chapter 8

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chapter 8
2013-10-17 19:35:50
lifespan development

test numba 2 sucka
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  1. a young childs growing ______ of self is linked to the ability to feel an expanding range of ____
    awareness; emotions
  2. _____ development allows children to try and make sense of other peoples emotional _____ and to begin to control their own emotions
    emotional; reactions
  3. to experience ___ _____ _____, children must be able to refer to themselves and be aware of themselves as distinct from others. ex. pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt
    self-conscious emotions
  4. self conscious emotions do not appear to develop until ___ ____ appears around __ months of age
    self awareness; 18
  5. _____ development is among the most important changes in early childhood
  6. between the ages of ___ and ___, children considerably increase the number of terms they use to ___ emotions
    2 and 4; describe
  7. when children are 4-5 years of age, they show an increased ability to ____ on emotions
  8. by 5 years of age most children can accurately determine emotions that are produced by ____ and describe ____ they might call on to cope
    circumstances; strategies
  9. parents monitor their childrens emotions, view their childrens negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them in labeling emotions and coach them in how to deal effectively with emotions
    emotion-coaching parents
  10. parents what view their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions
    emotion-dismissing parents
  11. ___ and ____ negative children are more likely to experience ____ by their peers, whereas emotionally postitive children are more popular
    moody and emotionally; rejection
  12. refers to the characteristics of people as males and females
  13. the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old
    gender identity
  14. a set of expectations that prescribes how males or females should think, act, and feel
    gender role
  15. acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
    gender typing
  16. one aspect of gender identity involves knowing whether you are a boy or girl, which most children can do by about ___ years of age
  17. two classes of sex hormones
    estrogens and androgens
  18. evolutionary psychologist say that males evolved dispositions that favor ___, competition, and ___ taking
    violence; risk taking
  19. according to evolutionary psychologist females contributions to the gene pool were improved when they secured ___ that ___ that their offspring would ___
    resources that ensured; survive
  20. natural selection favored females who devoted effort to ____ and chose successful, ambitious mates who could provide their offspring with ___ and ___
    parenting; resources and protection
  21. 3 main social theories of gender
    • -social role theory
    • -psychoanalytic theory
    • -social cognitive theory
  22. the theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women
    social role theory
  23. a theory deriving from freuds view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite sex parent, by approximately 5 or 6 years of age renounces this attraction because of anxious feeling, and subsequently identifies with the same sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same sex parents characteristics
    psychoanalytic theory of gender
  24. theory that emphasizes that childrens gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender appropriate and gender inappropriate behavior
    social cognitive theory of gender
  25. in many cultures, mothers socialize their daughters to be more obedient and responsible than their sons. they also place more restriction on daughters anatomy
    mothers socialization strategies
  26. fathers show more attention to songs than daughters, engage in more activities with sons, and put forth more effort to promote sons intellectual development
    fathers socialization strategies
  27. parents provide the earliest discrimination of ___ ___, but before long peers joining the process of responding to and modeling ___ and ____ behavior
    gender roles; masculine and feminine
  28. peers extensively reward and punish ____ behavior
  29. at around 3 children already show a preference to spend time with same sex playmates. this increases until children spend a large majority of their free time with children of their own sex
    gender composition of childrens groups
  30. from about 5 years of age onward, boys are more likely to associate together in larger clusters than girls are
    group size
  31. boys are more likely than girls to engage in competition, conflict, ego displays etc. while girls are more likely to engage in collaborative discourse
    interaction in same sex groups
  32. the theory that gender typing emerges as children develop gender schemas of their cultures gender appropriate and gender inappropriate behavior
    gender schema theory
  33. individuals in the us and canada were among those with the most favorable attitudes toward ____ punishment and were the ____ likely to remember it being used by their parents.
    corporal; most
  34. corporal punishment is associated with :
    -antisocial behavior, cheating, lying, being mean, disobeying 
    -higher levels of compliance and aggression
    -lower levels of moral internalization
    -depression, external problems
    all correlational and found to be true of ABUSIVE parents.
  35. parents can use corporal punishment in a ___ and ____ manner and their childs behavior can benefit
    calm and reasoned
  36. ___ is a pleasurable activity in which children engage for its own sake, its function and form may vary
  37. play makes important contributions to young childrens ___ and ____ development
    cognitive and socioeconomic
  38. ___ and ____ skills may be enhanced through discussions and negotiations regarding roles and rules in play
    language and communication
  39. behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas
    sensorimotor play
  40. play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports
    practice play
  41. play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol
    pretense/symbolic play
  42. play that involves social interactions with peers
    social play
  43. play that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas. constructive play occurs when children engage in self regulated creation or construction of a product or a solution
    constructive play
  44. types of child maltreatment
    • physical abuse
    • child neglect
    • sexual abuse
    • emotional abuse
  45. -poor emotion regulation
    -attachment problems
    -problems in peer relations
    -difficulty adapting in school
    -depression and delinquency
    -higher stress levels
    effects of maltreatment