IDTA Associate Theory - FREESTYLE.txt

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Markaich
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241185
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IDTA Associate Theory - FREESTYLE.txt
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2013-10-17 07:47:01
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Freestyle Dance Theory IDTA
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IDTA Associate Freestyle Theory
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  1. Freestyle Dance? (compulsory)
    • An artistic dance style
    • Takes its roots from co-ordinating accentuated body movements together with a number of basic movements and steps incorporating arm, head and hand positions.
    • This being controlled and developed by teachers, taking into account modern trends and modern music, to give pupils building blocks
    • This allows the individual dancer freedom to express themselves from within these criteria to produce Freestyle dancing.
  2. Posture?
    • Stand with the feet slightly apart and naturally turned out.
    • The weight evenly distributed over the balls of the feet.
    • The spine is stretched upward so that the breastbone tilts up slightly, carrying the whole chest to a slightly uplifted position
    • This stretch is continued through the neck to the head with the eyes facing forwards and the chin at a right angle to the neck.
  3. Rhythm?
    The regular occurence or recurrence of an accented beat or beats in a bar of music
  4. Time Signature?
    • The number of beats in a bar of music and the value of each beat
    • e.g. 2/4 The digit (2) above the line is the number of beats in the bar and the digit (4) below the line is the value of each beat i.e. crochet.
    • The time signature of Freestyle is normally 2/4 or 4/4.
  5. Tempo?
    • The speed of the music.
    • This is measured as the number of beats or bars per minute
  6. Counting in Beats and Bars
    • To count in beats and at the same time accumulate the numbers of bars
    • e.g. 1234 2234 3234 4234 etc
  7. Poise?
    The correct carriage of the body weight whether stationary, preparing to move or moving.
  8. Locomotive Action?
    Movements which involve travel e.g. Runs, Leaps, Progressive Spins.
  9. Non-locomotive Action?
    Movements which are performed on the spot e.g. Plie, Scuff, Twist turn.
  10. Pattern?
    A group of steps and movements which create various shapes either in the air and/or on the floor.
  11. Routine?
    A series of steps and movements
  12. Accent?
    The emphasis placed on a regular or irregular beat of music.
  13. Accented Movements?
    • Movements that are used to emphasise a particular piece of music
    • e.g an "explosion" or highlight could be used for a strong piece of music, for example, a Leap or Box Splits Jump
  14. Phrase?
    A distinct passage of music, e.g., a chorus.
  15. Rhythmical Expression?
    The way in which a dancer interprets the music by using their own methods of expressing their feelings through movement.
  16. Balance?
    The correct distribution of the weight of the body over the feet.
  17. Important Exercise Do's and Don'ts
    • Do not eat in the 3 hours before doing abdominal exercises. If not possible, keep to very light foods such as fruit
    • Never throw leg or arm movements against the joint as this could result in a tissue injury
    • With exercise that involves kicks, ensure that the muscles around the joint are relaxed
    • Avoid the danver of rupture (hernia) which can be caused if strong abdominal contractions are encouraged without due care in training
    • Be careful of spinal damage that can be cause in a number of ways; some of the most common mistakes are:
    • - Sudden forward bending movements of the trunk, especially with the breath held;
    • - Double leg raising, which used to be advocated for strengtheninmg stomach muscles but is now knwon to be dangerous
    • - Sit-ups with a straight back, similar to double leg raising, this is now known to be dangerous
  18. About Warm (or Limber) Up
    • To wake up the muscles, not just to make the body feel warm; the body must be warm on the inside
    • Because we cannot expect our bodies to go from rest to full speed directly, we need to warm up to gradually increase the work don by the heart and lungs and to ensure that the body becomes more flexible to reduce the risk of injury (to muscles, joints, ligaments and tendons)
    • Movements, such as swinging, swaying, shaking and rhythmical exercises, should be used to promote blood flow to the muscles. The movements should flow gradually from one to another, gradually increasing in intensity
    • A good way to start is jogging on the spot or around the room followed by a variety of exercises such as jumping jacks, grapevive, arm swings, shoulder movements, plies, hip circles, etc
    • All stretches should be counteracted with relaxation to ensure the release of tension
    • If we are tired and hot at the end of warm up the exercises were not correctly balanced and were too vigorous.
    • The warm up should end without tension in the body to allow blood to flow evenly
  19. Benefits of Warm Up?
    • it takes the body from a resting state to an alert, ready for action state
    • it makes the muscles warm and more able to stretch
    • it incorporates exercises that will warm the blood as it travels through the muscles, allowing them to soften and stretch more easily
    • it allows the blood to be more efficiently distributed, re-routing to the muscles and skin and away from areas that are not the focis of exercise, e.g. intestine or gut
    • it gives the heart time to adjust to a faster and stronger beat
    • it makes the breathing deeper and faster
    • it helps adjust the body's temperature control
    • it gives the message carriers (nerves) a chance to build up to performance speed
    • it's a time to focus thinking, concentrating on how we are moving
  20. Head Positions?
    • Erect: facing forward with the chin at a right angleto the neck
    • Turned: facing either left or right
    • Inclined: tilted from the vertical position
    • Turned & Inclined: muse like
    • Raised: lifted upward
    • Lowered: facing downward
    • Head Roll/Half Circular Movement: turn head to one side then lower the chin; allow the head to circle in a downward direction to complete the half-circle
    • (Note: it is dangerous to rotate the head upward as this can cause damage to the spine; these movements are discouraged)
  21. Arm Positions?
    • Parallel: Both arms carried in the same direction as each other and being equi-distant
    • High V: Both arms stretched upward and outward
    • Horizontal: both arm stretched outward at shoulder height, parallel to the floor
    • Low V: Both arms stretched downward and outward
    • Diagonal: One arm stretched high and the other low in opposite directions to each other at any level
    • Opposition: Arms carried in opposite directions to each other, i.e. one forward, one back at any level
  22. Arm Movements?
    • Arm Circles: the circling of one or both arms in any direction from either the shoulder or elbow
    • Wrist Circles: the continuous circling of the of either one or both of the hands from the wrists
    • Pushing: to thrust either one or both arms away from the body in any direction
    • Pulling: to draw either one or both arms inward from any direction
    • Arm Swings: a pendulum movement of either or both arms in any direction
  23. Hand Positions:
    • Fanned: fingers extended and apart with the palms facing any direction
    • Dove Hand: fingers together streched upward and teh thumb stretched downward
    • Blade Hand: fingers and thumbs closed together
    • Pointing: normally done with the index finger
    • Fist Clenched:
    • Relaxed: as if for shaking
  24. Hand Movements:
    • Clap: strike the palms of the hands together
    • Snap: click using a finger agains thumb
    • Hand Rolls: a circular movement of both hands around each other, either forward or backward
  25. Body Movements?
    • Contraction: an inward pull of muscle tension. When a muscle contracts it shortens, hardens and broadens
    • Relaxation: the release of all tension from the body allowing the limbs to become limp and heavy
    • Middle Body Movement: the expamsion and contraction of the diaphragm. This can be used as an isolated action or in conjunction with pelvic action
    • Rib Cage Movement: the isolated movement of the rib cage in any direction
    • Shoulder Movement: the isolated movement of either one or both shoulders in any direction. The fast alternating movement of both shoulders is also know as 'shimmying'
    • Body Bending: to curve thebody, either forward, backward or laterally. A combination of these can be used
    • Sway: to incline the body to right or left
    • Bounce: a light up and down movement bought about by the flexing and straightening of the knees and ankles
    • (there was a lot more bounce action used in earlier days of disco/freestyle, particularly in the younger agre groups. This has been generally relpalced by more 'earthy' movement)
    • Shake: to use rapid, vibrating movement
    • Body Stretching: to extend and expand one or more parts of the bodt either singularly or collectively
    • Rhythmical Body Action: describes movements that enable the dance to express the rhythm of the music and is sometimes referred to as 'body reaction'
    • Expansion: to extend one or more parts of the body thereby to increase in length and/or width and height
  26. Step?
    a movement of one foot taken in any direction with weight tranference
  27. Pressure Step?
    • A movement of one foot, in any direction, without weight transference.
    • The step is taken with pressure into the floor, partial weight being retained on the supporting foot (e.g. Samba or Jive 'a' steps)
  28. Walk? (compulsory)
    • A weight transference from one foot to another moving in any direction (a series of steps)
    • Both feet close to the floor, with one foot always in contact with the floor
    • Body weight should be held of the balls of the feet with head and chest uplifted
    • Forward walks are normally done with teh ball of the foot making contact first although, heel leads can be used to achieve different effects. In any case, the body weight should not be allowed to drop back
    • Backward walks are normally achieved by rolling through the feet from the ball to the heel with the release of the front heel as the back heel lowers. However, in order to achieve a different effect, the toe of the front foot can be released as the back heel lowers
    • Foot pressure into the floor is important to produce strength through the ankles and legs
    • Walks can also be performed sideways or diagonally
    • A turning walk is more often used in slow dance
    • Many varied arm movements can be used for walks in each direction
  29. Shoulder Walks?
    • Normally a backward rolling movement of each shoulder
    • Shoulder used corresponds to the foot being used to step (i.e LF = Left Shoulder, RF = Right Shoulder)
    • Shoulders can be roled forward and can be opposite to foot
  30. Run?
    • A weight transferrance from one foot to the other while moving in any direction
    • A faster action than walking
    • There is a point where both feet are off the ground
  31. Stride?
    • An elongated run
    • A 'stretched run' where the leg is extended further than in a normal run
    • The inside edge of the back toe should be in contact with the floor
  32. Jump?
    • The elevation of the body upward so that both feet leave the floor
    • Landing can be on both feet simultaneaously or on one foot only
    • When landing, the knees and ankles are flexed (to absorb shock)
    • Wayne Sleep - "anyone can jump, only the best can land"
  33. Hop?
    • Elevation of the body upward from one foot, landing on the same foot
    • When landing, the knee and ankle are flexed (to absorb shock)
    • Can be performed on the spot or with progression in any direction
  34. Spin?
    • A rotation, left or right, on the spot of travelling
    • Normally performed on the ball of the foot
  35. Turn?
    • A revelolving movement normally incorporating a series of steps
    • Can be either with of without progression
  36. Open Turn?
    A three step turn moving continuously to left or right
  37. Chasse?
    A three step movement in any direction, closing or almost closing the feet on the second step
  38. Plie?
    • A flexing and straightening of the knees
    • The knees are aligned with the feet (i.e. point in the same direction)
    • The heels can be released from the floor
  39. Demi Plie?
    • A plie with only slight flexing of the knees
    • Heels normally remain on the floor
  40. Switch Turn?
    • A step forward onto a foot (L or R) followed by a 1/2 turn away from that foot; weight is collected on the opposite foot
    • The amount of turn can vary
  41. Whisk Turn?
    • A step to the side onto a foot (L or R) normally with a slight spring
    • The other foot is crossed behind the first with part weight and knees slightly flexed
    • A turn is then made away from the first foot on the balls of both feet
    • When a 1/2 turn is made, the feet normall end apart , with weight evenly distributed
    • When a whole turn is made, the feet re-cross and weight is transferred to the second foot
    • Can be used as a travelling movement
  42. Cross Turn?
    • A step to the side onto a foot (L or R) normally with a slight spring
    • The other foot is crossed in front of the first with part weight and knees slightly flexed
    • A turn is then made away from the first foot on the balls of both feet
    • When a 1/2 turn is made, the feet normall end apart , with weight evenly distributed
    • When a whole turn is made, the feet re-cross and weight is transferred to the second foot
    • The amount of turn can vary
  43. Twist Turn?
    • A turn commences with one foot in front of the other
    • There is a rise onto the balls of both feet and a 1/2 turn made away from the front foot
    • The feet lower and recross and a second 1/2 turn made
    • The feet lower and recross
    • The amount of turn can be varied
    • Can be performed without foot rise
  44. Flick?
    A brisk movement of the lower leg, from the knee in any direction (the knee is pointing)
  45. Kick?
    A brisk movement of the whole leg, from the hip in any direction
  46. Ball Change?
    A change of weight from the ball of one foot onto the ball of flat of the other
  47. Kick/Flick Ball Change?
    • A kick or flick with one foot followed by a small step back onto the ball of that foot
    • This is followed by a small step forward or on the spot onto the other foot
    • Can be danced in reverse: Ball Change > Kick/Flick
  48. Stamp?
    • The placing of one foot with firm pressure onto the floor with the foot flat
    • A heavy sound is made
    • Can be performed with or without weight (transfer)
  49. Scuff?
    A moving stamp that normally ends with a streched foot
  50. Stomp?
    A short, sharp forward push or shunt into the floor with one or both feet and a slight flexing of the knee(s)
  51. Brush?
    A swing of the leg using the hip and knee joint, forward or backward with the ball of the moving foot in contact with the floor as it passes the supporting foot
  52. Lunge?
    A step taken in any direction on either foot with the weight held over the flexed supporting leg, leaving the other leg extended
  53. Developpe?
    To unfold either leg in any direction while standing on the other foot
  54. Spiral?
    A turn on the ball of one foot with the other foot held loosely in front without weight
  55. Tap?
    A light contact with the floor on either foot using the toe or ball of the foot, with out weight transfer
  56. Spring?
    A light elevation of the body from one foot landing on the opposite foot with flexing of the knee and ankle
  57. Cross-Tap-Kick?
    • a series of steps and kick as follows
    • Count 1: step one foot forward and across the other
    • Count 2: extend the second foot to the side without weight
    • Count 3: step the secong foot forward and across the first
    • Count 4: Kick the first foot
  58. About The Cool Down
    • is a gradual slowing down to 'street level', gradually returning the body mentally and physically to a non-exercising level
    • it helps reduce muscle stiffness and disperse Lactic Acid
    • Movements should be easy, rhythmical and flowing and should gradually wind down to a slower, almost standstill state
    • It should include gentle stretching and exercises that seek to reverse the warm up
  59. Basic Movement?
    The type of action dicvated by the construction of the join in question
  60. Composite Movement?
    the linking of 2 or 3 basic movements simultaneously thus creating a new movement
  61. Complex Movement?
    A movement created by the combination of basic and composite movements using different parts of the body
  62. What does stretching achieve?
    • greater muscle length over time
    • diminished tension in the muscles
    • diffusion of of lactic acid (which can cause muscle spasm)
    • easing or prevention of muscle soreness
    • helps creat long, strong muscles
    • more elastic muscles to help prevent injury
    • the correct stretches can be used as part of the treatment for injuries
  63. Types of stretch
    • Active: belongs to the family of moving stretches; e.g. lifting the leg in a controlled kick; difficult to hold for more than a few seconds
    • Ballistic: a moving stretch that is more of a bouncing action than a stretch; does not achieve the desired results over time; should be treated with caution and only done when the muscles are warm
    • Dynamic: a moving but natural stretch (e.g on waking up); not to be underestimated; to gain benefit should be done in a series of repetitions; exercise should stop when muscles are tired as they become less elastic
    • Isometric: a non-moving stretch achieved by resistance and tensing the stretched muscle; one of the quickest ways to increase flexibility and helps the muscle strengthen; 1) Get into position, 2) tense the stretched muscle for 6-12 seconds 3) relax the stretch, keeping hold for 12 seconds the repeat tensing; should not be used by children or youn people with growing bones & muscles
    • P.N.F (proprioceptive neuromuscular facuilitating): a moving stretch that is a combination of passive and isometric stretching; different from isometric in that the limb is moved after tensing; 1) tense muscle for 6-12 seconds, 2) relax the muscle for 2-3 seconds, increase the passive strech (move limb) and hold for 10-15 second, 4) relax for 20 seconds; like isometric should not be used by children or youn people with growing bones & muscles

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