History of science and technology

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History of science and technology
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  1. Babylonian science
    Did not separate natural

    • world and the supernatural world
    • One of the four river
    • cultures
    • Expended a large social
    • capital on religious activity  (time
    • wealth skill public space of the society )
    • Babylonian science
    • flourished in Babylon in 20th century BCE.  The three aspects were
    • practical sciences, mathematics,  and engineering. Science and the
    • supernatural were intertwined.  Astronomy was used predict earthly
    • events, influencing the calendar, the weeks, and the yearly calendar.
    •  Babylonian science was based on prediction and utilitarian purposes.
  2. Pythagoras
    Greeks were developing a

    • conception of the world based on numbers not matter
    • Philosophy comes from
    • Pythagoras
    • 500BC
    • Studied Ionian philosophy
    • Lives were based on religion
    • full of rituals
    • Believed in immortality and
    • the transmigration of souls
    • Conception of the universe
    • based on number
    • All life could be expressed
    • in the form of numbers proportions geometry and rations
    • Ex marriage was given the
    • number five as the union the number three representing man and the number
    • two representing women
    • Pythagoreans attempted to use
    • math to quantify nature
    • Developed a cosmology that
    • divided the universe into three spheres
    • Uranos the least perfect
    • called the terrestrial sphere
    • The outer sphere was Olympos
    • the perfect realm and home of the gods
    • Between these two was cosmos
    • the sphere of moving bodies
    • Planets and fixed stars moved
    • with perfect circular motion
    • Planet means wanderer in
    • Greek
    • Moved without changing
    • position relative to each other
    • Perfect circular motion did
    • not match up with observation
    • Should have demonstrated
    • uniform motion but they didn’t
    • Moved the earth from the
    • center and put a point celestial fire
  3. Hippocrates
    Based on the concept of

    • regimen and balance
    • Regimen covered physical
    • aspects and social mental and spiritual aspects
    • Interview horoscopes
    • geography was considered
    • Illness was natural not
    • supernatural
    • Treated it will material
    • solutions such as drugs diet and exercise
    • Health was a balance of
    • physical action diet and lifestyle
    • Illness was an unbalancing of
    • elements
    • Four humors
    • Four bodily fluids -- yellow
    • black water blood -- mix of wet hot dry cool
    • Fit with Aristotelian system
    • Medicine was to balance the
    • four humors
  4. Heraclitus
    Based his philosophy on a


    • world that contained a kind of 
    • dynamic equilibrium of forces that were constantly struggling
    • against each other
    • Argued that all was change
    • that nature was in a constant state of flux while Parmenides asserted that
    • change was an illusion
    • Fire at the heart of the
    • system and the great image of change for him battled water an earthc each
    • trying to destroy the others
    • Most famous argument for
    • change was the declaration that you could not step into the same river
    • twice
  5. Zeno's Paradox
    To reach a point you must


    • first cover half the distance to the point
    • To get to the halfway
    • point  you would first need to cover
    • half the distance
    • There is an infinite number
    • of halfway points between any two end points
    • It would take infinite time
    • to travel the whole distance making it impossible to move
  6. Thales of Miletus
    Merchant visited Egypt and


    • Mesopotamia where he learned geometry and astronomy argued that water was
    • the prime constituent of nature and that all matter was made of water in
    • one of three forms water earth and mist
    • Pictured the earth as a
    • sphere that floated on celestial sea
    • Nature is completely material
    • no supernatural elements
    • Nature functions on its own
  7. Plato's Academy
    Plato


    • founded a school in 385 BC
    • Did not have
    • the formal structure of modern schools but in many ways it was the
    • foundation for the concept of higher education
    • Students who
    • had already been tutored in the basic principles of subjects like rhetoric
    • and geometry travelled to the academy to engage in discussion and debate
    • under the auspices of more senior philosopher in a kind of seminar
    • atmosphere
    • Most famous
    • student was Aristotle
  8. aristotles final cause
    Final cause-- purpose


    • Thought there was a
    • rationality to the natural world-- not random
    • Believed the world is orderly
    • organized and full of purpose and things are developed to fulfil a purpose
  9. Epicurus
    Pictured the world as


    • constructed of an innumerable (not infinite) number of atoms that were
    • indestructible
    • Most mechanistic Greek
    • philosophy
    • Challenged the path to
    • knowledge of nature
    • Arguing that knowledge could
    • only come from the senses
    • Knowledge of nature did not
    • require the intellectual refinement of logic or mathematics
    • It was knowledge open to all
    • not just learned men
    • He was ignored until the
    • seventeenth century due to religion
    • Attacked as atheist
  10. Galen
    of Pergamum
    Studied mathematics and


    • philosophy before beginning his medical training by the age of 16
    • Became surgeon to the
    • gladiators at Pergamum
    • First professional work that
    • allowed him to begin creating his own system of medical knowledge
    • Anatomy
    • Human dissection was
    • forbidden
    • Tended wounds of dead
    • gladiators
    • Saw structure of muscle an
    • bone
    •  physician
    • Conducted dissections on
    • animals
    • Adopted strongly teleological
    • philosophy nothing existed without a purpose and all of nature was
    • structured in
    • More adapted
    • He was theological
    • Nothing existed without a
    • purpose
  11. The almagest
    • Ptolemy work on astronomy
    • Collected mathematical syntax
  12. The best
    • Accomplished 2 things
    • Created math model that
    • reconciled with Aristotelian cosmology 
  13. Provided a comprehensive
    tables and directions to make accurate observations
  14. Problem
    of the planets
    • ptolemy 
    • retrograde motion

    • Earth was in the center
    • The observation was different
    • from the theory
  15. Ibn sina
    • Child prodigy
    • He wrote a book of healing
    • Canon of medicine
    • His book became the most
    • printed book in the century
    • Excelled in music optics and
    • math


    • His knowledge was valued
    • because it was original and comprehensive
    • He studied natural wild for
    • political
    • Book of healing
  16. madrasa
    school where islamic philosophers were taught and studied
  17. the house of wisdom
    Part


    • research centre
    • Containing
    • an extensive library
    • Observatory
    • part school
    • Attracted
    • many of the most important scholars of the day
    • Responsible
    • for the majority of the translation of Greek Persian and Indian material
    • into Arabic
  18. neo confucianism
    Neo Confucianism


    • Practical
    • Guided everyday activities
  19. shen gua
    • Example of Chinese
    • cosmologist
    • He was very close to the
    • emperor
    • State administrator
    • Director of astronomy burro
    • 3 times a night for 5 years
    • -- research
    • Initiated construction of
    • network of observatories

    • Included types of technology
    • such as the astronomical clock tower
  20. Armillary sphere
    Large set of calibrated rings

    • Rep imaginary coordinates
    • Earth was the center of the
    • universe
    • Mechanical 3d model of the
    • cosmos
    • Also in greek culture
    • In egypt
    • Used for centuries
    • Not chinese invention
    • Important piece of tech for
    • astronomy


    • Shows how connected
    • astronomy was to time keeping
    • Helped with calendars



    • His astrological practices
    • were important
    • Use sky to predict human
    • activities
    • 5000 astrologers in China
  21. save the phenomena
    • Key innovations appear in his
    • first book
    • It was verbal
    • Not a lot of math
    • Epicycles were confusing
    • He decided to change things
    • and put the sun in the center
    • Earth is NOT the center of
    • the universe
    • Earth was capable of motion
    • Moon revolves around the
    • earth


    • Terra on the fourth sphere
    • Save the phenomena
    • Explained retrograde motion
    • Copernican
  22. epicycle
    • Moving backwards
    • Slowing down at moments
    • Epicycle -- mathematical
    • device
    • Wanted to make sure motion
    • was circular
    • Dotted like is the apparent
    • path
    • Moves in loops around the
    • observer


    • Dominant astronomer in the
    • middle ages
  23. Scholasticism
    • Motivation to study ancient
    • knowledge



    Opposite to humanism
  24. margarita philosophica
    • an encyclopedia of knowledge
    • intended as a text-book for youthful students containing Latin grammar,
    • dialectics, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy, physics,
    • natural history, physiology, psychology, and ethics.
    •  It was long a customary textbook of the
    • higher schools.
    • It is an important text for
    • students both of early modern scientific knowledge generally and of
    • pre-Vesalian anatomy and dissection specifically.
    • it showed the value, graphic
    • as well as textual information could possess once new print technologies
    • enabled its reproduction and circulation in multiple copies.
    • The Margarita was reprinted
    • almost immediately (1504), a sign of the importance contemporaries
    • assigned it.
    • Gregor reisch -- encyclopedia
    • for students
    • Has 12 chapters
    • 7 address liberal arts
    • Other 5 cover natural
    • philosophy


    • Four figures at the top are
    • the four Latin fathers of the church
    • 3 headed angel rep 3 branches
    • of philosophy
  25. Dante's divine comedy
    • is an epic poem written by
    • Dante Alighieri between c. 1308 and his death in 1321. It is widely
    • considered the preeminent work of Italian literature, and is seen as one
    • of the greatest works of world literature. The poem's imaginative and
    • allegorical vision of the afterlife is a culmination of the medieval
    • world-view as it had developed in the Western Church.
    • although the Divine Comedy is
    • primarily a religious poem, discussing sin, virtue, and theology, Dante
    • also discusses several elements of the science of his day
    • The Divine Comedy has been a
    • source of inspiration for countless artists for almost seven centuries
    • Dantes paradiso

    • Aristotle and Christian
    • ideas
    • Earth at the center planets
    • and stars revolving around it
    • Paradise is beyond the
    • sphere of the stars


    • Two systems began to
    • reinforce each other
  26. Robert groseteste
    • one of the most prominent and
    • remarkable figures in thirteenth-century English intellectual life
    • From
    • book(pg75,76,83): He
    • made a formal attempt to align a ristotelian philosophy with christian
    • theology. He was the first chancellor of oxford university. He reconciled
    • Aristotelian ideas with biblical thought in commentaries on logic and
    • natural philosophy. Helinked mathematics, natural philosophy, and religion
    • together and his teaching, particularly to members of Franciscan Order led
    • many scholars to the study of mathematics and natural philosophy.
    • Grosseteste
    • is best known as an original thinker for his work concerning what would
    • today be called science or the scientific method.
    • a man of many talents:
    • commentator and translator of Aristotle and Greek patristic thinkers,
    • philosopher, theologian, and student of nature, He was heavily influenced
    • by Augustine, whose thought permeates his writings and from whom he drew a
    • Neoplatonic outlook, but he was also one of the first to make extensive
    • use of the thought of Aristotle,


    Avicenna and Averroes
  27. Thomas aquinas
    • Greatest figure of
    • intellectual stream.


    • student of Albertus
    • Magnus,
    • following his lead in clarifying the interacting between theology and
    • philosophy
    • He, in a sense, saved
    • Aristotle by compartmentalizing his work into two boxes. One containing
    • system for gaining true knowledge and method of testing knowledge based
    • on  logic and one containing his
    • observations about the world which were disregarded as being heretical,
    • false or superseded.
    • His work was situated within
    • a serious scholarly debate about the place of philosophy(Aristotle's work
    • in particular) in the intelluctual arena but it was also written to
    • counter a number of specific challenges to orthodoxy.
    • He won an argument proving
    • philosophy was dependent on theology and shouldn’t stand alone and his
    • victory made the Thomistic natural philosophy the orthodoxy of the
    • European scholarly word
    • He was argued against by
    • Galileo
  28. Albertus magnus
    • He held one of the two
    • Dominican professorships at the University of Paris
    • He wrote extensively on
    • philosophy and theology and is remembered for many works on natural topics
    • He wrote commentaries on all
    • available aristotelian texts and because of the range of his work he
    • became known as "Doctor Universalis"
    • He was alsothe supposed
    • author of "The Book of Secrets", one of the most popular
    • medieval texts.




    • The
    • path of natural philosophy split after Grosseteste
    • and Albertus Magnus. Those more
    • attracted to the investigative side of the subject such as Roger Bacon, began
    • to copy the practical approach of many of the Arabic sources. Those more
    • interested in philosophy and an adherence to the Greek intellectual tradition
    • tended to see the subject in terms of its ability to train the mind and provide
    • ways of gaining certain knowledge. This stream led to Thomas Aquinas  and the
    • scholastics.
  29. Alcuin
    • Developed curriculum based on
    • a combination of classical training and Christian theology
    • Joined the court


    • Developed a school system
    • Educated the royal family
    • Acted as a private tutor to
    • the emperor
    • Helped Charlemagne establish
    • cathedral and monastery school by imperial edict and in turn these schools
    • produced clerics with increasing levels of literacy and scholarship
    • Priests had to be literate
    • Provided the foundation for
    • education in Europe for over 1000 years
    • Based on the study of the
    • seven liberal arts
    • Two sections the trivium and
    • the quadrivium
    • Trivium means place where
    • three roads meets also implies a public space
    • Logic
    • Grammar
    •  rhetoric
  30. William of Ockham
    Skeptic


    • Attacked Aristotelian
    • theologies
    • Relations were created in the
    • mind of the observer
    • Said it was impossible to
    • prove by experience or logic based on first principles that there was a
    • final cause for any particular thing
    • A plurality must not be
    • asserted without necessity
    • It is wise to choose the
    • simplest 
    • Challenged the church
    • Revelation was the only
    • source of true knowledge
  31. Johannes Gutenberg
    • Invented the printing press
    • Introduced moveable type
    • printing
    • Recolutionizing communication

    • Represented the perfection
    • and combination of a number of existing technologies
    • Used craved wodden blocks
    • Used by the chinese from 1045
    • Block printing was known in
    • eurpe by the beginning of the fifteenth century
    • Prior to development of
    • printing , any text that needed to be copied was written by hand
    • By 13 century had access to
    • paper
    • Before they used parchment
    • From animal skin
    • Woodcut-- make a lot of exact
    • copies however making the wood cut take time

    Not long term tech

    • Spread rapidly by the late
    • 15th century
    • 236 towns had print shops
    • By 1500 20 million books have
    • been printed
    • Iconic book -- Gutenberg
    • bible


    •   role of natural philosophy -- books
    • became common and less expensive
    • Knowledge became preserved
  32. Natural magic
    • Book of secrets
    • Experimentation was important
    • Astrology is looking to the
    • heaves and stars
    • Motivated by human interest
    • Understanding and predicting
    • human behaviour
    • Based on everything is
    • interconnected
    • Strong spiritual aspect
    • Natural magic -- spiritual
    • practice
    • Using art form using natural
    • materials for human purposes
    • Called books of secrets
    •  by printing press
    • Hidden powers



    • occult forces
    • Hidden powers
    • Only certain wise people
    • have access
    • Qualities magnet iron
  33. Giambattista della porta
    • Italian natural philosopher
    • whose experimental research in optics and other fields was undermined by
    • his credulous preoccupation with magic and the miraculous.
    • His major work is Magia
    • naturalis (4 books, 1558; “Natural Magic”; 2nd ed., in 20 books, 1589), in
    • which he treats the wonders and marvels of the natural world as phenomena
    • underlain by a rational order that can be divined and manipulated by the
    • natural philosopher through theoretical speculation and practical
    • experiment.


    • His
    • interest in a variety of disciplines resulted in the technological advances of
    • the following: agriculture, hydraulics, Military Engineering, instruments, and
    • pharmacology



    • Additionally,
    • della Porta perfected the camera obscura.
    • Della Porta also claimed to
    • have invented the first telescope, but died while preparing the treatise
    • (De telescopiis) in support of his claim. His efforts were also
    • overshadowed by Galileo Galilei's improvement of the telescope in 1609,
    • following its introduction in the Netherlands in 1608.
  34. Arnold
    of villanova
    Alchemist


    • Astrologer and physician
    • Studied medicine
    •  credited for translating medical texts
    • from arabic
  35. Renaissance humanism
    • Petrarch was the father
    • Poet
    • Life predates renaissance
    • Very influential
    • Latin


    • Looked to ancient knowledge
    • as a stepping stone to gain knowledge
    • Educationally things shifted

    • People departed from
    • university
    • Still had 7 arts
    • Focus moved to trivium and
    • latin works
    • Latin grammar
    • Mocked scholastic emphasis
    • on church texts
    • People were beginning to
    • critique aristotle
    • Less oriented to text
    • More secular
    • Not glorifying god
    • Teach people how to be a
    • good citizen
    • Renaissance people began to
    • look to the past but also looked ahead
    • Most of the time they
    • operate outside of the university system
    • Had intellectual freedom
    • Access to new text
    • Looking to the past and
    • looking forward to future
    • Obsession with Aristotle
    • Neo-Platonism mathematical
    • harmony to the entire universe
    • Key was found in math
    • Very spiritual system of
    • thought
  36. Andreas vesalius
    • Court physician to charles v
    • Trained as a physician
    • Padua is where he came of age
    • for anatomy
    • Became prof at padua
    • fabrica
    • Very ambitious
    • Performed many human
    • dissections
    • Central venue for doing med
    • in the 16 century
    • Left his post at padua and
    • became court physician
    • Change in social status
    • Dedicated to the emperor
    • More opportunities for
    • inspecting bodies
    • Conducted additional anatomy
    • Increased social status
    • Gave his access to develop
    • philosophy
    • Humanism

    • Attitude that ancient
    • knowledge is a  stone

    • Galen most influential
    • medical thinker
    • Did work on animals
    • Human dissection was
    • forbidden
    • Each part of the body has a
    • purpose and was designed to fulfill that purpose
    • Translation of galen




    • Used
    • galen as a stepping stone to gain knowledge


    • Tried to depart from galen
    • Surgeons had lower status
    • than physicians
  37. empiricism
    Empiricism



    • Best way to acquire new
    • knowledge is based on senses
    • Access the body and witness
    • anatomy --- to gain knowledge
  38. De
    humani corporis fabrica
    • Published in 1543
    • Was the modern book about
    • human anatomy
    • Was written by Andréas
    • Vesalius


    • Was one of the most important
    • books in the history of medicine
    • Another one was published in
    • 1555 which had over a thousand interlinear and marginal annotation
  39. De
    Revolutionibus Orbium
    • Is the seminal work on the
    • heliocentric theory of the renaissance astronomer Nicolas Copernicus
    • On the revolutions of the
    • heavenly spheres


    • Printed 1543 proved that
    • earth moved around the sun
  40. Coelestium
    • This relates back to de
    • revolutionbus


    • On the revolution of the
    • celestial spheres
  41. Andrew
    Osiander
    • Was a German theologian
    • In 1543 Osiander oversaw the
    • publication of the book de revolutionibus orbim coelestium


    • Said that the celestial model
    • was not true or even probable and said that model useful for computationl
    • purposes was the author of preface
  42. Tycho Brahe
    • 16th century astronomer
    • Discovered new star and comet



    • New planetary system
    • Royal court earth didn’t move

    • Theory
    • Ptolemy
    • Known for his accurate and
    • comprehensive astronomical and planetary observation
    • Made the most precise
    • observation that been made by devising the beast instruments available
    • before the invention of the telescope
    • Observation of planetary
    • motion
    • Particularly mars provided
    • the crucial date for astronomers like kepler to construct
  43. Brass
    quadrant
    • Is an instrument which
    • measures angle up to 90 degrees


    • Geometric quadrant is a
    • quarter circle panel made of wood or brass\ were used for astronomical
    • measurements
    • Solar observation
  44. Comet of 1577
    • Observed first hand by tycho
    • brache


    • He concluded other celestial
    • objects travel above earths atmosphere
  45. Stellar parallax
    Effect of parallax in stars


    • Stars can be seen as in
    • different positives from different angles
  46. Johannes
    Kepler
    • German astronomer/astrologer
    • Inherited all work from Brahe

    • His patron was holy emperor
    • Rudolf 2


    • Discovered elliptical orbits
    • (orbits are not circular)
    • Created rudolphine tables in
    • the name of his patron
  47. Rudolphine Tables
    Star catalogue


    • Created by johannes kepler
    • Named after his patron
    • rudolph 2 the holy emperor
    • Patronism
  48. Neoplatonism
    • 1 of the 4 shifts of the
    • european renaissance humanism
    • Humanity towards increasin g
    • persons reputation so they focused on scienfifical math nature
    • Since back then it was better
    • to separate scince from spirituality
    • Based on platos mathematical
    • harmony of n=unicerse


    • Made artists want to portray
    • drawings neoplatonistically
  49. the
    counter Reformation
    • Catholic church had power
    • over natural philosophy
    • Protestant reformation
    • happened catholic was reinforced to prevent undermining council of trent
    • Jesuits all helped counter and pope Robert bellarmine who was  Aristotelian philosophy reinforced as


    dogma
  50. Cosimo II de'Medici
    • Duke of Tuscany -- Galileo's
    • patron
    • Was the one who made Galileo
    • go from math prof to court philosopher
    • Drastically increased Galileo


    status and reputation -- humanism
  51. The Starry Messenger
    • Observations made by
    • Galileo's telescope
    • Bodies encircling Jupiter
    • that moved


    • Dethroned earth as special
    • and Aristotelian astronomy
  52. Medicean stars
    • Moons or companions of
    • Jupiter orbited it
    • Implied earth wasn’t centre
    • of universe


    • Name after cosimo de Medici
    • which made him become galileo patron
    • Huge stepping stone for
    • Galileo's career from math prof to court philosopher
  53. Galileo's Letter to Christina
    • Galileo wrote a
    • letter to Christina, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, that explained Galileos
    • true astronomical views.  In this letter Galileo revealed his support
    • for the Copernican system as not just a mathematical calculation tool but
    • as a physical reality.  Galileo’s views on the separation of
    • scripture and science and how Galileo trusted his senses for knowledge
    • more than texts.  This was significant as it was the first major


    • natural philosopher to show full support for the Copernican system beside
    • Copernicus himself.
  54. Dialogue Concerning the Two
    Chief
    • Dialogue
    • Concerning the Two Chief World Systems was a book written by Galileo and
    • published in 1632.  The book compared and contrasted both the
    • Ptolemaic system and Copernican system without Galileo explicitly giving
    • support for one system or the other, although the arguments did largely
    • favour the Copernican system.  This book didn’t convince too many
    • people of the system but those reading believed Galileo was defending the
    • Copernican system and therefore breaking the Interdict of 1616.  This
    • resulted in Galileo getting in massive shit with the Catholic church,


    • being put under house arrest, Galileo was made to renounce his belief in
    • the Copernican system , and the  Dialogue was banned.
  55. occult qualities
    • Occult qualities
    • were “hidden” qualities of elements.  Certain elements had hidden
    • powers, for example the attractive power magnets.   This was
    • considered natural magic and at the time attempted to control the unknown.
    •  Occult properties were described in both Albertus Magnus’ Book


    • of Secrets and Giambattista Della Porta’s Natural
    • Magik.
  56. Rene Descartes
    • Developed mechanical
    • philosophy
    • Extended mechanical
    • philosophy including living things arguing that human physiology operated
    • like a machine
    • World is composed of small


    • simple particles
    • World existed forever
    • Creation vs existence
  57. Mechanical philosophy
    • Instruments
    • Machines
    • Argued the world itself is a
    • machine
    • Mathematical instruments
    • navigations astronomy and tie keeping
    • Human physiology operated
    • like a machine
    • Mechanical
    • philosophy was the idea that the universe acted as a huge machine,
    • intricately working by the laws of nature.

    •  This idea was based that
    • God had created the most complex machine of all , the universe.  This
    • theory makes God the Great Clockmaker or the Great Engineer and once the
    • universe was created it could operate without Gods aid.  This theory
    • was criticized as being atheistic because if the universe was a perfect
    • clock then there was no more need for God.
  58. Francis Bacon
    • Developed scientific  method
    • Not a natural philosopher
    • Proposed a reform of natural
    • philosophy in the new Atlantis
    • Believed all human knowledge
    • was flawed because idols that all men carried with them
    • Felt only way for natural
    • philosophers to disabuse themselves of these idols was to look at small
    • bits of nature
    • Francis Bacon was
    • an English lawyer and politician in 16th and 17th century England.
    •  Bacon believed in new spaces for natural philosophy separate from
    • the University system and free from the restraints of the catholic church.


    •  He emphasised empiricism and experimentation instead of relying on
    • ancient texts.  He also pushed for more unification of knowledge for
    • more utilitarian purposes.

    •  Bacon was significant for rejecting
    • ancient texts and knowledge, pushing for experimentation as a way to
    • obtain knowledge, and for organizing new spaces to study natural
    • philosophy apart from the University system or the church.
  59. Solomon's
    House
    Method


    • Scientific
    • method
    • More
    • democratic
    •  control truth and knowledge by a small
    • elite group who determined what could be studied and what answers were
    • accepted
    • Solomon’s
    • house was a fictional place of study and library.  It is a scientific
    • utopia in which natural philosophers would collaborate in their studies.
    •  Solomons house would also blur the line between science and
    • technology, technology being more utilitarian and having more practical
    • purposes.  Bacon believed mans view was obstructed by Idols of the
    • ancient world and we needed to cast them aside to obtain true knowledge.
  60. William
    Harvey
    • Use of experiments as proof
    • Studied human anatomy
    • Developed a theory of the
    • circulation of the blood
    • Used observation
    • Received medical training at
    • Padua
    • Worked as physician
    • Conducted experiments on
    • animals
    • Movement of the heart and
    • blood in animals
    • Blood pumped out by the heart
    • circulated and returned
    • Demonstrated power of
    • observation and experiments
    • Use instruments
    • Isolate phenomena and break
    • investigations down into smaller components



    • William Harvey (1578 - 1657)
    • was a physician in England during the 17th century.  He was famous
    • for proving that there were no passages through the septum of the heart.
    •  He proved this by performing a demonstration experiment involving
    • water and a cows heart.  Through his experiment he was able to show
    • which ventricle or atrium blood would move to.  
    • This was significant
    • for the period because it proved that experimentation was a valid method
    • of acquiring knowledge and changed the methods in how we studied nature at
    • the time.
  61. Margaret Cavendish
    • Royal society did not allow
    • women to join
    • Margaret was the duchess of
    • new castle
    • Attended some meetings
    • Published more  books on natural philosophy than many of
    • the members put together
    • First English book of science


    fiction
  62. Robert Hooke
    • 1679
    • Corresponding secretary of
    • the royal society
    • Intellectual pen pal to
    • newton
    • Communicated with members of
    • the royal society
    • Put people with similar
    • interests in touch
    • Criticized newton's optical
    • work


    • Got newton thinking about
    • ellipses
    • Assisted boyle in the air
    • pump
  63. Robert Boyle
    • Involved in alchemical
    • investigations significant scholar
    • Looked for philosophers stone
    • and basic structure of nature


    • Came from belief in gods
    • ordering of the universe
    • Search for active principles
    • that animated nature attach on mechanical philosophy
  64. Thomas Hobbes
    • (1588-1679)
    • Mechanical philosophy
    • Corpus cular philosophy
    • Used political theories
    • Debated nature of scientific
    • knowledge with boyle
    • Sovereign was necessary to
    • protect people
    • To gain the security people
    • had to give up personal rights
    • Boyle won


    • Hobbes views made him a
    • dangerous person to know
    • Rejected membership in royal
    • society
  65. Royal
    Society Of London
    • Scientific
    • organization
    • Purpose of
    • fostering and supporting natural philosophy
    • Contributed
    • to dramatic new organizations of science
    • Encouraged
    • natural philosophers to develop social codes of behaviour rules who could
    • do science and what counted as science
    • Separate
    • religious and sientific claims



    • Moved on
    • from uni based science and court based
  66. henry oldenberg
    • (1619-1677)
    • First corresponding secretary



    • Helped determine what counted
    • as proper natural philosophy
  67. thomas sprat
    • First official historian of
    • the royal society
    • Founded as a way to avoid
    • enthusiasm of the puritans and the setarian disputes that ripped the
    • country apart in the civil war


    • Disinterested observer
    • Attempted to find a third way through religious and civil disagreements
  68. philosophical transactions
    • Royal society developed a
    • gate keeping function
    • Determining who counted in
    • natural philosophy
    • Journal founded in 1665



    • Determined what counted as
    • proper natural philosophical work
  69. Boyle's air pump
    • Built fist air pump in 1658
    • Air had weight
    • A vacuum could exist
    • Air was necessary for
    • respiration and combustion
    • Results were published in
    • 1660 as new experiments physico mechanical touching the spring of the air
    • and its effects
    • Put animals in the glass
    • sphere and removed air and watch them die
    • Put candles and watch the
    • flame extinguish
    • Supported life and combustion

    • Need air for life
    • Relationship between pressure
    • and volume of air
    •  pc=k pressure increases volume decreases
    • and vice versa
    • Problems

    • Leaked
    • Couldn’t evacuate all the
    • air
    • Europe could not replecate
    • his resulte



    • Air pump was neutral and
    • objective
  70. Academie
    Royale des Sciences
    • Founded in
    • paris 1666
    • Top down
    • organization
    • Element of
    • the absolutist frenc hstate
    • Appointed 16
    • academicians
    • Investigate
    • natural world as the kig and advisors required
    • Root of the
    • professsionalization of science
    • Scholars
    • were paid
    • Set by state
    • Take on
    • brojects beyond the scope of indicidual scientists
    • Sponsored
    • measurement of one min of arc first accurate measurement of the size of
    • the earth and distance of the stars
    • Lon ruin
    • less successful than the royal society appointment was a reward not
    • incentive


    • Did not
    • sponsor innovation

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