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learning that has persisted over time, information that has been stored and can be retrieved.
the processing of info into the memory system (getting the info into the brain)
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting info out of memory storage
- one modern proposed information-processing model of memory
- views memories as emerging from interconnected neural networks.
- specific memories arise from particular activation patterns within these networks
The older hypothsis of memory by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
- proposed we form memories in 3 stages:
- First we record to-be-remembered info as fleeting sensory memory
- Next, we process info into short-term memory bin, where we encode through rehearsal
- Finally, info moves to long-term memory for later retrieval
- *this 3 stage process is limited and fallible
- the immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system
- *part of 3 stage memory process by Atkinson ans Shiffrin
- activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone # while dialing, before the info is stored or forgotten
- *part of 3 stage memory process by Richard Atkinson and Shiffrin
long term memory
- the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory stystem.
- Includes knowledge, skills and experiences.
- part of 3 stage memory process by Richard Atkinson and Shiffrin
- a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-apatial info, and of info retrieved from long-term memory
- associates new and old info and solves problems
The modified version of the three-stage process model of memory; 2 new important concepts
- some info skips the first two stages and is processed directly and automatically into long term memory, w/o our conscious awareness
- Working memory, a newer understanding of Atkinson and Shiffrin's 2nd state, concentrates on active processing of info in this intermediate stage
our brains capacity for simultaneous activity
unconscious encoding of incidental info... such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned info, such as word meanings
automatic processing of space
while studying, you often encod place on page w certain info. Later struggling to recall info, you may visualize it's location
automatic processing of time
While going about day, you unintentionally note sequence of day's events. Later, if you forget something, you can re-create the events and retrace your steps
automatic processing of frequency
you effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen, thus enableing you to realize that "this is the 3rd time I've ran into her today"
automatic processing of well-learned material
- For example, you see words in your native language (on side of truck,perhaps), you cannot help but register meaning.
- So automatic its difficult to shut off
- encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
- often produces durable and accessible memories
the conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
- German philosoper, scientifically studied own learning through compiling a list of nonsense syllables to memorize
- Found the more frequently he repeated the list aloud on day 1, the fewer repetitions he required to relearn the list on day 2.
- The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning.
- those who learn quickly also forget quickly
additional rehearsal, increases retention
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
cramming, can produce speedy short-term learning and feelings of confidence
distributed study time produces
better long-term recall
- repeated quizzing of previously studied material
- called such by Henry Roediger and Jeffery Karpicke
- spaced study and self-assessment beat cramming
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
a recency effect
effect that people briefly recall the last stuff on a list (for example) perhaps because it's still in working memory
a primacy effect
after a delay (of reading a list, for example) - after they shift their attention from the last items - their recall is best for the first items
- mental pictures
- a powerful aid to effortful processing, specially when combined with encoding
- involved in our earliest memories
may be explained by the fact that we recall the high points while forgetting the mundane. People tend to recall events such as a camping holiday more positively than they judged them at the time
- memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
- imagery is at the heart
mnemonic system; requires you to memorize a jingle: "one is a bun; two is a shoe; three is a tree; four is a door; five is a hive..."
- organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
- can also be used as a mnemonic to recall unfamiliar material.
- Ex: using acronyms ~ ROY G BIV is for the colors of the rainbow "red, orange, yellow..."
- processing information not only in chuncks, but from a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts
- helps us retrieve info effeciently
2 components of sensory memory
iconic and echoic
- a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli;
- a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
- a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli;
- if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 to 4 seconds
Magical # seven, plus or minus two
- enshrined by George Miller
- thort-term memory is limited not only in duration but also in capacity, typically storing about seven bits of info (give or take two)
long term potentiation
- an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
- Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the loss of memory
- retention independent of conscious recollection
- Also called nondeclarative memory
- memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
- sldo vsllrf declarative memory
- a neural center that is lacated in the limbic system; one of last brain structures to maturehelps process explicity memories for storage
- damage disrupts some types of memory
- is lateralized
- damage to left, trouble remembering verbal info, but no prob recalling visual designs and locations
- damage to right, problem is reversed
- the brain region extending out from the rear of the brainstem, plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning.
- w damage, cannot develop certain conditioned reflexes, such as associating a tone w/ impending puff of air, thus do not blink in anticipation.
the implicit reactions and skills we learned during infancy reach far into our future, yet as adults we recall nothing of our first 3 years
- a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earler, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
- the ability to retrieve info not in conscious awareness
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items prevously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
getting information in (to the brain)
To most people, memory is__________
To a psychologist, memory is_________
- To most people, memory is recall.
- To a psychologist, memory is any sign that something learned has been retained.
The process of retrieving a memory...
- follows a similar principle of tracing a pathway to a spider in the middle of it's web; first need to create path from anchor point
- Memories are held in storage by a web of associations, each piece of info interconnected with others
- anchor points you can use to access the target info when you want to retrieve it later
- more retrieval cues you have, the better chances of finding a route to the suspended memory
- best retrieval cues come from assocations we form at time we encode a memory
- can occur with associated words, events, contexts and emotions
- the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations
- William James referred to this process as the "wakening of assocations"
- often "memoryless memory"
- French for "already seen"
- That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before."
- Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
- Happens commonly to well-educated, imaginative young adults, especially when tired or stressed.
- when we learn in one emotional state - be it drunk or sober - may be more easily recalled when we are again in that state
- *What people learn when drunk they don't recall well in any state (alcohol disrupts storage), but recall it slightly better when again drunk
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
being depressed does what to memories?
- sours memories by priming negative assocations
- if put in buoyant mood, people recall the world through rose-colored glasses
The duration of stored memories..
Ebbinghaus's famous "forgetting curve": The course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time.
forgotten things are possibily due to:
- they were not encoded
- they were dicarded (stored memories decay)
- OR it may be there in memory but inaccessible cause we don't have enough info to look it up and retrieve it
- occurs when something you learned earlier disrupts your recall of something you experience later
- occurs when new info makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier
- like a second stone tossed into a pond, disrupting the waves rippling out from a first
information presented in the hour before sleep is protected from retroactive interference because
- the opportunity for interfering events is minimized
- John Jenkins and Karl Dallenback sumised that "forgetting is not so much a matter of the decay of old impressions and assocations as is a matter of interference, inhibition, or obliteration of old by the new.
- Experiments have confirmed the benefits of sleep and found the hour b4 bed is good time to commit info to memory
- Not good in seconds b4 bed. recorded info played during sleep isn't either, although ears do register it
when old and new info compete w each other that interference occurs, can help with learning new info
- in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defence mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
- Sigmund Freud proposed we repress painful memories to protect our self-concept and minimize anxiety. But the submerged memory will linger, he believed, to be retrieved by some later cue or during therapy
- Central to Freud's psychology
incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event
- we retain the memory of the event but not of the context in which we acquired it
- Also called source misattribution
Source amnesia, along w the mininfo effect, is at the heart of many false memories