Chapter 8: Joints

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Shira
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241227
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Chapter 8: Joints
Updated:
2013-10-23 16:53:04
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Anatomy Physiology
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Relating to the joints of the body
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  1. What is a joint?
    Site where two or more bones meet
  2. What is the function of a joint?
    Provides stability and mobility
  3. What are the three types of joint structures?
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial
  4. What are each of the three types of functions in mobility?
    • Synarthroses (Immovable)
    • Amphiarthroses (Slightly movable)
    • Diarthroses (Freely movable)
  5. What is a fibrous joint?
    Bones joined by dense, fibrous connective tissue, no joint cavity.
  6. What are the three types of fibrous joints?
    • Suture
    • Syndesmosis
    • Gomphosis
  7. Describe a suture and whether it is synarthroses, amphiarthroses, or diarthroses.
    • Joint held by short interconnecting fibers, and found only in the skull
    • Would be considered synarthroses.
  8. Describe a syndesmosis and whether it is synarthroses, amphiarthroses, or diarthroses.
    • Joint held by ligament and amount of movement depends on length of ligament.
    • Would be considered amphiarthroses.
  9. Describe what the interosseous membrane is in a syndesmosis joint?
    Flat, flexible ligament connecting the radius and the ulna in the forearm.
  10. Describe a gomphosis and whether it is synarthroses, amphiarthroses, or diarthroses.
    • Also known as "a peg in socket.”
    • Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket.
    • Would be considered synarthroses.
  11. What is a cartilaginous joint?
    Bones joined by cartilage, no joint cavity
  12. What are two types of cartilaginous joints?
    • Synchondroses
    • Symphisis
  13. Describe synchondroses and whether it is synarthroses, amphiarthroses, or diarthroses.
    • Bones united by a bar or plate of articular (hyaline) cartilage.
    • Most are immovable joints or synarthroses.
  14. Describe a symphisis and whether it is synarthroses, amphiarthroses, or diarthroses.
    • Bones united by fibrocartilage cushion and articular (hyaline) cartilage is also present.
    • Allow a limited amount of movement or, amphiarthroses.
  15. What is a synovial joint?
    Bones separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity, freely movable, most joints of the body.
  16. What are the five structures a synovial joint is composed of?
    • Articular (hyaline) cartilage
    • Joint cavity
    • Articular capsule
    • Synovial fluid
    • Reinforcing ligaments
  17. What is the purpose of articular (hyaline) cartilage in a synovial joint?
    Reduces friction, absorbs shock
  18. What does the joint cavity in a synovial joint contain?
    Synovial fluid
  19. What are the two structures of the articular capsule?
    • External fibrous layer
    • Internal synovial membrane
  20. Which structure in the articular capsule is composed of dense, irregular CT and functions in tensile strength?
    External fibrous layer
  21. Which structure in the articular capsule is composed of areolar CT and functions in secreting synovial fluid?
    Internal synovial membrane
  22. What is synovial fluid and its purpose in a synovial joint?
    Viscous, blood filtrate that contains hyaluronic acid and lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage.
  23. What are reinforcing ligaments and the three types?
    • Surround joint to give it extra strength
    • Three types are capsular (intrinsic), extracapsular, and intracapsular.
  24. Which type of the reinforcing ligament is the thickening of fibrous capsule to form a ligament?
    Capsular (intrinsic)
  25. Which type of the reinforcing ligament are distinct ligaments outside capsule?
    Extracapsular
  26. Which type of the reinforcing ligament are the distinct ligaments inside capsule (between fibrous layer and synovial membrane)?
    Intracapsular
  27. What is a bursae and its function?
    • Flattened bag “purse” of fibrous connective tissue, internal synovial membrane and synovial fluid
    • Its function is to reduce friction during joint activity.
  28. What is a tendon sheath?
    Elongated bursa along tendon
  29. What are some examples of synovial joints?
    • Knee joints
    • Shoulder
    • Elbow
    • Hip
    • Temporomandibular
  30. What is joint hypermobility?
    Joints that stretch farther than normal
  31. What are the four causes of joint hypermobility?
    • Abnormally shaped bone ends
    • Shallow joint socket
    • Collagen defect (weak ligaments)
    • Decreased muscle tone
  32. What are the three joints within the synovial cavity of the knee?
    • Two tibiofemoral joints
    • One femoropatellar joint
  33. What type of joint is the knee considered?
    Hinge joint
  34. Where are the two tibiofemoral joints located?
    • Lateral condyle of femur, lateral meniscus, and lateral condyle of tibia
    • Medial condyle of femur, medial meniscus, and medial condyle of tibia
  35. Where is the femoropatellar joint located?
    • Patella
    • Patellar surface of femur
  36. What are the three structures of the extracapsular ligaments?
    • Patellar
    • Fibular collateral ligament
    • Tibial collateral ligament
  37. What structure of the extracapsular ligament is the continuation of the quadriceps tendon, attaches to tibia, and strengthens anterior aspect of joint?
    Patellar
  38. What structure of the extracapsular ligament connects lateral condyle of femur to head of fibula and strengthens lateral aspect of joint?
    Fibular collateral ligament
  39. What structure of the extracapsular ligament connects medial condyle of femur to medial condyle of fibula and strengthens medial aspect of joint?
    Tibial collateral ligament
  40. What are the two structures of the intracapsular (cruciate) ligaments?
    • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
    • Posterior cruciate ligament
  41. What structure of the intracapsular ligament connects femur and tibia, limits hyperextension, and prevents anterior sliding of tibia on femur?
    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
  42. What structure of the intracapsular ligament connects femur and tibia and prevents posterior sliding of tibia on the femur?
    Posterior cruciate ligament
  43. What type of joint is the shoulder considered?
    Ball and socket
  44. How is the joint of the shoulder formed?
    By the head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula
  45. What does the shoulder joint contain?
    Bursae and few ligaments
  46. What type of joint is the elbow considered?
    Hinge joint
  47. How is the joint of the elbow formed?
    By trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna
  48. What type of joint is the hip considered?
    Ball and socket
  49. How is the joint of the hip formed?
    By head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone
  50. What is arthroplasty?
    Surgical procedure of replacing damaged joints with artificial joints
  51. What are two types of arthroplasty?
    Hip replacement and knee replacement
  52. What type of joint is the temporomandibular considered?
    Hinge joint
  53. How is the joint of the temporomandibular formed?
    By the condylar process of mandible and mandibular fossa of temporal bone
  54. What is arthritis?
    Inflammation or degeneration of joints
  55. What are the two types of arthritis?
    • Osteoarthritis (OA)
    • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  56. Which type of arthritis is the most common?
    Osteoarthritis
  57. Which type of arthritis is a degenerative disorder of synovial joints in which cartilage is lost, bone ends become exposed and forms bone spurs?
    Osteoarthritis
  58. What type of arthritis affects the larger joints first?
    Osteoarthritis
  59. Which type of arthritis is an autoimmune disease affecting cartilage and joint linings, and inflames the synovial membrane?
    Rheumatoid arthritis
  60. What type of arthritis affects the smaller joints first?
    Rheumatoid arthritis

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