chapter 7

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chapter 7
2013-10-17 16:55:12
lifespan development

early childhood shiiiii. for test
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  1. the average child grows ____ inches in height and between ___ to ___ pounds a year during early childhood
    2.5; 5 to 7
  2. as the preschool child grows older, the percentage of increase in ____ and ____ decreases with each additional year
    height and weight
  3. during the preschool years, both boys and girls ____ down as the ____ of their bodies lengthen
    slim; trunk
  4. the two most important contributors to height differences are _____ origin and _____
    ethnic origin and nutrition
  5. by the time children reach 3 years of age, the brain reaches ____ of its size. by age 6?
    3/4; 95%
  6. the process by which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed at which information travels through the nervous system
  7. some of the brains interior changes involve increases in _____ connections as well as ______
    dendritic; myelination
  8. between the ages of ____ to ____ the amount of brain material in some areas can nearly _____ within as little as a year. followed by a drastic loss of ____ as unneeded cells are purged and the brain continues to reorganize itself.
    3 to 15; double; tissue
  9. in children from 3-6 years old, the most rapid growth takes place in the ___ ___
    frontal lobe
  10. from ages 3-5 children move and carry themselves more purposefully. movement around the environment becomes more automatic
    gross motor movements
  11. starting around the age of 3 kids have the ability to pick up tiny objects with their thumb and forefinger
    fine motor skills
  12. (fine motor skills) by 4 years of age, children's fine motor coordination has improved and become more ____
  13. fine motor skillz: by age 5 children's ____, ____, and ___ all move together under better command of the eye
    hand arm and body
  14. the memory component in which individuals retain information for up to 30 seconds assuming there is no rehearsal of the information
    short-term memory
  15. research with the memory span task suggests that short term memory ____increases during early childhood
  16. 3 reasons that memory span changes with age
    • -rehearsal of information. older kids rehearse more
    • -speed with which memories are identified
    • -efficiency of processing information
  17. the speed with which a child processes information is an important aspect of the child's ___ _____
    cognitive abilities
  18. -the age difference in children's susceptibility to suggestion
    -the individual differences in susceptibility
    -interviewing techniques that produce substantial distortions in childrens reports
    factors that influence the accuracy of a young childs memory
  19. the awareness of ones own mental processes and the mental processes of others
    theory of mind
  20. from 18 months to 3 years of age, children begin to understand three mental states
    • -perceptions
    • -emotions
    • -desires
  21. by 2 years of age a child recognizes that another person will see whats in front of her own eyes instead of whats in front of the childs eyes
  22. the child can distinguish between positive and negative emotions
  23. when toddlers recognize that if people want something they will try to get it
  24. 2-3 year olds understand the way that ____ are related to ____ and to _____ emotions
    desires; actions; simple
  25. one of the landmark developments in understanding others desires is recognizing that someone else may have different _____ from ones own
  26. between the ages of 3-5, children come to understand that the mind can represent objects and events ______ or ______
    accurately or inaccurately
  27. the realization that people can have beliefs that are not true. this develops in a majority of children by the time they are __ years old
    false beliefs, 5
  28. children younger then 4 do not understand that it is possible to have a ___ ____
    false belief. think of the toy and box experiment with sally
  29. children 5-7 years old begin to recognize that people behaviors do not necessarily reflect their ____ and _____
    thoughts and feelings
  30. not until middle and late childhood do children move from understanding that beliefs can be false to realizing that the same even can be open to several _______
  31. at 7 years of age and beyond there are important developments tin the ability to _____ the beliefs and _____ of others
    understand; thoughts
  32. children around 7 years of age engage in more recursive thinking which is...
    thinking about what other people are thinking about
  33. children who talk with their parents about feelings frequently as 2 year olds show _____ performance on theory of mind tasks, as do children who frequently engage in ____ play
    better; pretend
  34. describes several functions such as inhibition and planning that are important for flexible, future oriented behavior
    executive function
  35. between 2 -3 years of age, kids begin the transition from saying simple ______ that express a ____ proposition to saying ____ sentences
    sentences; single; complex
  36. piagets second substage of preoperational thought, in which children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions ( 4-7 years old)
    intuitive thought substage
  37. piagets first substage of preoperational thought in which the child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present (2-4 years of age)
    symbolic function substage
  38. the intuitive substage is called this because young children seem so sure about their knowledge and are unaware how they know what they know, in other words they know something without the use of ____ _____
    rational thinking
  39. -assess the childs zone of proximal development
    -use the childs zpd in teaching
    -use more skills peers as teachers
    -place instruction in a meaningful context
    -transform classroom with vygotskian ideas
    various teaching strategies
  40. parts of which schooling system for kids?
    -each child follows a unique developmental pattern
    -young children learn best through first hand experiences
    -play is extremely important in the childs development
    child centered kindergarten
  41. children at this stage exuberantly move out into a wider social world.  they use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen. they have a surplus of energy that allows them to forget failures quickly and to approach new desirable ares.
    initiative (initiative vs guilt)
  42. the great governor of initiative is conscience. initiative and enthusiasm may bring our not only rewards but also _____ which lowers self esteem
    guilt (initiative vs guilt)