Cytokines and ABO Quiz
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Cytokines and ABO Quiz
Lab Quiz 3
Any foreign substance
Any foreign substance that is capable of inducing an immune response.
Are immunogens antigens?
All immunogens are antigens but not all antigens are immunogens.
Characteristics of non-immunogenic antigens
<100,000 daltons (smaller)
Chemical composition of nucleic acids and lipids.
Characteristics of immunogenic antigens
> 100,000 daltons (larger)
Chemical composition of proteins and polysaccharides
Complexity of Immunogens
Stimulate the production of autoantibodies.
Stimulate the production of alloantibodies.
The key portion of the immunogen against which the immune response is directed; Antigenic determinant site.
Low molecular weight antigen
Non-immunogenic by itself
Immunogenic only when bound to a carrier molecule
Antigens that belong to the host
Antigens from other members of the host species.
Antigens which are either identical or closely related in structure to the specific antigen that antibody to one will cross-react with antibody.
A substance administered with a immunogen that enhances and potetiates the immune response.
Functions of Adjuvants
Prolongs existence of immunogen in an area
Increases effective size of immunogen
Increases # of macrophages involved in antigen processing.
Factors that influence the Immune Response
Route of inoculation
Major Histocompatibility Complex
MHC controls the expression of HLA.
(Human Leukocytes Antigens)
Human Leukocyte Antigens
1st identified on WBCs
They are present on all nucleated cells.
Play a role in humoral and cellular immunity
Antigen processing and recognition
Bring antigen to cell surface so it can be recognized by T cells.
Coding genes located on chromosome #6.
Class I - Loci
: A, B, C
Class II - Loci
: DP, DQ, DR
Class III - Codes for complement and cytokines
Class I Antigens
Present on all nucleated cells
Highest expression on lymphocytes
Antigen recognition by CD8 cytotoxic T cells
Endogenous Pathway "Intracellular Watchdogs"
Class II Antigens
Present on Lymphocytes, Monocytes/Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, Endothelium
Antigen recognition by CD4 Helper T cells
Bind EXOGENOUS protein
Chemical messengers that influence the activites of other cells.
: Autocrine, Paracrine, Endocrine
IFN - Cytokine that interferes w/ viral replication
Tumor Necrosis Factor
TNF - Cytokine involved in innate defense against gram negative bacteria.
IL - Cytokine that communicates between leukocytes.
Role of Cytokines
Chemokines - "call leukocytes"
Growth factors - Colony stimulating factors
Proinflammatory - TNF-a, IL-1, IL-6
Immunosuppressive - IL-10
Series of proteins that mediate inflammation and host defense reactions
Most exist as zymogens
Role of Complement
Activation pathway of complement
Complement Classical Pathway
Triggered by antibody coated cell
IgM (most efficient)
Few substances can bind complement directly
: recognition unit, activation unit, terminal/MAC
Alternative complement pathway
: bacteria, yeast, fungi, viruses, parasites, tumor cells.
Lectin Complement Pathway
: binds to sugars in bacteria, yeast, viruses, and parasites.