Biology 1115 Chapter 8
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Biology 1115 Chapter 8
An introduction to Metabolism
The cell _____ and _________ to perform
What is Metabolism?
is the totality of an
organisms chemical reactions.
of life that arises from interactions between molecules within the cell
What does an organism's metabolism do?
It transforms matter and energy.
What is a metabolic pathway? How is it catalyzed?
It begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product
each step is catalyzed by a
What are the two types of metabolism? Define them.
breaking down complex molecules
into simpler compounds
build complex molecules
from simpler ones
What is an example of catabolic and anabolic pathways?
What is energy?
Define kinetic energy.
It's energy associated with
Define heat (thermal energy).
associated with random movement of atoms or molecules.
Define potential energy.
is energy that matter possess because of its
What is chemical energy?
available for release in a chemical reaction.
Energy can be ________ from one form to another.
What is thermodynamics?
is the study of
What is a closed system?
from its surroundings.
What is an open system?
energy and matter can be
transferred between the system and its surroundings.
Are organisms considered closed or open systems?
What is the first law of thermodynamics? What is another name for it?
Energy can be
transferred and transformed
, but it cannot be
created or destroyed
the first law is also called the
principle of conservation of energy
During every energy transfer or transformation, some energy is __________ and is often lost as _____.
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
Every energy transfer or transformation
increases the entropy
(disorder) of the universe.
Living cells convert _______ of energy into heat/
cells create ____________ from less ordered materials.
Energy flows into an ecosystem in the form of _______ and exists in the form if _______.
Entropy may decrease in an organism, but the universes total entropy ___________.
Define spontaneous. How does it happen?
Happening or arising without apparent external cause;
without energy input
, they can happen quickly or slowly
increases entropy of universe
What is free energy?
that can do work
when temperature and pressure are uniform, as in a living cell.
What does free energy change tell us?
Free energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs
Total energy = ___________ + ____________
what is the equation for change in free energy (delta G)?
Change in total energy (delta H) minus [Temperature in Kelvin times change in entropy (delta S)]
What processes are spontaneous?
Only processes with a
negative Delta G
start to finish delta G is "downhill"
What is free energy a measure of?
is a measure of a
tendency to change
to a more stable state.
What happens to free energy and the stability of a system during a
stability of a system
state of maximum stability
A process is spontaneous and can perform work only when it's ____________
moving toward equilibrium
what is an exergonic reaction?
proceeds with a
net release of free energy
What is an endergonic reaction?
absorbs free energy
from its surroundings and is