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- little or no mobility.
- – Most synarthrosis joints are fibrous.
- – Synchondroses: bones are connected by a piece of cartilage.
- – Synostoses (Sutures): bones that are initially separated fuse together
- slight mobility.
- – bone surfaces at the joint are covered in hyaline cartilage and joined by strands of fibrocartilage, e.g. between vertebrae.
- – Allow flexion, adduction and/or pronation.
- – Also called synovial joints.
- • 1. Ball and Socket - such as the shoulder or the hip.
- • 2. Hinge - such as the elbow.
- • 3. Pivot - such as the radius and ulna.
- • 4. Condyloid (or ellipsoidal) - such as the wrist between radius and carpals.
- • 5. Saddle - such as the joint between carpal thumbs and metacarpals.
- • 6. Gliding - such as between the carpals.
Properties of cartilage
- 1 Avascular
- 2 Permeable : conducts nutrients and water
- 3 Flexible but weight-bearing : resistance to compression
- 4 Elasticity and resilliencey
- 5 resistance to shear forces
- 6 Slippery : low friction at articular joints
- 7 Poor regenerative capacity
- Ground substance
- (proteoglycans - including chondroitin and keratin sulfate - hyaluronic acid & 60-80% H2O)
- -isogenous groups - contain multiple conrocyt