Reproductive System Male/Female

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  1. Definition of scrotum:
    An outpouching of the abdominal pelvic cavity
  2. What is the function of the scrotum?
    Houses the testes
  3. What is the Raphe?
    Exterior ridge that divides the scrotum into two halves
  4. What is the dartos?
    Provides a wrinkled appearance to the scrotum
  5. Each testicle lies in a separate chamber called what?
    The scrotal cavity
  6. The scrotal cavities are separated by what?
    The scrotal septum
  7. What are the inguinal canals?
    Openings in the abdomino-pelvic cavity
  8. What is the function of the inguinal canals?
    • 1. Allow testicular descent
    • 2. Allows testes to communicate with body proper via the spermatic cord
    • 3. Allows for passage of the cremaster muscle
  9. What does the spermatic cord contain?
    Blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves and the vas deferens
  10. When does testicular descent occur?
    Begins at 7 months prenatal life and typically complete at birth
  11. What is cryptorchidism?
    "hidden testes". Undescended testicles. Causes sterility. Occurs 3% in full-term births and 30% in premature births.
  12. What is the treatment for cryptorchidism?
    • 1. hCG treatment (human ChorioGonadatrope)
    • 2. Orchiopexy - surgery to correct
  13. What is the function of the cremaster muscle?
    Positions the testes and tries to maintain them at 3 degrees lower than body temperature.
  14. What is the size and weight of the testes?
    Size - 2" long, 1" wide, 1" thick

    Weight - 0.35 to 0.53 oz
  15. The testes are covered by what two layers of connective tissue?
    1. Tunica vaginalis - outer layer that provides protection

    2. Tunica albuginea - inner layer
  16. What is the function of the tunica albuginea?
    Inverts inwardly to form septa that subdivides the testes into 200-300 individual lobules. Each lobule contains 1-3 seminiferous tubules
  17. Definition of seminiferous tubules:
    Exact site of spermatogenesis in testes. 700 feet in total
  18. What are the two parts of the seminiferous tubules?
    • 1. Basement membrane - outer periphery
    • 2. Lumen - central opening

    They are shaped like a donut
  19. What are the two cell types associated with the seminiferous tubules?
    • 1. Nurse cells (sertoli or sustentacular cells)
    • 2. Interstitial endocrinocytes (Leydig cells)
  20. Location of nurse cells
    Housed between basement membrane and lumen
  21. Location of interstitial endocrinocytes
    Housed outside and between the seminiferous tubules (outside of basement membrane)
  22. Function of nurse cells
    • 1. Nurse and nourish developing sperm
    • 2. Attempt to rid misfit sperm
    • 3. Forms blood-testes barrier
    • 4. Spermiation
    • 5. Produces inhibin
    • 6. Produces androgen binding protein
  23. Function of interstitial endocrinocyte
    Acted upon by LH to produce testosterone
  24. Function of androgen binding protein
    Allows testosterone (androgen) to bind to it and be pulled in to help develop sperm
  25. What is the epididymis?
    Comma shaped organ that houses ductus epididymis. Has head, body, and tail. Houses 20 ft of coiled ductus epididymis
  26. Location of epididymis
    Posterior of testes
  27. Function of epididymis
    Maturation site for spermatozoa, 10-14 days required for spermatozoa to mature enough, once the sperm leaves the epididymis it is mature enough to leave the body
  28. What is the vas deferens?
    18" long passageway for sperm that links the epididymis to sex accessory structures
  29. Location of vas deferons
    In the spermatic cord that travels through the inguinal canals to the lateral bladder to the posterior bladder
  30. Function of vas deferens
    • 1. Passageway for sperm en route to sex accessory structures
    • 2. Temporary storage site for sperm (up to 2 months)
  31. Features of vas deferens that aid in movement of sperm
    Lined with cilia and smooth muscle that aid in sperm movement
  32. What is the ampulla of the vas deferens?
    Distal portion, located on the posterior bladder, wider than the rest
  33. Location of seminal vesicles
    Posterior, inferior to bladder
  34. Function of seminal vesicles
    Production of seminal vesicle fluid
  35. What is seminal vesicle fluid?
    Increases sperm motility by increasing ATP production, PH - alkaline, makes up 60% of semen
  36. Components of seminal vesicle fluid:
    • 1. Mainly Fructose
    • 2. Prostaglandins (stimulates smooth muscle contraction that propels sperm)
    • 3. Fibrinogen
  37. The ampulla of vas deferens and the seminal vesicles unite to form what?
    The ejaculatory ducts (0.5" long) that conduct sperm and seminal vesicle fluid into the prostate
  38. Function of the prostate:
    • 1. Producer of prostatic fluid
    • 2. Beginning site of urethra (prostatic urethra)
  39. What is prostatic fluid?
    Produced by prostate, PH - slightly acidic due to prostatic fluid, makes up 20-30% of semen
  40. Components of prostatic fluid:
    • 1. Coagulating enzymes
    • 2. Liquifying enzymes, fibrinolysin
  41. What are coagulating enzymes?
    Upon ejaculation, they cause the semen to coagulate for 15-20 min. which allows the sperm's acclamation to it's new acidic environment in the female genital tract
  42. What are liquifying enzymes?
    • After 15-20 minutes acclamation time, the semen liquifies and increases sperm movement to oocyte
    • Provides the milky appearance to semen
  43. Location of Cowper's gland:
    Near urogenital diaphragm (skeletal muscle that supports bladder)
  44. Function of Cowper's glands:
    Produces Cowper's fluid
  45. What is Cowper's fluid?
    Produced by Cowper's gland, PH - alkaline, makes up 5% of semen
  46. Components of Cowper's fluid:
    Mostly mucus, coats the male urethra and protects the sperm from adverse acidic condition there and spills out onto glans penis to aid in easy entry into the vagina
  47. Components of semen:
    • 1. Sperm
    • 2. Seminal vesicle fluid
    • 3. Prostatic fluid
    • 4. Cowper's fluid
    • 5. Seminal plasmin
  48. What is seminal plasmin?
    Natural antibiotic, part of prostatic fluid, helps prevent urinary tract infections in the male
  49. pH of semen?
    7.2 - 7.6 alkaline
  50. Number of sperm?
    • 150 million - 250 million per ml
    • normal ejaculate = 2-3 ml (1 tsp)
  51. Life span of sperm:
    72 hours
  52. The head of a sperm contains what?
    DNA - 23 chromosomes
  53. The head of a sperm is surrounded by what?
    The tip of the head of a sperm is surrounded by the acrosome that contains digestive enzymes that acts on outer oocyte to allow sperm to enter oocyte for fertilization
  54. What is acrosin?
    • 1.Thins acrosome to release digestive enzymes
    • 2. Aids in movement of sperm
  55. The midpiece of the sperm contains what?
    Houses the mitochondria that use fructose from seminal vesicles to convert to glucose for ATP production that provides energy to the sperm
  56. What is the flagellum?
    Organelle of movement for sperm, 9+2 microtubule arrangement
  57. Function of root of penis?
    Attachment site to body proper
  58. Function of penile shaft?
    Houses majority of  the male urethra (spongy urethra)
  59. 3 parts of urethra:
    • 1. Prostatic urethra - beginning of urethra, in prostate, 1-1.5 inch
    • 2. Membranous urethra - middle, located at urogenital diaphragm, 0.5 inch
    • 3. Spongy urethra - last, located in penile shaft, 6 inches
  60. What is the glans penis?
    Tip of the penis, houses a distal opening called the urethral orifice, at birth it is covered by foreskin
  61. What is the corona?
    Raised ridge separating the glans penis from the penile shaft
  62. Function of urethral orifice?
    Semen and urine passage point from body
  63. 3 pieces of connective tissue the penile shaft houses:
    • 1. Corpus spongiosum (1 piece)
    • 2. Corpora cavernosa (2 pieces)
  64. Function of corpus spongiosum:
    Surrounds the spongy urethra for support and protection
  65. Function of corpora cavernosa:
    Houses blood sinuses that fill due to parasympathetic influence and cause erections
  66. GnRH is secreted from where?
  67. Hormone classification of GnRH:
    Protein and peptide
  68. Function of GnRH:
    Regulates gonadotroph cell of adenohypophysis by stimulating the hormone secretion of LH or FSH
  69. FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) is secreted from where?
    Secreted from gonadotroph cell
  70. Hormone classification of FSH:
    Protein and peptide
  71. Function of FSH in male
    Acts on nurse cells of seminiferous tubules in testes to encourage spermatogenesis
  72. Hormone classification of LH/ICSH (Interstitial cell stimulating hormone)
    Protein and peptide
  73. LH/ICSH is secreted from where?
    Secreted from gonadotroph cell
  74. Function of LH/ICSH in males
    Acts on interstitial endocrinocytes to increase testosterone secretion
  75. Hormone classification of Inhibin?
    Protein and peptide
  76. Inhibin is secreted from where in males?
    Secreted by nurse cells of seminiferous tubules
  77. Function of inhibin in males
    Secreted in response to a full capacity of developing sperm (inhibits FSH temporarily to decrease spermatogenesis)
  78. Hormone classification of testosterone?
  79. Testosterone is secreted from where?
    Secreted by interstitial endocrinocytes
  80. Function of testosterone?
    • 1. Maintains primary sex characteristics of the male
    • 2. Maintains secondary sex characteristics of male (voice patterns, muscle patterns, body hair, balding patterns)
    • 3. Protein anabolist
  81. How does testosterone act as a protein anabolist?
    Works synergistically with hGH, thyroid hormone, and insulin to promote growth and development in puberty
  82. What are the ovaries?
    Female gonads that produce gametes called oocytes
  83. Earliest female sex cell?
  84. During prenatal life, what happens as the ovaries descend from the abdomen to the pelvis? When does it occur?
    Oogonium converts to primary oocyte (2N) housed in primitive follicles called primordial follicles - 3 months prenatal life
  85. The primary oocyte remains in primordial follicles until when?
    Until the female body responds to FSH near puberty
  86. As puberty begins, what happens to ovarian follicles?
    Active during preovulatory period, and contain theca cells that produce estrogen
  87. The corpus luteum produces what, when?
    Active during postovulatory period, produces progesterone and lower levels of estrogen than that of the preovulatory period
  88. 3 ligaments that position the ovaries?
    • 1. Mesovarium
    • 2. Ovarian ligament
    • 3. Suspensory ligament
  89. Function of mesovarium ligament:
    Extension of the peritoneum, anchors ovaries to abdominopelvic walls
  90. Function of ovarian ligament
    Suspends ovaries from uterus
  91. Function of suspensory ligament
    Attaches and suspends ovaries to abdominopelvic walls
  92. If an implantation of an oocyte occurs, what is the result?
    Progesterone and low estrogen levels are maintained to support pregnancy until the placenta is intact (about 3 months)
  93. If no implantation of an oocyte occurs, what is the result?
    • The corpus luteum develops into the corpus albicans and dies
    • Progesterone and estrogen levels plummet
    • Start of menstruation and beginning of a new monthly cycle
  94. Anatomy of fallopian tubes that aid in oocyte movement?
    Walls lined with cilia and smooth muscle
  95. Journey time of oocyte through fallopian tube?
    4 days, 1"/day
  96. Two parts of fallopian tube
    • 1. Isthmus
    • 2. Ampulla
  97. What is the isthmus?
    • Proximal third of fallopian tube
    • Narrowest portion
    • Attached portion to uterus
  98. What is the fallopian ampulla?
    • Distal 2/3 of fallopian tube
    • Widest part
    • Site of fertilization
    • Houses distal opening called infundibulum
  99. What are the fimbrae?
    Finger-like projections that cover the infundibulum of the fallopian tube
  100. What happens to the fallopian tubes each month in response to high estrogen levels?
    The fallopian tubes bend closely to the ovaries in anticipation of ovulation
  101. What happens to the fimbrae each month in response to high estrogen levels?
    The fimbrae begin a rhythmic undulation that entices the secondary oocytes into the infundibulum
  102. Location of uterus
    Hypogastric region of abdominopelvic cavity
  103. Position of uterus
    Sits in an anteflexed position just superior to the bladder and anterior to rectum
  104. Anchoring devices of the uterus
    • 1. Broad ligament
    • 2. Uterosacral ligament
    • 3. Round ligaments
  105. Function of broad ligament of uterus
    Largest ligament, anchors the uterus to lateral abdominopelvic walls
  106. Function of uterosacral ligament of uterus
    Anchors uterus posteriorly to the sacrum
  107. Function of round ligaments of uterus
    Anchors uterus anteriorly to the internal labia
  108. Function of the uterus
    • Site of menstruation
    • Hosts fetus
    • Site of uterine contractions that result in birth
  109. Parts of the uterus
    • 1. Fundus
    • 2. Corpus
    • 3. Cervix
  110. What is the fundus of the uterus?
    • Superior broad portion
    • Houses oxytocin receptors
    • Most muscular portion of uterus
  111. Function of corpus of uterus
    Hosts the fetus
  112. What is the cervix of the uterus
    • Inferior, narrow portion
    • Secretes cervical mucus
  113. Function of cervical mucus
    • Typically thick to prevent anything entering the uterus
    • Thins in response to increased estrogen near ovulation to allow sperm to enter
  114. Tissue layers of the uterus
    • 1. Perimetrium - outer layer, support and protection
    • 2. Myometrium - middle, uterine muscle
    • 3. Endometrium - inner, has two layers
  115. Two layers of endometrium of uterus
    1. Stratum basalis - outer layer under myometrium, permanent layer that manufactures the stratum functionalis

    2. Stratum functionalis - inner layer, temporary layer that is sloughed of during menstruation
  116. Blood flow pattern of uterus
    Aorta -> uterine arteries (entire uterus) -> arcuate arteries (perimetrium) -> radial arteries (myometrium) -> straight arteriole (stratum basalis) / spiral arteriole (stratum functionalis)
  117. What is the vagina?
    A 4 inch long passageway that links the uterus with external genitalia
  118. Function of the vagina
    A passageway for birth

    A passageway for sperm en route to the fallopian tubes
  119. What is the fornix of the vagina?
    Recess at the proximal end of the vagina that serves as a diaphragm
  120. What is the vaginal orifice?
    Opening at the distal end of the vagina that terminates on the vestibule of the vulva
  121. What is the vulva/pudendum?
    External female genitalia
  122. What is the mons pubis?
    Raised area of fat that houses pubic hair
  123. Function of the mons pubis?
  124. The vestibule of the vulva houses what two orifices?
    • 1. Urethral orifice
    • 2. Vaginal orifice
  125. What is the urethral orifice?
    • Most anterior orifice of vestibule
    • Exit point of urine from body
    • Surrounded by Skene's glands
  126. Function of Skene's glands
    • Surround the urethral orifice
    • Produces a thin, constant secretion of mucus that provides for lubrication and protection
    • Acidic
    • Prevents vestibule from drying out
    • Prevents organism entry
  127. What is the vaginal orifice?
    • Most posterior orifice of vestibule
    • Entry point of vagina
    • Surrounded by Bartholin glands
  128. Function of Bartholin glands?
    Secretes mucus in response to sexual stimulation that aids in entry of penis to vagina
  129. What is the labia?
    Two sets of lip-like structures that cover the vestibule
  130. Function of labia
    • Protects orifices
    • Prevents loss of vestibular lubrication
  131. Two sets of structures of labia
    • 1. Labia minora - inner, smaller set
    • 2. Labia majora - outer, larger set
  132. What is the clitoris?
    • Homologous structure to penis
    • -Has blood sinuses that fill causing erection
    • -Responds to tactile stimulation
    • -Covered by prepuce (foreskin)
  133. What is the perineum?
    Diamond shaped area between the thighs of both male and female
  134. Landmarks that form the perineum
    • 1. Anterior - symphysis pubis
    • 2. Posterior - coccyx
    • 3. Lateral - Ischial tuberosities of ischium
  135. What is an episiotomy?
    Surgical enlargement of vaginal orifice for ease of birth
  136. What are the alveoli?
    Milk producing cells of mammary glands
  137. Provide protection for alveoli
    15-20 lobules that house fat that protect alveoli
  138. Function of the Cooper's ligaments
    Supports the breast tissue and attempts to prevent sagging
  139. What is the areola?
    Darkened region surrounding the nipple
  140. The periphery of the areola houses what?
    Modified sebaceous glands that secrete oil to lubricate the nipple
  141. Milk flow pattern
    Milk is produced in alveoli -> flows to secondary tubules -> mammary ducts -> lactiferous sinuses (holding tanks) -> through lactiferous ducts -> out through nipple
  142. Function of FSH in females
    Acts on the ovaries and promotes follicular development - As the follicles develop, theca cells increase estrogen secretion
  143. Function of LH in females
    A surge of LH causes ovulation and the formation of the corpus luteum - results in increased progesterone and low estrogen secreted in post-ovulatory period
  144. Function of prolactin
    Acts on alveoli to encourage milk production in females
  145. Function of inhibin in females
    Inhibits FSH at the end of menstruation
  146. Inhibin is secreted from where in females?
    Secreted by corpus luteum and placenta
  147. Function of oxytocin in females
    • Milk letdown
    • Uterine contractions
  148. Hormone classification of estrogen
  149. Estrogen is secreted from where in females?
    Secreted by theca cells of ovarian follicles
  150. Functions of estrogen in females
    • -Maintains female primary sex characteristics
    • -Maintains secondary sex characteristics (narrow shoulders, broad hips)
    • -Protein anabolist
    • -Electrolyte and water balancer
  151. Hormone classification of progesterone
  152. Progesterone is secreted from where?
    Secreted by corpus luteum
  153. Function of progesterone
    Increases uterine lining and breast tissue development
  154. Hormone classification of relaxin
    Protein and peptide
  155. Relaxin is secreted from where in females?
    Secreted by placenta and corpus luteum
  156. Function of relaxin in females
    • -Acts on the fibrocartilage of the symphysis pubis causing the loosening of the hips to allow for birth
    • -Begins cervical dilation
  157. Hormone classification of hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropic hormone)
    Protein and peptide
  158. Hormone classification of hCS (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin)
    Protein and peptide
  159. Hormone classification of hCT (Human Chorionic Thyrotropin)
    Protein and peptide
  160. Hormones of Pregnancy
    -hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)

    -hCS (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin)

    -hCT (Human Chorionic Thyrotropin)
  161. hCG is secreted from where?
    Secreted by trophoblast (future chorion or outer placental membrane)
  162. hCS is secreted from where?
    Secreted by chorion (outer placental membrane)
  163. hCT is secreted from where?
    Secreted by chorion (outer placental membrane)
  164. What is the function of hCG?
    Alerts the corpus luteum of a pregnancy and stimulates it to maintain progesterone and estrogen to maintain pregnancy until the placenta is intact (3 months)
  165. What is the function of hCS?
    Encourages breast tissue development
  166. What is the function of hCT?
    Acts like TSH - increases maternal metabolism
Card Set:
Reproductive System Male/Female
2013-10-19 22:45:09
AP Reproductive

Male and Female reproductive system
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