Behaviour #3

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Behaviour #3
2013-10-18 00:25:05

lecture # 3 behavioural development
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  1. Piglet Development
    • Play behavior starts at day 1
    • increases up to 3 weeks then declines
    • solitary locomotory activities (scampering, dashing, belly flopping)
    • Play fighting (akward positions)
    • Important welfare indicator (not seen if animals are hungry, ill, stressed, or fearful)

    absence of play is an important welfare indicator
  2. Poultry Development
    • independence is gained anywhere between weeks to months
    • learn from observing mother: feeding behaviors and sources
    • dust bathing behavior and materials
    • some reports of play early weeks
    • aggressive pecking within weeks/months
    • dominance hierarchy/unstable
  3. Is more early handling always necessary?
    No sometimes should wait until 5 weeks old
  4. Kitten Development (4 phases*)
    • 1. Prenatal
    • 2.Neonatal (end of 2nd week post gestation)
    • 3. socialization (3-8 weeks)
    • 4. Juvenile (transition to adulthood at sexual maturity)  

    • socialization to people 6-8 weeks of age
    • after 8 weeks, less sociable
    • early handling (2 weeks) not essential but should start by week 5 filia imprinting peaks 4-5 weeks
    • sensitive period terminated by some internal event
    • no evidence that socialization to humans impacts intraspecific socialization
  5. Lamb and kids behavior
    • stand within 30 min
    • sucking within an hour
    • attracted to large objects with soft shelves
    • recognize mother through olfaction
    • recognize twin through oflaction

    lambs are attracted to shapes and texture when they find the nipple. that's how they figure out what a teat is
  6. Imprinting
    form of learning with a specific stimulus animal gets fixated on
  7. Dog behavioral development
    • prenatal- chemosensory (odours/tastes)
    • neonatal period: 1-2 weeks
    • transitional period: 2-3 weeks
    • socialization period: 3-10 weeks (*this is MOST IMPORTANT in terms of behavior. learn about environment, littermates, play, avoidance and fear. weaning before this results in problem adults. human social contact)
    • Juvenile period: 10 weeks to sexual maturity
  8. Dog behavioral development: neonatal
    • 1-2 weeks
    • feeding, sleeping
    • eyes & ears closed
    • limited motor abilities and vocalizations
  9. Dog behavioral development: transitional
    • 2-3 weeks
    • rapid neurological and physical change
    • eyes open day 13
    • ears open day 18-20
    • urinate and defecate on own (before mother stimulated them)
    • play fighting and tail wagging begins
  10. Dog behavioral development: socialization
    • 3-10 weeks
    • development of independence
    • teeth erupt
    • 7-8 weeks is the later part of sensitive period
    • sensitive period rather than critical period
    • learn about environment, litter mates etc..
    • inappropriate socialization can lead to serious fear related problems
  11. Dog behavioral development: Juvenile
    • 10 weeks to sexual maturity
    • general behavior similar to socialization phase but more advanced and controlled
    • rapid growth
    • teeth replacement
    • puberty. gradual process in males (4-8 months) female more dramatic onset with oestrus
  12. behavior problems in dogs due to early experience
    • Jagoe serpell did a study on 737 dogs and found numerous factors:
    • source: ie pet shop and shelters
    • illness (as a puppy)
    • inadequate or restricted socialization
    • separation
    • age of acquisition

    Problems: dominance aggression, social fears, coprophagia (lots feces)

    found dominance type aggression, aggression towards strangers, fear of strangers, fear of children

    it was a correlational study as people just filled out a survey and didn't do an experimental study with dogs, separation related barking, abnormal sexual behavior, excessive barking
  13. problem with constant early care during puppysocialization
    can result in an overly dependent and "human-socialized" dog
  14. Separation as a puppy
    • time left alone
    • 6-8 hrs lead to separation-related destructiveness
    • difficult to interpret given natural history of dogs
    • some breeds may be more sensitive than others

    • developmental problems later on show up such as barking
    • cause and effect is difficult to disentangle
  15. PLAY
    an inexact term used to denote certain locomotor, manipulative and social behavior characteristics of young (and some adult mammals and birds under certain conditions in certain environments)
  16. What is historically one of the great unresolved issues in ethology?
    Play- because it is difficult to define and understand
  17. *3 types of play
    • social play
    • exercise
    • exploration
  18. Phylogeny of play
    • not all animals
    • mostly mammals and some birds
    • primarily ungulates, carnivores, and primates
    • some in rats, little in mice
  19. function of play
    • **tricky because play almost by definition lacks and obvious immediate goal
    • it can involve injury or increase the risk of predation
    • refusal to play can have negative consequences
    • many functions have been proposed: -development of physical, emotional, social skill (helps them to understand social structure and environment)
    • - knowledge of prey species
    • -knowledge of social structure
    • -knowledge of environment
    • -training for the unexpected
  20. play for pleasure
    is a circular argument: the performance of adaptive behaviors should generally be pleasurable
  21. Play in applied species
    • play is a key part of the behavior of many applied species
    • -calves
    • -piglets
    • -foals
    • -kittens
    • -puppies
  22. Cat play
    • at 4-12 weeks social play increases
    • social play decreases after 16 weeks
    • 8 weeks onward become more object oriented play
    • early weaning results in a faster onset of play behavior (this suggests play is something kittens do for fun)
  23. Cats and playing with prey
    • Mother cats attack and eat prey in front of kittens
    • attract kittens attention through vocalizations
    • 4-8 weeks of age mother show kittens
    • after 8 weeks mothers rarely kills nor eats prey- the mother interacts with it
  24. How do you formulate an experiment which might show why mother cats bring home lie prey and release near kittens?
    • formulate hypotheses
    • describe experiment
    • variables measured
    • predictions

    • write both proximal and distal ideas
    • ie:
    • -hypothesis: cats are predators, hunt to show
    • raise kittens without a mother- or interrupt play behavior (get specific). let kittens practice capturing prey. ID prey catch times.
  25. What can be used as an indicator of good welfare
    • play
    • -something the animal has to do but in poor welfare sometimes cant
  26. Animal Welfare
    • how an animal copes with conditions in which it lives
    • ***Animal Welfare refers to the state of the animal
    • so animal welfare is about the animal experience.
    • ie emotional state, humane-husbandry care etc...
    • So it is the STATE animal is in
    • -if it eats food that doesn't necessarily mean its in good welfare
  27. In the young of many species, play is reduced by:
    • Castration (sheep)
    • "barren enviro" (pigs)
    • hypoxia (rodents)
    • inadequate food intake (deer and rodents)
    • LPS rodents
    • dehorning (calves) - if use NSAID have better behavior
  28. What happens to early weaned calves?
    • play running decreased remarkably in the week after weaning
    • -play is a behavioral response: weaning is stressful so play behavior decreases
  29. locomotor play in dairy calves is reduced by:
    • -low milk intake
    • -low E intale
    • -early weaning
    • -dehorning (esp without adequate pain control
  30. What is a cost/time effective way of assessing the effect of management practices on locomotor play of calves?
    acecelerometers are attached to a calfs leg and can show steps and distinguish between running and walking
  31. Explain experiment one: detecting the effects of dehorning on locomotor play with accelerometers attached to calf les when they are placed briefly in a large enclosure
    • 12 controls
    • 12 dehorned using sedative
    • placed in pens 2 days b4 and 1 day after  with accelerometers attached
    • scored duration of running, jumping, walking from a video
    • measured and summed acceleration from acceleromter
    • Results: calves that were dehorned showed a reduction in the duration of running and a reduction in the summed acceleration. there was no reduction in the duration of walking
  32. Explain experiment two: weaning and its affects on locomotion
    • weaned 12 calves off milk at 10 weeks of age
    • reduced the duration of running and summed acceleration during the week after weaning was complete
  33. summarize together the effects of dehorning and weaning
    • the suppressive effects of dehorning and weaning were specific to running and did not reflect an effort on general activity
    • neither dehorning nor weaning reduced the duration of walking
    • the changes in summed acceleration following dehorning and weaning were not correlated with any changes in walking duration
    • When data from the data from the 2 experiments were combined: the summed acceleration was correlated with the duration of running and the frequency of jumping/kicking but NOT the duration of walking

    • locomotor play  in calves is reduced following dehorning and weaning off milk
    • the amount of running calves do when placed briefly in a large enclosure reflects the effects of management practices on locomotor play
    • measures of the summed acceleration from acceleromters attached to the calf's leg can estimate the duration of locomotor play of calves
  34. Bird Song
    • Function: attracts mates, deters rivals
    • Needs to know species specific song: there's little point in attracting mates or deterring rivals of different species
    • Dialects: some species' song changes with location (could this be evidence of learning?)
  35. White-crowned sparrow dialects: when is the sensitive period in which a bird learns their song? How do they learn their song?
    birds from any area sing the song heard in a sensitive period from hatching to 3 months of age

    • Bird learning process:
    • Birds are born with a crude template
    • once they hatch they hear species specific songs around them
    • memorization phase: attune to it- so they hear it and know what it is but don't sing it yet
    • motor phase: bird tries o sing song- re adjusts their own song before they can get their species specific song right
    • in the end they get their species specific song
  36. What happens if no bird song is heard in the sensitive period? (memorization part)
    • they keep the crude template
    • but the rudimentary song is not the same
  37. What happens if you deafen a sparrow?
    • a bird must hear itself sing for practice to be effective
    • their song is all messed up
  38. Culture Transmission
    • Transmission of info by non-genetic means
    • behavior is copied and passed on to others in group, no genetic changes involved
    • inherited by non genetic means
    • in humans, culture involves language
    • (observed learning)
  39. Give an example of cultural transmission in birds
    Blue tits pecking through foil of milk bottle tops: started in London in the 1920s and slowly spread throughout England
  40. Give an example of cultural transmission in primates
    • sweet potato washing in Japanese Macaques
    • -one started washing potatoes, then started washing them in salt water
    • -tried rice: they picked up rice and the mud and threw it in the water so the rice floated and they could pick it out
    • they have developed and eating culture
  41. What is the culture evolution of the macaques
    • Sweet potato washing
    • = washing in sea water--> "seasoning" in sea water
    • also = exposure to water as a tool (= grain separation and exposure to water as a tool {bathing})