, haired, mobile 
    • Birth weight: 70-100g 
    • Litter Size: 2-5 
    • Weaning age: 21 days 
    • Common complications: Dystocia, hypocalcemia, uterine prolapse
  53. Guinea pig Nutritional Requirements
    Type of eater: 
    Food intake: 
    Water intake: 
    Special nutritional requirements:
    • Type of eater: Herbivores and cecal fermenters - Coprophagy for Vit B and K - Grass is primary constituent of natural diet 
    • Food intake: 6 grams feed/100 g body weight/day 
    • Water intake: 10 mL/100g body weight/day 
    • Special nutritional requirements: Only laboratory animal (other than primates) that require Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) because they are unable to synthesize it
  54. List 5 Complications associated with Guinea pigs becoming Vitamin C deficient
    • Defective collagen 
    • Stunted growth 
    • Bleeding 
    • Delayed wound healing
    • Impaired tooth and bone formation
  55. List 6 Guinea pig behaviors
    • 1. Very social- always house together if possible
    • 2. Thigmotactic (feels way around cage)
    • 3. Not aggressive with people
    • 4. Will bite one another, chew off ear tags
    • 5. "stampeding" behavior - Haphazard running to confuse predators/aggressors
    • 6. Messy eaters - tend to stuff bedding into sipper tubes
  56. What are 4 Rodent husbandry considerations?
    • Housing 
    • Food 
    • Water 
    • Sanitation
  57. Describe the housing
    • Shoebox caging using Mouse micro isolator cages with filter in tops that excludes pathogens, traps moisture and gases. The caging is made up of polycarbonate material (strongest, most expensive) 
    • The shoebox caging is stored on Rack systems that are Flat shelves and ventilated. Ventilated systems help to keep the cages dry and allows for longer intervals between change outs. Ventilated systems can be used with water bottles or auto water systems
  58. Water and water delivery
    What type of water is used?
    What are 4 types of water treatments that are used?
    3 Methods for Water delivery
    • Municipal (tap) water
    • 1) R/O (reverse osmosis) 2) Autoclaving; 3) Acidification 4) Hyperchlorination
    • 1) Automatic water delivery systems; 2) Water bottles which are labor intensive and have ergonomic issues; 3) Sipper sacks
  59. What special considerations must be made when choosing Bedding?
    List 4 types of bedding
    • Must be soft, absorbent, no aromatic oils, safe if ingested
    • Corncob; Cellulose products; Wood pulp and wood chips
  60. Environmental parameters
    Light cycle: 
    Light intensity: 
    Air changes per hour(room): 
    • Light cycle: 12:12 typical; may be 14:10 in breeding rooms 
    • Light intensity: 30 foot candles 1 meter from floor in center of room 
    • Temperature: 64-79o F 
    • Air changes per hour(room): 10-15 
    • Humidity: 30-70%
  61. 4 Common husbandry and environmental
    • 1. Overcrowding - Breeding cages not separated at weaning
    • 2. Fight wounds - Switching mice between cages & overcrowding
    • 3. Wet cages due to a leaky bottle, animals playing with drinking valves or diabetic animals
    • 4. "lost" litters, pregnancy failures related to implantation failure due to noise/vibration or cannibalism due to stress (any reason)
  62. What are steps you can take in the following husbandry and environmental problems
    Poor breeding performance:
    Ammonia odor in room:
    Thin, hunched posture:
    • Poor breeding performance: Check light cycle 
    • Ammonia odor in room: Time for a change-out? - Check air balance, number air change-outs/hour
    • Thin, hunched posture: - Check environment - Check water supply - Check teeth
  63. What is the definition of euthanasia?
    The act of inducing a painless death
  64. What is the 11 Criteria to consider when euthanizing?
    • 1. Painless method
    • 2. Time it takes to produce unconsciousness
    • 3. Time until death is accomplished
    • 4. Reliability of method
    • 5. Repeatability of method
    • 6. Personnel safety
    • 7. Stress on animal
    • 8. Non-reversibility
    • 9. Compatible with scientific protocol
    • 10. Aesthetically acceptable
    • 11. Drug availability and abuse potential 
  65. What are 3 methods for minimizing fear and apprehension?
    • 1. Use gentle restraint and handling 
    • 2. Use tranquilizers or sedatives
    • 3. Prevent conscious animals from observing the euthanasia of others, especially their own species
  66. What are the 3 modes of actions of euthanasia methods?
    • Hypoxemia of brain tissues
    • Depression of vital brain centers
    • Physical damage to brain tissue
  67. List 2 different types of Inhalation agents that are used as the method of euthanasia
    • 1. Inhalant anesthetics (Agents -halothane, isoflurane) 
    • 2. Carbon dioxide
  68. Describe the process of using Inhalation anesthesia.
    Place the animal in a closed container containing cotton or gauze soaked with agent; vapors are inhaled, animal becomes deeply anesthetized, respiration ceases and animal expires. Do not allow animal to come into contact with agent or allow air to circulate in the container. Not commonly used as a stand alone method. May be used to anesthetize an animal before a secondary method is used.
  69. What are 3 Advantages and 3 Disadvantages to using Inhalation Agents?
    • Advantages 1) Good for small animals or for animals that are hard to restrain; 2) Many clinics have anesthesia machines; 3) Most agents are nonflammable and non-explosive
    • Disadvantages 1) Some struggling and anxiety may occur; 2) Cannot be used without good ventilation or an anesthetic machine; 3) May require a secondary method
  70. Inhalant anesthetic is recommended for what animals?
    Small animals that are hard to restrain and birds - most likely will just anesthetize the animal and then inject with a barbiturate or exsanguinate
  71. Describe the process of using Carbon dioxide for eusthansia
    Place animal in chamber filled with CO2. Animal loses consciousness due to anesthetizing effect of CO2, then asphyxiates. This method is commonly used for rodents in research. A secondary method must be used, such as tissue removal or exsanguination
  72. What are 3 Advantages and 1 Disadvantage to using Carbon dioxide
    • Advantages - Inexpensive, nonflammable, non-explosive
    • Disadvantages - Cannot be used on neonatal animals
  73. Carbon dioxide is recommended for what animals?
    Good for small laboratory animals, except neonates or very young animals
  74. What are 2 types of Injectible agents used for euthanasia?
    • Barbiturates
    • Potassium chloride
  75. List 2 agents used with barbiturate euthanasia and describe the method/process.
    • Pentobarbital, thiopental
    • Method-intravenous in most animals, or other routes if animal is already unconscious. Pentobarbital overdose can be given IP to rodents. Thiopental must be given IV.
  76. What are 2 Advantages and 4 Disadvantages to using Barbiturates?
    • Advantages - Fast and Minimal discomfort to the animal in most cases
    • Disadvantages - 1) Necessitates trained personnel to restrain animal and give injection; 2) Regulated-must have DEA number; 3) Terminal gasp is aesthetically objectionable; 4) Excitability is occasionally possible as animal passes through stages of anesthesia
  77. Barbiturates are recommended for what animals?
    • Preferred method for dogs, cats and many other small animals, can be used in large animals
    • IP injection of pentobarbital is acceptable in rodents 
    • Apprehensive animals may require pre-tranquilization with Valium, acepromazine or other sedatives
  78. List the agent used with Potassium chloride euthanasia and describe the method/process.
    • Agent-Supersaturated solution of potassium chloride (KCI) 
    • Method-Given IV only in DEEPLY anesthetized animals. Too much KCI added to IV fluids could also harm the animal-be careful if you're adding this to IV fluids!
  79. What are 3 Advantages and 2 Disadvantages to using Potassium Chloride?
    • Advantages - Inexpensive; Fast; and Non-regulated 
    • Disadvantages - Animal must be anesthetized; and Painful if animal is not deeply anesthetized
  80. Which method is used mainly in research. Could be an alternative to other injectable
    drugs if animal is already anesthetized. 
    Potassium chloride
  81. List the agent/device used with physical method of euthanasia and describe the method and action of the process.
    • Captive bolt pistol 
    • Method - Animal is restrained. Pistol is placed between the eyes and perpendicular to the skull and then discharged.
    • Action - The bolt penetrates the skull and significantly damages the brain to cause unconsciousness.
  82. What is an Advantage and 2 Disadvantages to using Captive bolt pistol?
    • Advantages - Humane method for large animals that cannot be euthanized with drugs if used correctly
    • Disadvantages - Aesthetically displeasing and Death may not occur
  83. Captive bolt pistol is recommended for what animals?
    Acceptable for large animals when chemical agents cannot be used, as long as it is followed by exsanguination or transection of spinal cord at base of brain to ensure death.
  84. List 3 secondary methods to ensure death in euthanasia.
    • Cervical dislocation
    • Exsanguination 
    • Rapid freezing
  85. Describe the Cervical dislocation Method of euthanisia
    Method - Place thumb and index finger on either side of the neck at the base of the skull. With the other hand, the base of the tail is quickly pulled to separate the neck vertebrae.
  86. Cervical dislocation is recommended for what animals?
    • Must be done in anesthetized animals.  
    • Considered appropriate for small birds, mice and rats under 200 grams; and rabbits under 1 kg
  87. Describe the Exsanguination Method of euthanisia
    Method - Remove 75% of the blood volume after the animal has been anesthetized
  88. Exsanguination is recommended for what animals?
    Can be used in all anesthetized animals to ensure death. In research, is used when large volumes of blood are needed or when tissues must be used for histopathology or other tests.
  89. Rapid freezing
    Describe the Method - 
    It is recommended for use in what animals?  
    • Method - liquid nitrogen is used to freeze brain tissues
    • Used in research when brain biochemistry is important for the study
  90. What precautions should you take if you have allergies to rodents?
    • Wear PPE (personal protective equipment) consisting of mask, gloves and gown
    • Discard PPE when finished and wash hands well
    • Leave room if necessary
  91. ____________ was the first mammal to be used in research
    Rattus norvegicus, the Norway rat,
  92. ______________________ is the most frequently used animal in biomedical research 
    Mus musculus, the house mouse of N. America and Europe 
  93. When and for what animal(s) can you use the tail hold?
    Describe this method of handling
    What can happen with incorrect handling?
    • Short term handling only for the mouse and rat
    • grasp tail at the base (fat part) not the tip
    • Grasping tail tip may cause the skin to "slough" off
  94. Describe the Scruff hold and indicate what animal this technique is used for.
    • Used for: mouse - Provides greater restraint 
    • Start with tail hold, place mouse on surface it can grip. Continue to hold tail, then grasp the loose skin at the back of the neck (the "scruff'). Grasp the skin close to the head to prevent bites. Hold tail between 4th and 5th fingers to steady mouse
  95. Describe the Body hold and indicate what animal this technique is used for.
    • Used for: rat - Provides better restraint of rat
    • Place hand over rat's body. Restrain head with first and second fingers. Place thumb and third finger behind front legs. For aggressive rats, wear leather or mail gloves
  96. What type of restraint device could you use that allows access to tail, other areas for injections, drawing blood?
    Plexiglas restrainer - tail, other areas for injections, drawing blood
  97. What is the name of the Plastic "baggie" used to place rodent inside that leaves the tail free for injections or you can inject IP/IM through baggie
  98. What restraint device is useful when taking blood sample from saphenous vein in mice?
    What precaution do you need to take when using this device?
    • Centrifuge tubes
    • Cut hole in end for air
  99. What are 3 pros and 4 Cons to anesthetize a rodent for procedures
    • Pros: 1. No movement; 2. Good access anywhere on body; 3. Short or long periods
    • Cons: 1. Must monitor anesthetic depth; 2. Vaporizers are expensive; 3. Chemical anesthetics - need DEA number; 4. Anesthetics may cause vasoconstriction
  100. List 2 animals identification methods
    • Cage ID
    • Individual ID
  101. What information must be on cage ID card?
    Should list investigator's name, species, strain, vendor, age, sex, arrival date
  102. What are 6 types of individual IDs that may be used in research?
    • Ear tags
    • Ear punches 
    • Tail tattoos 
    • Toe amputation (hairless neonates only) 
    • Nontoxic dyes 
    • Shave patterns into fur
  103. Indicate the size of the Oral gavage Needle:
    • Mice: 20 gauge, 1 ½ inch
    • Rats: 18 gauge, 3 inch
  104. Describe the procedure for oral gavage
    Restrain animal and measure distance from mouth to last rib with feeding needle. Note how far you have to pass needle to be in stomach Place gavage needle in mouth and pass it down esophagus by sliding it along roof of mouth.  Animal should swallow as needle passes. At correct depth, give fluid.  Monitor for signs of discomfort, difficulty breathing, abnormal behavior
  105. What are 2 methods for giving oral medications?
    • Some antibiotics or pain medications can be placed in the animal's water bottle
    • A sweet flavored antibiotic can be given by dropper into the back of the mouth
  106. List 4 types of injections used in research
    • Subcutaneous (SC or SQ) injections
    • Intraperitoneal (IP) injections
    • Tail vein (IV) injections 
    • Intramuscular (lM) injections
  107. Subcutaneous Injections - Needle Size:
    • mice: 25-27 gauge, ½ - ¾ inch
    • rats: 22-25 gauge, ½ - ¾ inch
  108. Describe the process for giving injections SQ
    • Restrain rodent against table or in restrainer
    • Insert needle under skin of scruff and advance
    • Aspirate to ensure needle is not in a blood vessel
    • Inject fluids 
  109. How much fluid can be given via SQ injection to a mouse and a rat?
    up to 2-3 mLs (mouse), 10 mLs (rat)
  110. Intraperitoneal Injections 
    Needle size:
    • mice: 25-27 gauge, ½ - ¾ inch
    • rats: 22-25 gauge, ½ - 1 inch
  111. Describe how to administer an IP injection
    • Restrain rodent's body with head lower than body - This allows abdominal organs to move
    • away from injection site
    • Enter abdomen in lower left quadrant
    • Aspirate to ensure proper needle placement. If aspiration is ok, give fluid
    • Monitor animal afterwards for signs of pain, labored breathing, abnormal behavior
  112. How much fluid can be given via IP injection to a mouse and a rat?
    up to 2 mls (mice); 10 mls (rats)
  113. Tail Vein Injections - Needle Size:
    • Mice: 25-27 gauge, ½ inch
    • Rats: 22-25 gauge, ½ inch
  114. Describe how to administer Tail Vein Injections
    • Restrain rodent (restrainer or anesthesia)
    • Vasodilate tail via Heating lamp, heating pad, warm water, hair dryer
    • Grasp tail, rotate slightly to see veins and choose injection site a little over half way down the tail
    • Insert needle through skin with the bevel up
    • Usually cannot check for placement by aspirating 
    • Inject fluid and check for clearing of vein
    • If SQ lump forms, you are not in vein - Withdraw needle, try again closer to body
  115. How much fluid can be given via Tail Vein injection to a mouse and a rat?
    up to 0.2 mls (mice); 0.5 mls (rats) 
  116. Which type of injection is not recommended in a mouse?
    Intramuscular Injections
  117. Intramuscular Injections -
    Needle size for rats: 
    How do you restrain?
    Where do you inject fluid?
    How much fluid can you give?
    • Needle: rat: 25 gauge, ½ inch 
    • Restrain rat: hand-held, restrainer, anesthesia
    • Inject fluid into posterior (caudal) thigh muscles 
    • Can give up to 0.3 mls (rats)
  118. Blood Collection - Blood volume
    • Mouse: 70-80 ml/kg or approx. 5.5% of body weight 
    • Rat: 50-65 ml/kg or 6-7% of body weight 
  119. 5 locations for blood collection 
    • Lateral tail vein 
    • Ventral tail artery 
    • Saphenous vein 
    • Retro-orbital venous sinus 
    • Cardiac puncture
  120. Describe the procedure for collecting blood from the Lateral Tail Vein for a mouse.
    • Vasodilate tail vessels 
    • Restrain mouse so that vein is visible
    • Use a scalpel blade to nick the skin and pierce the vein
    • Collect blood as droplet wells up in Microtainer or capillary tube
    • When finished, hold pressure on site or cauterize
    • Can obtain up to 0.2 mls of blood
  121. Describe the procedure for collecting blood from the Lateral Tail Vein for a rat.
    • Vasodilate tail vessels 
    • Restrain rat so that vein is visible
    • Use a 25 gauge needle on a 1 cc syringe to withdraw blood
    • Alternatively, place a 25 gauge needle in vein without syringe and collect blood in capillary tube
  122. Describe the procedure for collecting blood from the Ventral Tail Artery for a mouse or rat.
    • Vasodilate tail vessels 
    • Restrain animal and lift tail - Artery runs on the ventral side
    • Use a scalpel blade to nick the skin and pierce the vessel and collect blood as the droplet wells up in a Microtainer or capillary tube
    • Can also use a 25 gauge and 1 cc syringe to withdraw blood in rats
  123. How much blood can you obtain from the Ventral Tail Artery from a mouse and rat?
    up to 0.4 mls (mice); 1.0 ml (rats)
  124. Describe the procedure for collecting blood from the Saphenous Artery for a mouse
    • Vasodilate the animal with a heating lamp/pad
    • Restrain mouse in centrifuge tube
    • Can use Isoflurane anesthesia for rat
    • Use clippers to shave fur over site on rear leg
    • Place small amount petroleum jelly on site
    • Use a 20-22 gauge needle to pierce the skin and nick the vessel
    • Collect the blood as a droplet wells using a Microtainer or capillary tube
    • When finished, hold pressure on the site or cauterize
    • Monitor for further bleeding from site
  125. Describe the procedure for collecting blood from the Retro-orbital Venus Sinus
    • The animal MUST be anesthetized 
    • Use a capillary tube or Pasteur pipette to place pressure on the conjunctiva at the medial canthus (inner comer) of the eye 
    • Twist slightly until the tube pops into the venous sinus
    • Place a gauze pad over eye, closing eyelids and use gentle pressure to prevent hematomas
  126. How much blood can you obtain from the Retro-orbital Venus Sinus from a mouse and rat?
    • 0.2 mls (mice) 
    • 0.5 mls (rats)
  127. Describe the procedure for collecting blood via a Cardiac Punture
    • Animal MUST be anesthetized
    • After anesthetized place animal on its back 
    • Insert the needle (22 gauge, 1 inch) under the xiphoid cartilage at a 30o angle
    • Aspirate slowly as needle is advanced slightly until blood enters syringe 
    • Can also approach from behind left foreleg with animal lying on its right side
  128. What animals would you use the cardiac Puncture method of blood collection?
    Recommend that this be used as a terminal procedure only
  129. How much blood can you obtain from the Cardiac Puncture from a mouse and rat?
    up to 1.0 ml (mice); 6 mls or more(rats)
  130. What are the steps for an experimental study?
    • 1. Identify the problem
    • 2. Review peer literature, interview experts in field and obtain other information on your subject through literary search.
    • 3. Determine the system or model to be used in experimental study.
    • 4. Create a clear and concise hypothesis
    • 5. Test theory using step by step schedules, baselines, control groups and experimental treatment groups
    • 6. Record the findings
    • 7. Analyze and document the results
    • 8. Report findings
  131. What is a hypothesis?
    An educated theory on the outcome of the experiment.
  132. What are some concerns that should be addressed in your experimental proposal?
    • Safety concerns and how to minimize them
    • Describe any animal manipulations and methods for minimizing adverse effects on animals
    • Make sure all personnel are properly trained on seaftey precautions, handling and accessing the animals welfare (eating, drinking, activity)
  133. Who must you submit a proposal for research experiment to?
    • To funding agency
    • To safety committee 
    • To institutional animal care and use committee 
  134. Animal Research is Governed by 
    • Federal government 
    • State and local governments 
    • Institutional regulations and policies
  135. Define the following terms and give an example of each
    • Epizootic: Acute outbreak; usually associated with clinical signs. Example - Mouse Pox virus 
    • Enzootic: Disease exists within the colony but usually at a subclinical level. Example - Mouse Parvo virus 
    • Fomite: an inanimate object that transmits a disease agent. Examples - bedding, gloves, instruments 
    • Vector: a living thing that transmits a disease agent. Example - mosquitoes and Heartworm disease 
  136. Define burn out
    to stop breeding and introductions of new animals while allowing a colony to be infected by, and recover from, a disease agent. Results in immunity of resident animals and stops transmission to new inhabitants. Example - Mouse Hepatitis Virus 
  137. List 5 Viral diseases of mice
    • Mouse hepatitis virus
    • Mouse Parvovirus/Minute virus of mice
    • Epizootic diarrhea of infant mice
    • Ectromelia virus
    • Sendal virus
  138. Immunodeficient mice with clinical signs of hunched posture, failure to thrive and progressive wasting (nude mice) are signs of what disease of mice?
    Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV)(Corona Virus)
  139. What are 6 ways the Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV)(Corona virus) is transmitted?
    Fecal-oral, aerosol, direct contact, vertical, fomites, and Biologic products
  140. What is the treatment for Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) (Corona Virus)?
    None. Virus eventually clears itself. May consider burn-out
  141. What are the 3 ways the Mouse parvovirus/minute virus of mice is transmitted?
    • Fomites: resistant to disinfection 
    • Direct contact with feces or urine
    • Biological products
  142. What is the treatment of Mouse parvovirus/minute virus of mice?
    • None. Some strains clear the virus; in others can persist for months
    • Once established in a colony, cannot be eliminated (no burn-out)
  143. What disease is characterized by clinical signs of diarrhea, wasting and death in unweaned mice?
    Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice - EDIM (Rotavirus)
  144. What are 2 methods of transmission for Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice - EDIM?
    Fecal-oral; fomites
  145. What is the effect of Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice on research?
    Stunted growth; animal losses 
  146. What is the treatment of Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice?
    • Acute, self-limiting;
    • older mice resistant and can be carriers.
    • Supportive care of affected infants
  147. What disease is characterized by clinical signs of severe pneumonia in DBA mice?
    Sendai Virus
  148. What are the methods of transmission for Sendai Virus in mice?
    • Respiratory 
    • Direct contact/fomites
  149. What is the effect of Sendai Virus on research mice?
    Effects on immune system; death of susceptible mice
  150. What disease in mice is characterized by clinical signs of typical pox lesions, loss of extremities, death that can destroy a colony of mice?
    Ectromelia (Pox virus)
  151. Which mice are resistent and which are susceptible to Ectromelia (Pox virus)?
    • C57BL/6 more resrstant
    • C3H and BALB/c susceptible
  152. What are the methods of transmission for Ectromelia (Pox virus) in mice?
    • Biological products- most common vector today 
    • Fecal/oral
    • Direct contact, fomites
  153. What prevents the transmission of Ectromelia in mice?
    Microisolator caging prevents mouse-to-mouse transmission.
  154. What is the treatment for Ectromelia in mice?
    None. Cull affected mice
  155. List 4 mouse bacterial diseases
    • Helicobacter
    • Corynebacterium bovis
    • Staphylococcal diseases
    • Citrobacter rodentium
  156. What disease in mice may be characterized by clinical signs of rectal prolapse in susceptible strains?
    Helicobacter spp.
  157. How is Helicobacter transmitted in mice?
  158. What is the treatment of Helicobacter in mice?
    • Medicated food 
    • Metronidazole/amoxicillin
  159. What disease in mice is characterized by clinical signs of Scaly, flaky, thickened skin in nude mice, hyperkeratosis, Not pruritic? Severe cases of this disease may lead to dehydration.
    Corynebacterium bovis
  160. How is Corynebacterium bovis transmitted in mice?
    Direct contact
  161. What is the effect of Corynebacterium bovis on mice research?
    • Effects immune system 
    • Persistent Infection
  162. What is the treatment for Corynebacterium bovis in mice?
    Supportive care
  163. What disease in mice is characterized by clinical signs of Furunculosis: subcutaneous lumps and bumps (abscesses) and Dermatitis?
  164. How is Staphylococcus transmitted in mice?
    • Part of normal flora
    • Inoculation from direct contact/fomites/grooming/bite wounds
  165. What disease is generally transmitted from people to animals?
  166. What is the treatment for Staphylococcus in mice?
    Antibiotics (Baytril, sulfa drugs, others)
  167. What disease in mice is characterized by clinical signs of Diarrhea, rectal prolapse in recently weaned mice?
    Citrobacter rodentium
  168. What is the effect of Citrobacter rodentium on mice research?
    Stunted growth
  169. What is the treatment for Citrobacter rodentium in mice?
  170. List 2 parasitic disease of mice
    • Pinworms
    • Fur mites
  171. List the Genus and species of 2 mice pinworms
    • Syphacia obvelata
    • Aspicularis tetraptera
  172. List the Genus and species of 3 mice fur mites
    • Myobia musculi
    • Mycoptes musculinus 
    • Radfordia affinis
  173. How are pinworms (S. obvelata, A. tetraptera) in mice transmitted?
    • Fecal-oral, direct contact
    • Fomites: eggs resistant to disinfection; lightweight; sticky
  174. What is the treatment for pinworms (S. obvelata, A. tetraptera) in mice?
    • Fenbendazole medicated feed 
    • Quarantinel
  175. What disease is characterized by clinical signs of Pruritis and hair loss - Only in haired mice?
    Fur mites (Myobia musculi, Mycoptes musculinus, Radfordia affinis)
  176. How is Fur mites (Myobia musculi, Mycoptes musculinus, Radfordia affinis) in mice transmitted?
    Direct contact
  177. What is the treatment for mice Fur mites (Myobia musculi, Mycoptes musculinus, Radfordia affinis)?
    lvermectin, selamectin, moxidectin
  178. What are 4 common miscellaneous diseases and conditions of mice?
    • Malocclusion 
    • Fight wounds 
    • "B6 dermatitis" 
    • Barbering
  179. What condition in mice is characterized by clinical signs of weanlings that are smaller than littermates and have hunched posture?
  180. What is the treatment for Malocclusion in mice?
    Clip teeth every 2-4 weeks; initial support with moistened pellets, gel pack
  181. Which mice are more prone to cause fight wounds?
    • Mostly males but girls do it too
    • Some strains (FVB, Balb/C) worse
  182. What is the effect of mice fight wounds on research?
    Secondary skin infections, chronic stress can invalidate research
  183. What is the treatment for mice fight wounds?
    • Minor wounds: enrichment. monitor
    • More serious: separate aggressor,
    • antibiotic treatment of victims
  184. "B6 dermatitis" is an Ulcerative dermatitis of what mice?
    C57BI/6 mice and GEM on B6 backgrounds
  185. What disease in mice is characterized by clinical signs of Pruritis, ulceration, discomfort? It may be complicated by secondary Staph infections
    "B6 dermatitis"
  186. What is the effect of "B6 dermatitis" on research?
    Alters immune responses; severely affected mice must be euthanized
  187. What is the treatment for "B6 dermatitis" in mice?
    • No treatment 100 successful 
    • Antibiotics 
    • Topical steroid ointments 
    • Vitamin E
  188. Barbaring is considered a ______ and is not life threatening.
    Who typically exhibits this behavior?
    What is the treatment?
    • Vice
    • Females
    • Try enrichment devices
  189. List 4 Infectious Diseases of Rats
    • Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV)
    • Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis
    • Pneumocystis carinii
    • Pinworms: Syphacia muris
    • Furmites: Radfordia ensifera; Ornithonyssus bacoti
  190. What disease in rats is characterized by clinical signs of Swelling of salivary glands, Reddish oculonasal discharge (porphyrin) and sneezing?
    Sialodacryoadenitis virus - SDAV (Rat Corona Virus)
  191. How is Sialodacryoadenitis virus - SDAV (Rat Corona Virus) transmitted?
    Aerosol, direct contact, fomites
  192. What is the treatment for Sialodacryoadenitis virus - SDAV (Rat Corona Virus)?
    • None. Supportive care
    • Becomes enzootic if burnout procedures aren't used
  193. What disease is characterized by clinical signs of respiratory signs, pneumonia, ear infections. It is a Chronic progressive disease in old rats .
    Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM)
  194. How is Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis in rats transmitted?
    • Direct contact, aerosols
    • Biological products
  195. What is the treatment for Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis in rats?
    • Tetracyclines suppress disease
    • Carrier state is common
  196. What disease in rats is characterized by clinical signs of Pneumonia in immunosuppressed animal - otherwise it is usually subclinical?
    Pneumocystis carinii
  197. What is a zoonotic disease of rats?
    Ornithonyssus bacoti: Tropical rat mite
  198. What disease is characterized by clinical signs of papular rash and pruritis in humans with similiar symptoms in rats?
    Ornithonyssus bacoti: Tropical rat mite
  199. How is Ornithonyssus bacoti: Tropical rat mite transmitted?
    • Direct contact
    • Environmental- hides in cracks and comes out to feed
  200. What is the treatment for Ornithonyssus bacoti: Tropical rat mite
    Permethrins (apply to nestlets and place in cage)
  201. List 4 Diseases of Hamsters
    • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
    • Lawsonia intracellularis
    • Pinworms: Syphacia spp.
    • Mange: Denodex criceti; Demodex aurati
  202. What is a zoonotic disease related to pet hamsters that can result in meningitis?
    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.
  203. How is Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in Hamsters transmitted?
    • Horizontal (shed in urine and saliva) and vertical
    • Rare in research animals but can be transmitted via biologicals and feral rodents
  204. What is the treatment for Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in Hamsters?
    None. Euthanize due to risk of human transmission.
  205. What disease in hamsters is characterized by clinical signs of a wet tail with moist feces stain the tail base. This disease is generally secondary to stress.
    Lawsonia intracellularis
  206. What disease can infect both hamsters and mice where they swap the infections back and forth?
  207. List 4 Diseases of Guinea Pigs
    • Pneumonia - Bordetella pneumonia & Streptococcal pneumonia
    • Chlamydial conjuctivitis
    • Cervical lymphadenitis
    • Mange: Trixacarus caviae
  208. What disease in Guinea Pigs is characterized by clinical signs of either Subclinical or fulminant pneumonia and death?
    Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia
  209. How is Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in Guinea Pigs transmitted?
    Contact, aerosols, fomites
  210. What is the treatment for Guinea Pigs with Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia?
    What are prevention measures that can be used?
    • Enrofloxacin, chlormaphenicol, sulfa drugs
    • Don't house guinea pigs and rabbits together because rabbits are often asymptomatic carriers
  211. Who are the carriers of Streptococcus pneumoniae?
    Rats and people
  212. What disease is characterized by clinical signs of Conjunctivitis in young (3 week old)
    Guniea Pigs?
    Chlamydial conjuctivitis (Chlamydia psittici)
  213. How is Chlamydial conjuctivitis (Chlamydia psittici) in Guinea Pigs transmitted?
    Contact with carrier animals (mom). Enzootic in some colonies.
  214. Is Chlamydial conjuctivitis (Chlamydia psittici) in Guinea Pigs zoonotic?
    Maybe but it is questionable that it is passed from Human to Guinea Pig
  215. What disease is characterized in Guniea Pigs by clinical signs of Enlarged submandibular lymph nodes;abscesses?
    Cervical lymphadenitis "lumps" (Strep. zooepidemicus)
  216. How is Cervical lymphadenitis "lumps" (Strep. zooepidemicus) transmitted to guinea pigs?
    Orally via wounds from rough feed; bites
  217. What is the treatment for Cervical lymphadenitis "lumps" (Strep. zooepidemicus) in guinea pigs?
    Open, drain, ABs 
  218. What is a zoonotic disease of guinea pigs that causes scabies?
    Acariasis -mange (Trixacarus caviae)
  219. What disease is characterized in Guniea Pigs by clinical signs of Pruritis, hair loss that can be severe?
    Acariasis -mange (Trixacarus caviae)
  220. How is Acariasis -mange (Trixacarus caviae) in guinea pigs transmitted?
  221. What is the treatment for Acariasis -mange (Trixacarus caviae) in guinea pigs?
    Ivermectin, lime sulfur, pyrethrins 
  222. List the Miscellaneous diseases/conditions of guinea pigs
    • Pododermatitis & mastitis 
    • Hypovitaminosis C
    • Pregnancy toxemia & dystocia 
    • Malocclusion 
    • Be aware of: 
    • Dermatophytosis (ringworm)
    • Trichophyton mentagrophytes
    • Pediculosis (lice)
    • Gliricola procellus & Gyropus ovalis
  223. Guinea Pig Pododermatitis AKA 
    Management disease caused by: 
    • bumblefoot
    • Overweight, dirty wire floors and Secondary Staph infection
    • Good nursing care, soft bedding, soak feet in iodine solution
  224. Mastitis in Guinea Pigs
    Common in: 
    Caused by: 
    • Common in: lactating Guinea Pigs 
    • Caused by: Mixed bacterial infections 
    • Affects: Wean babies at birth; ABs
  225. What disease is characterized in Guinea Pigs by clinical signs of conjunctivitis, mild URI, poor reproduction? In severe cases it leads to internal hemorrhage, weakness, and death in 2-3 weeks.
    Hypovitaminosis C: scurvy
  226. What are 3 causes of Hypovitaminosis C (scurvy) in guinea pigs?
    • Autoclaving of nonautoclavable diet
    • Keeping diet past expiration date (3 mo)
    • Feeding standard rodent diet
  227. What is the treatment/preventatives for Hypovitaminosis C (scurvy) in guinea pigs? 
    • Feed Guinea pig diet
    • Supplemental Vitamin C (tablets, fresh fruits/veggies; Vit C in water)
  228. Pregnancy toxemia occurs in what guinea pigs? 
    Multiparous sows in last two weeks of pregnancy or first week postpartum
  229. What disease is characterized in Guinea Pigs by clinical signs of weakness, dyspnea, convulsions, death, abnormal urine that is clear, low in pH, and positive for ketones and protein?
    Pregnancy toxemia
  230. What is the treatment for guinea pigs with Pregnancy toxemia?
    What is the prognosis?
    • Fluids, steroids, calories
    • Poor prognosis
  231. Dystocia in Guinea Pigs
    Caused by: 
    Normal delivery:
    • Affects: SOWS > 6 mo, first litter 
    • Caused by: Fusion of pelvic symphysis 
    • Normal delivery: very fast (1/2 hour)
  232. Malocclusion AKA 
    Different in Guinea Pigs effects: 
    Typical clinical sign:
    • slobbers 
    • Different in GPs effects: molars or premolars, not incisors, most commonly affected 
    • Typical clinical sign: Drooling
  233. Heat stress in Guinea Pigs
    Native to:  
    Can develop heat stroke if:
    • Native to: high altitudes and low temperatures 
    • Can develop heat stroke if: temperatures suddenly increase over 80o F.