Paramedic Pathophysiology

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Paramedic Pathophysiology
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Pearson Paramedic Care Volume 2 Chapter 1 study cards
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  1. Glucose transported across cell membranes with helper proteins
    Facilitated Diffusion
  2. Unbranched chains of amino acids
    Proteins
  3. Where does protein synthesis take place?
    Ribosome
  4. What factors affect stroke volume?
    Preload, Cardiac Contractile Force, Afterload
  5. What is the meaning of Atomic Number?
    Number of protons
  6. What type of bond holds amino acids together?
    Peptide bond
  7. Enzymes are ____________
    Proteins
  8. Cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle cells are made in the _______
    Mesoderm
  9. Where are bound ribosomes bound to?
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  10. Where are lung tissue cells made?
    Endoderm
  11. Where are lipid and protein components of plasma membrane maintained?
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
  12. What carries energy to electron transport chain?
    NADH
  13. Actions of white blood cells during inflammation are mediated by _______
    Plasma Protein Systems
  14. Infectious agent that is smaller than viruses, made of proteins and don't have protective shell.
    Prions
  15. Hyperventilation causes ______
    Respiratory alkalosis
  16. Hypoventilation causes ______
    Respiratory acidosis
  17. How much water is in plasma?
    92%
  18. An electrolyte solution os sodium chloride in water
    Normal Saline
  19. Skeletal muscle is attached to _______
    Bones
  20. Skeletal muscle is under __________ control
    Voluntary
  21. Smooth muscle is found __________
    internal organs, blood vessels and bladder.
  22. Smooth muscle is under ____________ control
    involuntary
  23. Type of muscle that moves food through the digestive tract
    Smooth muscle
  24. Muscle found only in the heart
    Cardiac Muscle
  25. Cardiac muscle cells are almost totally dependent on __________ ___________ to obtain the energy needed to continue contracting.
    aerobic metabolism
  26. Type of shock caused by impaired pumping power of the heart
    Cardiogenic
  27. Type of shock caused by decreased blood or water volume
    Hypovolemic
  28. Type of shock caused by an obstruction that interferes with the return of blood to the heart
    Obstructive
  29. Causes of obstructive shock
    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Cardiac tamponade
    • Tension pneumothorax
  30. Type of shock caused by abnormal distribution and return of blood
    Distributive
  31. Causes of distributive shock
    • Vasodialation
    • Vasopermeability
    • (Neurogenic, anaphylactic, septic shocks)
  32. Inability of the heart to pump enough blood to supply all body parts
    Cardiogenic shock
  33. Type of shock characterized by presence of pulmonary edema
    Cardiogenic
  34. Type of shock due to loss of intravascular fluid volume
    Hypovolemic Shock
  35. Hypovolemic shock causes:
    • Internal/external hemorrhage
    • Traumatic injury
    • Long bone or open fractures
    • Severe dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Plasma loss from burns
    • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  36. Type of shock caused from injury to either the brain of the spinal cord
    Neurogenic Shock
  37. Arteries lose tone and dilate causing ________ shock
    Neurogenic
  38. Type of shock caused by infection that enters the bloodstream and is carried throughout the body
    Septic Shock
  39. Most common causes of MODS
    Sepsis and septic shock
  40. Where do T cells develop?
    Thymus
  41. Hormone secreted by adrenal cortex; regulates metabolism of fat, carbs, sodium, potassium and protein
    Cortisol
  42. Chemical reaction that results in the transfer of protons
    Acid-Base Reaction
  43. Excess of acids in the body
    Acidosis
  44. Excess of base in the body
    Alkalosis
  45. Elevated CO
    Hypercapnia
  46. Not enough CO2
    Hypocapnia
  47. Movement of a substance across cell membrane against osmotic gradient; requires ATP
    Active Transport
  48. High energy compound present in all cells; stores energy
    • Adenosine Triphosphate
    • ATP
  49. Fat
    adipose
  50. Requiring O2; second stage of metabolism where glucose is broken down; yields high amount of energy
    Aerobic metabolism
  51. Resistance heart must overcome in order to eject blood
    Afterload
  52. Protein that maintains blood volume and pressure
    Albumin
  53. Exaggerated immune response to antigen
    Allergy
  54. Building blocks of proteins
    Amino Acids
  55. Constructive phase of metabolism; cells convert nonliving substances into living cytoplasm
    Anabolism
  56. First stage of metabolism; doesn't require O2; breakdown of glucose
    Anaerobic Metabolism
  57. Life threatening allergic reaction
    Anaphylaxis
  58. Negatively charged ion
    Anion
  59. What are the most frequently occurring anions?
    • Chloride (Cl-)
    • Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
    • Phosphate (PO4-)
  60. What are the most frequently occurring cations?
    • Sodium (Na+)
    • Potassium (K+)
    • Calcium (Ca+)
    • Magnesium (Mg+)
  61. Produced by B-lymphocytes in response to foreign antigen
    Antibody
  62. Marker on surface on cell that identifies it as self of non-self
    Antigen
  63. Substance formed when an antibody combines with antigen to destroy it
    Antigen-antibody complex
  64. Injured cells release enzymes that destroy itself ("suicide"); a way a body gets rid of damaged and dead cells
    Apoptosis
  65. Fundamental chemical unit; contains electrons, protons & neutrons
    Atom
  66. Number of protons in nucleus of an atom
    Atomic Number
  67. Decrease in cell size
    Atrophy
  68. Failure of immune system to recoginze it's own tissues; attacking body's own tissues; rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatic heart disease
    Autoimmune disease
  69. Controls involuntary actions
    Autonomic nervous system
  70. White blood cells that produce antibodies, develop a memory for antigens and confer long term immunity
    B- Lymphocytes
  71. Single cell organism; binds to cells of host; no nucleus
    Bacteria
  72. Thin sheet of fibers that line/cover internal and external body surfaces
    Basement membrane
  73. Substance that acquires protons during chemical reactions
    Base
  74. Granular WBC; releases histamine and other chemicals, controls constriction and dilation of blood vessels during inflammation
    Basophils
  75. Preserves or restores normal acid-base balance
    Buffer
  76. Recording of exhaled CO2
    Capnography
  77. Process of developing cancer
    Carcinogenesis
  78. Strength of a contraction of the heart
    Cardiac Contractile Force
  79. Amount of blood pumped by heart in 1 minute
    (Stroke volume X heart rate)
    Cardiac Output
  80. Insufficient cardiac output; inability of the heart to pump enough blood to perfuse the body
    Cardiogenic Shock
  81. Process where carrier proteins transport large molecules across cell membranes
    Facilitated Diffusion
  82. Proteins that carry solutes across biologic membranes
    Carrier Proteins
  83. Destructive phase of metabolism; cells breakdown substances and release energy
    Catabolism
  84. Epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones that affect nervous and cardiovascular systems, metabolic rate, temp & smooth muscle
    Catecholamines
  85. Positive charged ions
    Cations
  86. Basic structural unit; membrane that encloses thick fluid and nucleus
    Cell
  87. Short-term immunity to an antigen; made by T-lymphocytes; no memory
    Cell-mediated immunity
  88. Metabolic process that converts nutrients into energy (ATP) and releases waste products
    Cellular respiration
  89. Detects and acts on chemical signals; ie: increasing respiration rate to expel excess CO2
    Chemoreceptors
  90. Chemicals that attract WBC to site of inflammation
    Chemotaxis
  91. DNA and proteins in nucleus of a cell that form chromosomes
    Chromatin
  92. Thread-like projections on a cell surface that move back and forth; sweep away debris
    Cilia
  93. Pyruvic acid is oxidized, releasing energy (ATP) and Co2; requires O2
    Citric Acid Cycle
  94. Development of receptors in bone marrow for every possible type of antigen
    Colonal Diversity
  95. Non-protein substance that binds to enzyme proteins to assist in biochemical transformations
    Coenzymes/Cofactors
  96. IV solution with large proteins that can't pass through cell membranes
    Colloid
  97. Types of Colloid IV solutions
    Dextran, Plasmanate
  98. Early shock, body is still able to maintain perfusion
    Compensated Shock
  99. Chemical union of 2 or more elements
    Compound
  100. Present from birth
    Congenital
  101. Most abundant body tissue; supports connection and insulation  is: bone, cartilage, fat, blood
    Connective tissue
  102. Steroid hormone released by adrenal cortex; regulates metabolism and has anti-inflammatory effect
    Cortisol
  103. Force holding atoms together, share electrons
    Covalent bond
  104. Folds within mitochondria that form shelves
    Cristae
  105. IV solution containing electrolytes
    Crystalloid
  106. Types of crystalloid solutions
    • 9% Sodium Chloride
    • Lactated Ringers
    • D5W
  107. WBC protein that regulates immune system
    Cytokines
  108. Thick fluid that fills a cell
    Cytoplasm
  109. Advanced/late shock; body can no longer maintain normal perfusion
    Decompensated Shock
  110. Movement of WBC out of blood vessels through gaps created by inflammatory process
    Diapedesis
  111. Genetic code carried in nucleus of all cells
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    • DNA
  112. Movement of molecules from area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; osmosis; no energy
    Diffusion
  113. Complex sugars: sucrose, lactose & maltose
    Disaccharides
  114. Abnormal structure or function within the body
    Disease
  115. Separate, breakdown
    Dissociate
  116. Change in cell shape, size or appearance
    Dysplasia
  117. Abnormal breathing
    Dyspnea
  118. Excess fluid in the interstitial space
    Edema
  119. Substance that separates into electrically charged particles
    Electrolyte
  120. Carriers on cristae that transfer electrons and release energy
    Electron transport chain
  121. Substance that can't be broken into smaller parts
    Element
  122. Process where a section of cell membrane encircles a substance then pinches off and releases into the cell
    Endocytosis
  123. Innermost germ layer of embryo
    Endoderm
  124. Organelle with in a cell that is a network of tubes, vesicles and sacs that interconnect with the plasma membrane, nuclear envelope and organelles
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
  125. Substance released from bacteria when it is destroyed or dies that causes toxic effects on the body
    Endotoxins
  126. Substance that speeds up chemical reactions
    Enzymes
  127. Protective tissue that lines internal and external body tissue - ie: skin, mucous membranes, lining of intestinal tract
    Epithelial Tissue
  128. Red blood cells
    Erythrocytes
  129. Contains hemoglobin, transports O2
    Erythrocytes (RBC)
  130. Study of disease causes
    Etiology
  131. Type of cell with nucleus and organelles
    Eukaryotic
  132. Process of a substance exiting after being encircled by a membrane
    Exocytosis
  133. Toxins released by bacteria during growth
    Exotoxins
  134. Fluid outside body cells
    Extracellular Fluid
  135. Breakdown of glucose without O2
    Fermentation
  136. The most abundant cells in connective tissues; important role in wound healing
    Fibroblast
  137. 5 conditions of oxygen movement and utilization
    Fick Principle
  138. Thread-like structures that undulate to move bacteria and sperm
    Flagella
  139. Atoms/molecules with unpaired electrons in the outer shell. Highly reactive; cause cell damage
    Free Radicals
  140. 5-carbon monosaccharide sugar found in plants, vegetables and honey
    Fructose
  141. 6-carbon monosaccharide sugar found in dairy
    Galactose
  142. Stages of General Alarm Syndrome (GAS)
    • Stage I - Alarm
    • Stage II - Resistance/adaptation
    • Stage III - Exhaustion
  143. 3 primitive cell types that develop in embryos; they become all tissues and organs of the bodies
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Ectoderm
  144. Endoderm tissues becomes ___________ tissue
    Epithelial
  145. Mesoderm tissue becomes ____________ tissue
    Muscle
  146. Ectoderm tissue becomes ____________ tissue
    skin, covers all body surfaces & nervous system
  147. Substance that increases blood glucose
    Glucagon
  148. 6 carbon monosaccharide; principal energy source
    Glucose
  149. Substance stored in the liver and skeletal muscle and can be converted into glucose
    Glycogen
  150. Process controlled by hormones (glucagon and epinephrine) which breaks down glycogen stores into glucose to meet body's glucose needs
    Glycogenolysis
  151. Process where molecules of glucose converted into pyruvic acid; begins conversion to glucose into energy
    Glycolysis
  152. Organelle that packages proteins for all cell membranes "Post Office"
    Golgi Apparatus
  153. Filling a wound by inward growth of healthy tissues
    Granulation
  154. WBC with granular sacs
    Granulocytes
  155. Types of Granulocytes (WBC)
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  156. Tumor/growth that forms a wall around foreign bodies
    Granuloma
  157. Molecules that don't trigger an immune response until combined with other larger molecules
    Haptens
  158. Percentage of red blood cells found in body
    Hematocrit
  159. Iron based pigment in RBC that binds and carries O2
    Hemoglobin
  160. Destruction of red blood cells
    Hemolysis
  161. Stoppage of bleeding
    Hemostasis
  162. Released during degranulation of mast cells; increases blood flow to injury site and increases permeability of blood vessel walls
    Histamine
  163. Study of tissue
    Histology
  164. Antigens the body recognized as self; in all cells except RBC
    HLA Antigens
  165. Long-term immunity to an antigen
    Humoral Immunity
  166. Blood pressure; force against vessel walls
    Hydrostatic pressure
  167. Increased CO2 in plasma
    Hypercapnia
  168. Increased CO2 in blood
    Hypercarbia
  169. An increase in number of cells from increased work load
    Hyperplasia
  170. "Allergy"; exaggerated and harmful immune response
    Hypersensitivity
  171. Higher solute concentration
    Hypertonic
  172. An increase in cell size
    Hypertrophy
  173. A decrease in CO2 in plasma
    Hypocapnia
  174. Inadequate perfusion of body tissues; Shock
    Hypoperfusion
  175. Lower solute concentration
    Hypotonic
  176. Loss of intravascular fluid volume
    Hypovolemic Shock
  177. Decrease in partial pressure of O2 in blood
    Hypoxemia
  178. O2 deficiency
    Hypoxia
  179. Mechanism that increases respiratory rate when PaCO2 falls and decreases respiratory rate when PaCO2 increases
    Hypoxic Drive
  180. Disease that results from medical treatment
    Iatrogenic Disease
  181. Unknown origin
    Idopathic
  182. Long-term protection from disease
    Immunity
  183. Antigens that trigger immune response
    Immunogens
  184. Antibodies; proteins produced in response to foreign antigens
    Immunoglobulins
  185. Body's response to cellular injury
    Inflammation
  186. Fluid in body tissues; outside cells and outside vascular system
    Interstitial fluid
  187. Fluid inside cells
    Intracellular Fluid
  188. Charged particle
    Ion
  189. Bond resulting form attraction between negative charge and positive charge
    Ionic bond
  190. Shock that has progressed so far that no medical intervention can reverse; death is inevitable
    Irreversible Shock
  191. Blockage of delivery of oxygenated blood
    Ischemia
  192. Immune response to antigens from members of the same species; (Rh Factor)
    Isoimmunity
  193. Equal concentration
    Isotonic
  194. Plasma protein system that produces bradykinin; causes pain; important during later stages of inflammation; slower acting than histamine
    Kinin System
  195. Principle sugar in milk
    Lactose
  196. White blood cells
    Leukocytes
  197. Substance synthesized by mast cells during inflammatory response; cause vasodilation, vascular permeability and chemotaxis
    Leukotrienes
  198. Chemicals not soluble in water
    Lipids
  199. Types of Lipids
    • Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Steroids
  200. WBC that attacks foreign substances
    Lympocyte
  201. Organelle that degrades and removes waste; "Garbage disposal system"
    Lysosome
  202. Large WBC; ingests and destroys invading organisms
    Macrophages
  203. Large cells with granules; activate inflammatory response
    Mast Cell
  204. Cells produced by B Lymphocytes that remember antigens
    Memory Cell
  205. Middle germ layer
    Mesoderm
  206. Increased acidity due to vomiting, diarrhea or diabetes
    Metabolic Acidosis
  207. Increased alkalinity due to vomiting, diuresis, too much sodium bicarbonate
    Metabolic Alkalosis
  208. Body's breading down of chemicals into different chemicals; changes that take place during physiolological processes
    Metabolism
  209. Movement of cancer cells to other areas of the body away from where they first appeared
    Metastasis
  210. Amount of air inhaled and exhaled in 1 minute
    Minute Volume
  211. Organelles that convert food to energy
    Mitochondria
  212. Cell division
    Mitosis
  213. Atoms held together by covalent bonds
    Molecule
  214. WBC; largest normal blood cell; becomes a macrophage during inflammation
    Monocyte
  215. Cytokine released by macrophage
    Monokine
  216. Simple sugars; glucose, fructose, galactose
    Monosaccharides
  217. Progressive impairment of 2 or more organ systems due to uncontrolled inflammatory response to a severe illness or injury
    • Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
    • MODS
  218. Tissue that contracts when stimulated
    Muscle tissue
  219. Cell death
    Necrosis
  220. Abnormal or uncontrolled cell growth
    Neoplasia
  221. Tumor resulting from neoplasia
    Neoplasm
  222. Glial cells that protect neurons
    Neuroglia
  223. Nerve cell
    Neuron
  224. WBC; phagocyte that ingests other cells
    Neutrophil
  225. Double membrane around cell nucleus
    Nuclear Envelope
  226. Region in DNA that produces ribosomes (RNA)
    Nucleolus
  227. Building block of DNA, RNA
    Nucleotides
  228. Organelle that contains DNA, RNA proteins
    Nucleus
  229. Osmotic pressure exerted by large protein particles (colloids); pull H2O from intersitial space into capillaries
    Oncotic Force
  230. Group of tissues functioning together
    Organ
  231. Structures that perform specific functions within cells
    Organelles
  232. Substance that contains carbon
    Organic
  233. Sum of all cells, tissues, organs and organ systems
    Organism
  234. Concentration of solute per liter
    Osmolarity
  235. Movement of H2O from area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration
    Osmosis
  236. Difference in concentration of solutes on opposite sides of a seimpermeable  membrane
    Osmotic gradient
  237. Pressure exerted by solutes; if hypertonic - pulls water from other side
    Osmotic pressure
  238. Loss of electrons
    Oxidation
  239. Combine with oxygen
    Oxidize
  240. Partial pressure of CO2 in blood
    PaCO2
  241. Pressure exerted by each component of a gas mixture
    Partial pressure
  242. Microorganism producing infection or disease
    Pathogen
  243. Development of disease
    Pathogenesis
  244. Study of disease
    Pathology
  245. Protein chain
    Peptide
  246. Force that holds amino acids together
    Peptide bond
  247. Supplying oxygen to body
    Perfusion
  248. Resistance of vessels to the flow of blood
    Peripheral Vascular Resistance
  249. Organelle where hydrogen peroxide is degraded
    Peroxisome
  250. Cells that ingest other cells; granulocytes and monocytes
    Phagocytes
  251. Class of lipid that form cell membranes
    Phospholipid
  252. Measure of relative acidity or alkalinity
    pH Scale
  253. Normal body pH
    7.35 - 7.45
  254. Liquid part of blood
    Plasma
  255. Surrounds cells
    Plasma membrane
  256. Actions triggered by proteins in blood
    Plasma Protein System
  257. Unequal sharing of electrons
    Polar Bond
  258. Carbohydrates; starch, cellulose, glycogen
    Polysaccharides
  259. Amount of blood delivered to heart during diastole
    Preload
  260. Initial development of antibodies
    Primary Immune Response
  261. Cells with no nucleus or organelles; bacteria
    Prokaryotic
  262. Building blocks of cells; essential for growth
    Protein
  263. Positive charge
    Proton
  264. Mixture of dead cells, tissue and fluid
    Pus
  265. Gain of electrons
    Reduction
  266. Regrowth
    Regeneration
  267. Wound healing
    Repair
  268. Complete healing of wound
    Resolution
  269. Exchange of gasses between living organisms
    Respiration
  270. Abnormal retention of CO2; hypoventilation
    Respiratory Acidosis
  271. Excessive elimination of CO2; hyperventilation
    Respiratory Alkalosis
  272. Number of breaths per minute
    Respiratory rate
  273. Antigen in Rh blood group; aka: antigen D
    Rh Factor
  274. Contains ribosomes during protein synthesis
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  275. Swift, strong response of immune system to repeated exposures to an antigen
    Secondary Immune Response
  276. Systemic spread of toxins
    Septicemia
  277. Shock that develops as the result of infection carried by bloodstream
    Septic Shock
  278. Complications, conditions that result from another disease or problem
    Sequelae
  279. Hypoperfusion
    Shock
  280. Objective finding that can be identified through physical exam
    Sign
  281. Portion of endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes; stores key enzymes
    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
  282. Enzyme used in active transport to move sodium out of cell and potassium into cell
    Sodium-Potassium Pump
  283. Substance that dissolves other substances
    Solvent
  284. Substance dissolved in a solvent
    Solute
  285. Polymer of glucose
    Starch
  286. Organic compound; class of lipid; cholesterol, estradiol and testosterone
    Steroid
  287. Amount of blood ejected by heart in one contraction
    Stroke Volume
  288. Table sugar, a disaccharide (combination of glucose and fructose)
    Sucrose
  289. Substance that decreases surface tension and keeps tissues from sticking to each other
    Surfacant
  290. WBC that attacks antigens directly; doesn't produce antibodies
    T Lymphocyte
  291. Platlets
    Thrombocytes
  292. Blood clot
    Thrombus
  293. Average volume of gas inhaled or exhaled in one respiratory cycle
    Tidal volume
  294. Group of cells performing similar function
    Tissue
  295. Subjective complaint; what the patient is experiencing; what the patient tells you
    Symptom
  296. Total amount of water in the body
    Total Body Water
  297. Physical injury or wound caused by external force
    Trauma
  298. Mass of uncontrolled growth
    Tumor
  299. Organelle within a cell that provides temporary storage or transport
    Vacuole
  300. Outermost electron shell
    Valence shell
  301. Mechanical process of moving air into and out of lungs
    Ventilation
  302. Organism smaller that bacterium; live and invade cells they infect
    Virus
  303. 4 major elements that make up 99% of body's atoms
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon
  304. Universal solvent is _________
    Water
  305. Most rapidly acting buffer system in the body
    Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
  306. Antidiuretic hormone; chief regulator of water retention and distribution
    Vasopresin
  307. Monocyte
    Basophil
    Lymphocyte
    Eosinophil
    Neutrophil
    Platlets
    Types of WBC (leukocytes)
  308. What percentage of blood is Plasma?
    54%
  309. What percentage of blood is white blood cells?
    1%
  310. What percentage of blood is red blood cells?
    45%
  311. What are the 3 steps in cellular respiration?
    • Glycolysis
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Electron transport

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