Minerals

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Author:
katbaguisi
ID:
241156
Filename:
Minerals
Updated:
2013-10-17 01:32:40
Tags:
minerals
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Description:
for finals
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  1. How many minerals are needed for humans to survive?
    16
  2. How much minerals we get from eating?
    0.03%
  3. Non-renewable resource
    A natural resource that cannot be re-grown or re-made at a scale comparable to its consumption
  4. 5 criterion of minerals
    • 1. Naturally occuring
    • 2. Inorganic
    • 3. Have known chemical compositions
    • 4. Have definite physical properties
    • 5. Solid
    • 6. Most are crystalline
  5. Types of Nonrenewable mineral resources
    • 1. Fossil Fuels
    • 2. Metallic
    • 3. Nonmetallic
  6. Types of Rocks
    • 1. Igneous
    • 2. Sedimentary
    • 3. Metamorphic
  7. Types of Ores
    • 1. High-grade ores
    • 2. Low-grade ores
  8. 3 types of Minerals
    • 1. Energy Minerals
    • 2. Metallic Minerals
    • 3. Nonetallic Minerals
  9. Examples of Energy Minerals and their end use
    • Coal gas, oil, uranium
    • Electricity, transportation
  10. 3 types of Metallic Minerals
    • 1. Ferous
    • 2. Precious
    • 3. Base
  11. Example of Ferous Metallic Mineral and End use
    • Iron ore, titanium
    • Aerospace, engineering
  12. Example of Precious Metallic Mineral and end use
    • Gold, platinium, silver
    • Jewellery, industrial
  13. Example of Base Metal Minerals and end use
    • Cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, zinc
    • Construction, Engineering
  14. 3 types of nonmetallic minerals
    • Construction
    • Industrial
    • Precious
  15. Examples of Construction Nonmetallic Minerals and end use
    • Bricks, Cement, Gypsum, Gravel
    • Construction
  16. Examples of Industrial Nonmetallic Minerals and end use
    • salt, sand, sulphur
    • ceramics, steel, water treatment
  17. Examples of Precious nonmetallic minerals and end use
    • Diamond, jems
    • jewellery
  18. Metals
    Chemical elements that conduct electricity
  19. In nature, metals occur in the form of?
    Minerals
  20. Ores
    Minerals occuring in sufficient quantity and grade to be economically exploitable
  21. Most important metal in the world
    Iron Ore
  22. Least important metal in the world
    Bauxite
  23. Most minerals crystallise from
    Magma or lava
  24. Molten Material
    A liquid mixture of freely moving crystals
  25. How can water produce minerals?
    By evaporation and chemical precipitation
  26. 5 ways of Minerals formation
    • Crystallisation from a melt
    • Metamorphic Recrystallisation
    • Evaporation
    • Crystallisation as cement from flowng pore waters
    • Crystallisation from hydrothermal fluids
  27. Crystallisation from a melt and example
    • Crystalline interlocking texture so rarely euhedral
    • quartz, feldspar, mica
  28. Metamorphic Recrystallisation
    • Crystalline interlocking texture often with overgrowths
    • calcite, garnet
  29. Evaporation
    • Crystalline usually euhedral
    • halite
  30. Crystallisation as cement from flowing pore waters
    • Crystalline very fine grained and holds clasts together
    • quartz, calcite
  31. Crystallisation from hydrothermal fluids
    • Crystalline in veins and faults crystallises out from supersaturated fluids when cools
    • gangue, quartz, calcite
  32. Environmental impact of using minerals
    • High energy use
    • Disturb land
    • Erode soil
    • Produce solid waste
    • Pollute air, water, soil
  33. Why is mining relevant to development?
    • Many developing countries depend on mining for more than half of their export income
    • Ease of entry into mining
    • Scale of revenues
  34. 4 Mining methods
    • Open pit mining
    • Strip mining
    • Contour strip mining
    • Mountaintop removal
  35. 3 Types of Mines
    • Open-pit
    • Strip Mining
    • Underground Mining
  36. Open-pit mining 2nd cheapest
    • Largest environmental impact
    • Used when ore bodies lie near the surface
    • Large hole exposes the ore body
    • Waste rock is removed
  37. Strip Mining
    • Cheapest
    • Safest method
    • The ore is close to the surface of the land but has one or more layers of rock and dirt on top of it
  38. Underground Mining
    • Most expensive
    • Most dangerous
    • Least environmental impact
    • Done when rocks, minerals or gemstones are too far underground to get our with surface mining
  39. Harmful effects of mining
    • Disruption of land surface
    • Subsidence
    • Toxic-laced mining wastes
    • Acid mine drainage
    • Air pollution
  40. Harmful effects of removing metals from ores
    • Smelting
    • Toxic holding ponds
  41. Smelting
    Air polluting by-products
  42. Substitutes for scarce mineral resources
    • Materials revolution (ceramics and placstics)
    • Limitations
    • Recycle and reuse
  43. Solutions for sustainable use of nonrenewable minerals
    • Do not waste mineral resources
    • Recycle and reuse
    • Reduce mining subsidies
    • Slow population growth
  44. Industrial use of minerals
    • Greenhouses
    • Oil refinery
    • Local farmers
    • Area homes

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