Sociology 2 and 3

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mame727
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241068
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Sociology 2 and 3
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2013-10-16 19:03:16
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Sociology chapter
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Chapter 2, sociological research and 3
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  1. Who is comte?

    what period did he develop that field?
    what is sociology intended to solve?
     what kind of knowledge does it depend on?
    coined the term sociology

    social upheaval revolution

    solve society's problems

    positive (scientific)
  2. Robert park

    ogburn
    has a theory about social research that he wanted students to do reseach by going out tot he environment and getting their shoes dirty

    • didnt believe that the future of sociology could lie in shoe leather, in well-written books and argued that sociology needs to be a science.
    • to make the world a better place.
  3. What are social facts?
    social phonomena that are outside of us, not mental processes

    existed before we did

    impinge upon us
  4. What are Comte three stages of knowledge?
    • thological
    • metaphysical
    • positive (scientific)
  5. independent variable

    dependent variable

    control
    variable or factor that causually affects another (depepndent variable).

    variable that is influenced by another

    statistical or exprimental means of holding some variables constant in order to examine the casual influence of others.
  6. causal relationship

    correlation relationship
    • cannot be directly inferred from correlation
    • causal influence of one factor upon another.

    existence of a regular relationship between two sets of occurrences or variables.
  7. random sampling
    representative sample in which every member of the sample population has the same probablility of being included.
  8. survey

    ethnography

    experiment
    a method of sociological research in which questionnaires are administered to the population being studied.

    is the fisthand study of people using participant observation or interviewing.

    an attempt to test a hypothesis under highly controlled conditions established by an investigator.
  9. Triangulation
    is the use of multiple reseach meethods as a way of producing more reliable empirical data than is available from any single method.
  10. What is culture?

    an interpretive understanding
    consists of the values the members of a group hold, the languages they speak, the symbols they revere, the norms, the follow, and the material goods they create.
  11. What is knowledge?

    What are behaviors?

    What are material creations?
    used to give meaning to experience and generate behavior through: symbols, language, values, norms, and physical environment.

    traditions, daily activity, acts, and feelings.

    artifacts, technology, clothing, and housing.
  12. What are values?
    collective ideals and beliefs

    american values

    • personal responsibility¬†
    • respect all persons
    • tolerance
    • human rights
    • freedom of expression
  13. What are norms?

    What are folkways?

    what are mores?
    rules people use to live by an observe

    manners, etiquette

    serious rules of conduct
  14. What is a subculture?
    is when groups which have strong cultural identity, often expressed in ways of life and appearnce, which sets them apart.
  15. What is a language?
    a cultural universal
  16. What is a culture turn?
    is sociology's recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the role of culture in daily life.
  17. What is sociobiology?

    What is assimition

    What is multiculturalism?
    is an approach that attempts to explain the behavior of both animals and human beings in terms of biological principles.

    the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture.

    is when ethnic groups exists separately and share equally in economic and political life.
  18. What is ethnocentrism?
    the tendency to look at other cultures through the eyes of one's own culture, and thereby mirepresent them.
  19. What are cultural universals?
    common features of human behavior found in virtually all societies.
  20. linguistic relativity hypothesis?
    hypothesis that is based on the theories of sapir and whorf that perceptions are relative to language.

    language influences our perceptions of the world.
  21. What is signifier?
    What are semiotics?
    any vehicle of meaning and communication

    the study of the ways in which nonlinguistic phenomena can generae meaning- as in the example of a traffic light.
  22. What is cultural relativism?
    the practice of judging a society by its own standards.

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