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Who is comte?
what period did he develop that field?
what is sociology intended to solve?
what kind of knowledge does it depend on?
coined the term sociology
social upheaval revolution
solve society's problems
has a theory about social research that he wanted students to do reseach by going out tot he environment and getting their shoes dirty
- didnt believe that the future of sociology could lie in shoe leather, in well-written books and argued that sociology needs to be a science.
- to make the world a better place.
What are social facts?
social phonomena that are outside of us, not mental processes
existed before we did
impinge upon us
What are Comte three stages of knowledge?
- positive (scientific)
variable or factor that causually affects another (depepndent variable).
variable that is influenced by another
statistical or exprimental means of holding some variables constant in order to examine the casual influence of others.
- cannot be directly inferred from correlation
- causal influence of one factor upon another.
existence of a regular relationship between two sets of occurrences or variables.
representative sample in which every member of the sample population has the same probablility of being included.
a method of sociological research in which questionnaires are administered to the population being studied.
is the fisthand study of people using participant observation or interviewing.
an attempt to test a hypothesis under highly controlled conditions established by an investigator.
is the use of multiple reseach meethods as a way of producing more reliable empirical data than is available from any single method.
What is culture?
an interpretive understanding
consists of the values the members of a group hold, the languages they speak, the symbols they revere, the norms, the follow, and the material goods they create.
What is knowledge?
What are behaviors?
What are material creations?
used to give meaning to experience and generate behavior through: symbols, language, values, norms, and physical environment.
traditions, daily activity, acts, and feelings.
artifacts, technology, clothing, and housing.
What are values?
collective ideals and beliefs
- personal responsibility
- respect all persons
- human rights
- freedom of expression
What are norms?
What are folkways?
what are mores?
rules people use to live by an observe
serious rules of conduct
What is a subculture?
is when groups which have strong cultural identity, often expressed in ways of life and appearnce, which sets them apart.
What is a language?
a cultural universal
What is a culture turn?
is sociology's recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the role of culture in daily life.
What is sociobiology?
What is assimition
What is multiculturalism?
is an approach that attempts to explain the behavior of both animals and human beings in terms of biological principles.
the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture.
is when ethnic groups exists separately and share equally in economic and political life.
What is ethnocentrism?
the tendency to look at other cultures through the eyes of one's own culture, and thereby mirepresent them.
What are cultural universals?
common features of human behavior found in virtually all societies.
linguistic relativity hypothesis?
hypothesis that is based on the theories of sapir and whorf that perceptions are relative to language.
language influences our perceptions of the world.
What is signifier?
What are semiotics?
any vehicle of meaning and communication
the study of the ways in which nonlinguistic phenomena can generae meaning- as in the example of a traffic light.
What is cultural relativism?
the practice of judging a society by its own standards.