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What does the study of animal ethics require?
Tacit ethical judgement.
What are the five views about humanities duty's to animals?
- Animal rights view
- Contextual approach
- Respect for nature
What is Contractarianism?
- It is a human-centered view on humanity's duties to animals.
- People should be moral because of self-interest
- - This means that a person needs only treat animals well enough to satisfy their own self-interest.
- To be part of a moral community, contracts have to be formed. Animals can't form contracts so they are excluded from community.
What does contractarianism say about contracts?
Animals can not form contracts, and to be part of a community, individuals need to enter into a contract which animals can not. Therefore, animals are not part of the community.
What is utilitarianism?
- Only consequences are important when making ethical decisions
- -consequences for all parties
- There are two types of consequences
- -Maximize pleasure and minimize pain
- -Can painlessly kill animals as long as they've lived happy live and there are more to replace them
Who is Jeremy Bentham? What did he say?
Jeremy Bentham created one of the consequence types of utilitarianism.
He stated that the goal of utilitarianism is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. He said humans and animals both can feel pain, so their interests deserve equal concern.
Who is Michael Lockwood? What did he say?
Michael Lockwood created one of the consequence types of utilitarianism.
- He stated that humans can painlessly kill animals as long as they've lived happy lives and there are more to replace them.
- Animals must have self-consciousness if it can go on living.
What is the Animal Rights View similar too?
What opposes utilitarianism?
Animal Rights View
What is the Animal Rights View?
- Argue that animals have moral rights
- Rights are based on capacity/sentience/self-awareness, not genes
- beings have inherent value and they want+prefer things, believe+feel, recall+expect, feel pain + pleasure, satisfaction + frustration
Killing is harm by deprivation
According to the Animal Rights View, what should be abolished?
Livestock production and lab testing
When is killing an animal okay according Animal Rights View?
What is Contextual approach
- Animal capacities are not irrelevant to moral decision making (however capacities aren't enough to give guidance on how we should act)
- Two types of contextual approach:
- Emphasis on moral emotions as a natural desire
- Emphasis on human relations
Describe the emphasis on moral emotions - also, what view is it under?
It is under the contextual approach.
Emphasis on sympathy, empathy and care because it is a natural desire.
Animal suffering is wrong because is shows a lack of care and an improper emotional response.
Describe the emphasis on human relations - also, what view is it under?
It is under the contextual approach.
- Humans have different relations/obligations to wild animals than domestic ones
- Through breeding and captivity, humans have created special obligations toward animals.
What is the Respect for Nature view?
- The value of animals lies in their membership of a valued species (not in individual capacities)
- Species have value in themselves and deserve to be protected (from extinction)
- Domesticated animals are seen as less valuable than wild ones
What does the term animal welfare describe?
The quality of an animals life as it is experienced by an individual animal.
It is not given to an animal, it is a characteristic of an animal.
What are the three questions we ask to determine the welfare of an animal?
- Is the animal happy and not suffering?
- Is the animal healthy and producing well?
- Is the animal able to perform normal behaviors?
What did Moses say during the humane movement?
Keen attention to needs of domestic animals and burning sense of injustice
What did the book of Isaiah contribute to the humane movement?
Images of shepherds, caring and gentle.
What is the Zoroastrian religion? When was it formed?
Founded in 600 BC
States that the care of horses and cattle is important
What is Jainism?
A religion that goes to the extremes in animal rights. Veganism, and mouth covers to not eat bugs.
What did Pythagoras contribute to the humane movement?
He was a vegetarian and set animals free.
What did Aristotle contribute to the humane movement?
He stated that animals were sensitive to pain
How did Christianity contribute to the humane movement?
- Talks about mercy to animals
- St Francis of Assise: Patron saint of animals
- St. Thomas Aquinas says abuse against animals is a property issue.
What period in history did the humane movement appear to regress? Why?
During the renaissance era there was a rebirth in learning, and animal welfare was not considered. (Vivisection)
Who said "I think, therefore I am"
What does this mean?
- Rene Descartes.
- Animals don't exist because they can't think.
Which country was super boss in terms of the humane movement?
What movements and people from the humane movement came out of England?
Quaker movement, John Locke, John Wesley, Jeremy Bentham, Principles of penal code
Describe the repeated attempts of humane legislation in England (when was it passed)
Attempted in 1800, 1802, 1809 and 1821 by Richard Martin
Who is considered to be the founder of the RSPCA? Why?
Richard Martin because he passed the first humane legislation.
Describe the progression of the anti-cruelty laws
First humane legislation passed in 1821.
In 1835 dog pack fighting was banned in London, and animals were protected from all fights.
In 1895 the kennel club banned cropped ears.
What did Charles Darwin contribute to the humane movement (what year)
In 1859, Charles Darwin published the origin of species that confirms the idea of universal kinship between man and animal.
When was the anti-vivisection law passed? What did it state?
- Law says animals should go under anesthesia for research and be euthanized if the animals would suffer after the procedure
What are, and when were the three societies of the humane movement created?
1866 - American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1906 - Animal Defense Society
1928 - Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
Who created the novel Animal Machines? In what year? What was it, and what did it lead to?
Ruth Harrison published Animal machines, a series of articles on how poorly farm animals are raised, in 1964. It led to the Brambell Report
Where did the term 'factory farming' first appear?
It appeared in Ruth Harrison's Animal Machine
What is the Brambell Report? When was it?
1965. The UK government commissioned an investigation in response to Ruth Harrison's book. Professor Brambell's report caused the government to set up what is known as the Farm Animal Welfare Council
Why was the Farm Animal Welfare Council created?
In response to the Brambell report
Who is responsible for the creation of the 5 freedoms?
Brambell. His suggestions for the Farm Animal Welfare Council
What are the five freedoms?
- Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrtion
- Freedom from fear and distress
- Freedom from pain, injury and disease
- Freedom from discomfort due to the environment
- Freedom to express normal behaviour
Who published the first book that was devoted to kindness towards animals? When?
Dr. Humphrey Primatt in 1776
What is CCAC? When? What are the goals?
- The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC)
- An Autonomous and independent body used to oversee ethical use of animals in science
- Sets up the standards for animal use
- Responsible for dissemination of info. to Canadians
- Is a national peer review agency for animal use in science
List and describe the 6 animal welfare views
- Animal exploiters animal welfare: Reassurance from animal users that animals are treated well
- Common sense animal welfare: Average person's concern to avoid cruelty and be kind to animals
- Humane animal welfare: Principle opposition to animal cruelty, but not opposed to using animals for science
- New welfarisim: Belief that measures to to improve the lot of animals sued by humans will lead to abolition of animal use
- Animal Liverationalist animal welfare: Strives to minimalize animal suffering but accepts that some animal use is for the great good
- Animal welfare/animal rights: Bitches be crazy
What is the environmental challenge?
How much of a welfare problem is it that captive animals live in a barren environment that gives them little opportunity to engage actively?
Why are challenges beneficial to animals?
Possibly because they are a novelty
What does an animals ability to deal with challenges revolve around?
What is competence?
Array of cognitive and behavioral experience, tools and strategies an animal posses at any given moment to deal with novel challenges
What is agency?
Propensity of an an animal to actively engage with the environment with a main purpose of gathering knowledge and enhancing skills for later
What are the facets of agency/competency (7)
- Environment is rich and complex
- Elements of environmental resist attempts to harness them
- Environment presents critters with new objects, situations and events
- Wild animals live in an open world
- Environment is highly probablilistic
- Environmental variability can lead to lack of loss of control over the animals actions
- Others in the environment are knowledgeable
If the following is a list of the facets of agency/competency:
Environment is rich and complex
Elements of environmental resist attempts to harness them
Environment presents critters with new objects, situations and events
Wild animals live in an open world
Environment is highly probablilistic
Environmental variability can lead to lack of loss of control over the animals actions Others in the environment are knowledgeable
What are the associated needs?
(Answers given in order)
- Animals need the ability of associative learning
- Animals need to develop good instrumental learning capabilites
- Animals need inspective exploration
- They need inquisitive exploration too
- Animal has to asses and update their info regularly
- Animals need behavioral, cognitive and emotional flexibility
- Animals are adept at observational and social learning
Define problem solving
- Triggered by an external situation, which causes initiation of cognitive processes, internally
- Continuous even after the situation has been solved
- A behaviour that is aimed at gathering info
- Motivation to do this comes from the need to reduce environmental uncertainties
A behaviour seemingly intended to train for physical/physiological flexibility
What are the expressed effects of agency
Agency leads to comptetence which leads to health.
All three lead to reward, flow and contentment.
What are the expressed effects of suppressed agency?
Suppressed agency leads to underdeveloped competence which leads to an endangered health.
All three lead to fear, pain and boredom.
What does hunger and thirst motivate?
Seeking fitness and reproductive success
What do changes of feeding behaviour possibly indicate?
What are the two ways to restrict feed
Quantitiative and Qualitative
What does a high energy diet lead to?
Obesity, which leads to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, decreased longevity and reproductive issues
What is quantitative restriction? Consequences?
- Restricting quantity of feed
- Feeding motivation of an animal is high and they consume any food offered to them
- Often drink in excess and play with the drinker
- Activity level remains high
What is qualitative feed restriction? Consequences?
- Lower level quality food is offered ad lib
- No indication of hunger stress
- normal feed consumption behaviour behaviour is seen
- redirected oral behaviours and stereotypies decrease
What is undernutrition
Negative energy and balance leading to deterioration, illness and death
What is malnutrition
Feed given has incorrect balance of nutrients/energy
Briefly describe and name the two types of water restriction
- Intentional: to decrease overdrinking
- Unintentional: Failure of water supply
What are some questions we can ask to measure welfare? (4)
- Are animals properly housed?
- Are animals provided with vet care?
- Are animals given space to express normal behaviour?
- Are animals properly fed and supplied with water?
What is OBM?
- Outcome-based measures
- Starting to be consiered seriously by government
What are some measures of OBM? (4)
- Measure (gait scores, BCS)
- Analyze risk factors (genotyping, plant/farm info)
- Support management decisions to create improvements in welfare (scoring, humane lab animal treatment)
What can outcome-based measures be applied too? What can they not be applied too
Zoo animals, companion animals, lab animals and food animals
Can not be applied to wild animals because it is difficult to measure them
What is anthropomorphism? What is a problem of it
- Giving human characteristics/qualities to non-human objects
- Hard to define welfare when anthropomorphising
Define scientific evidence
Using OBMs to asses welfare
Define moral judgement
Values influence our ethical perspectives and judgements about our use of animals.
What can we use to describe animal behaviour in the wild?
Responses to adversity
What is the main goal of identifying natural behaviours of an animal?
Aim to allow animals to perform those behaviours in captivity that will increase or benefit welfare
What is frustrated motivation?
What does it lead to?
Animals that can't express their natural behaviours, so they display other behaviours out of frustration
Long periods of frustration leads to chronic frustration which causes poor reproduction, decreased growth and poor immunity
What are behavioural needs?
- The intrinsic need of an animal to perform a specific behaviour
- Largerly driven by internal factors
What are behavioural needs largely driven by?
What are elicited motivations? An example?
- Activites induced by external environment
- Foraging if nutritionally deprived
What is Josh thinking right now?
He loves Whitney! <3
-Note: There is ONLY ONE right answer!
Describe animal welfare auditing. What results in automatic failure?
- Can sometimes be numerically scored CCP's
- Can be defined by how animals are treated: 5 acts of abuse result in automatic failure.
What is a good CCP in animal welfare auditing?
- Measure many problems, is specific
- Manage what is measured
- Could include gait scores, BCS
What is an assurance program
- For welfare, food safety and biosecurity
- Result in improved standards, confusing array of programs and rapid change for procuers
What are some examples of assurance programs? (5)
- Intergovernmental agreements
- Government regulations
- Non-mandatory welfare guidelines/codes
- Programs of corporate customers and their associates
- Product differentiation and labeling programs
What are the three types of assurance program?
- Retail company programs
- Independant bodies
- Producer-led to show they are in compliance with welfare codes
What is a negative result of assurance programs?
Increased price due to increase in cost of production
What is one of the best ways to asses welfare in animals? Why?
By assesing welfare
- It indicates pain, stress or disturbance
- changes in behaviour can indicate disease or other problems
What does suppression of behaviour lead to
Decreased welfare, even after suppression stops (stereotypies and vices)
What is a stereotypie? What is it linked too? Caused by?
- Stereotypies are linked to poor housing conditions.
- Caused by impaired behavioural control, sustained eliciting stimuli or coping with adversity
- Repetitive, fixed action pattern with no obvious goal (need all three)
What motivates an animal?
What is normal behaviour defined as?
Depends on behaviour reptoire of a species
What is a behavioural vice
Broad term for abnormal behaviour (bad habit)
Describe the continuum of bad habits
Normal, Vices, (ARB in between vice and:), stereotypie
What are two vices and stereotypies in pigs?
- Vice: Belly nosing, Tail biting
- Stereotypie: Bar biting, drinker pressing
What are examles of vices and stereotypies in chickens?
- Feather pecking
- vent pecking
What are examles of vices and stereotypies in cattle?
- tongue/eye rolling
- nose pressing
- buller steer syndrome
What are examles of vices and stereotypies in sheep?
Fleece pulling, wood chewing
What are examles of vices and stereotypies in horses?
- Wood chewing
- Cribbing and weaving
What are common causes of vices/stereotypies seen in livestock animals?
confinement, hunger, boredom, stress or overcrowding
What is animal welfare considered economically?
Describe the supply demand graph
- X-axis: quantity product consumed
- Y-axis: price
- Supply increases along x
- Demand decreases along x
Where they meat is the market cost, above that line is consumer surplus, and below producer surplus
What is a term used to describe the supply and demand of animal products?
A commodity market
What is the relationship between consumer and producer welfare?
- Price increases
- Welfare of animals increases
- Welfare of consumer decreases
What is the Californian referendum? Consequences?
- Pass animal welfare standards for cage free layers
- Only applies within California
- Product from other states doesn't have to adhere to the same standards
- Producers want to work for other states or get other states brought up to same welfare level
Is animal welfare factored into the market?
- Public policy plays a role (which might have to do with animal welfare)
What is a measure of people's preferences?
What is the measure for animal welfare?
How far is it right that animals should suffer for the benefit of people?
What is the purpose of economics?
To model facts derived from a conceptualization of economic behaviour?
What is pain? What does it include?
Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage
it includes the unpleasant emotional experience depends on CNS processing
What is nociception
The detection of, and ability to respond to noxious stimuli (cold, hod, stretching, prickling, chemicals etc)
What is pathological pain?
- Develops following tissue damage, nerve damage and inflammation
- Characterized by hypersensitivity to potentially painful stimulation and clinically manifests as spontaneous pain
What does pathological pain manifest as?
What are common occurences of pain in farm animals? (6)
- Tail docking
- beak trimming
What is required for painful procudures in lab animals?
Analgesia or anasthesia
Describe the occurence of pain in companion animals?
Analgesia or anasthesia are required for surgical aspects. Some times post-op as well
Describe painful procedures in wild animals?
- usually nothing is given for painful procedures
- Huntin' dem critters is another issue
What are the responses to pain (5)
What is QST? What should it be?
- Qunatitative sensory testing
- Techinques used to quantify particular aspects of sensory function
- -non invasive and psychophysical
- -Should be repeatable and have enough sensitivity to show a change in the quantity measured?
What are the three terms that describe the duration of pain
- Acute pain
- Chronic inflammatory pain
- Chronic neuropathic pain
Describe acute pain
Immediate when nociceptors stimulated
Describe chronic inflammatory pain
Healing persists beyond expected time due to infection or inflammatory processors
Describe chronic neuropathic pain
No defined onset, doesn't respond to treatments (intractable pain)
What are the abnormal pain responses (2)
What is allodynia
- An abnormal pain response
- pain from stimulation that isn't normally painful (touching a sunburn)
What is hyperalgesia?
- An abnormal pain response
- Increase pain when same noxious stimulus is repeated (water boarding)
What is coping? What remains after?
- Reduction of severity of own pain
- Breakthrough pain is what remains
What are different assessments of pain?
- Physiological (hormones)
- Biochemical (change in body fluids (blood glucose))
- Behavioural: gait - shuffling, lameness, shifting foot
- -activities:(rolling, kicking, tail wagging)
- -Posturing:(Dog sitting, praying)
- Mental state
What is used to measure mental state?
BAR: bright alert and responsive.
What are the two types of vocalization?
Voluntary or not.
What are some methods to relieve pain? (4)
What is disease?
Physical or mental condition where normal function is disturbed and harmed
What is illness
Subjective sensation of experiencing a diseased state
What is sickness?
State of being ill
What is health?
absence of illness of injury
Is animal welfare focused on diseases of animals?
No, it focuses on how animal experiences the consequences of the disease
What are the effects of disease on welfare? (9)
- Diseases that are likely to cause pain and suffering of particular concern
- Diseased animals are likely to feel ill
- Some diseases can cause discomfort or weakness
- Reduced mobility from lameness can prevent an animal from getting to resources
- Some diseases can cause emaciation
- Lameness can cause insecurity
- Fever causes an increased heat loss = feeling cold
- Weakness can decrease ability to avoid predation
- Prolonged lying due to disease = pressure injuries and skin damage
What are the three types of infectious diseases?
What is better than a cure for diseases?
What is stress?
An environmental effect on an individual that overtakes its control systems and results in adverse consequences and eventually reduces fitness
What are the four responses to stress?
- Behavioural changes
- Brain activity
- Adrenal/other physiological responses
What did Lord Erskine do? What was unique?
- Attempted the third attempt (and failed) an animal protection bill
- Said animals are considered as property
What are some examples of animal rights groups?
- •People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PeTA)
- •Animal Liberation Front (ALF)
- •In Defense of Animals
- •Compassion Over Killing
- •Friends of Animals
- •Humane Society of the United States (HSUS)
What are Regans three main goals?
- The total abolition of the use of animals in science
- The total dissolution of commercial animal agriculture
- The total elimination of commercial and sport hunting/trapping
What view(s) on welfare does Regan have?
- Animal rights
What does Regan refer to utilitarianism as?
An aggregative theory (satisfactions or frustrations are added or summed)
Is Singer animal rights?
Who presented the foundational structure for "respect for nature"
Why do large companies, such as McDonalds, not promote that they are leading the welfare movement?>
Because once they state that that allows others to investigate their claims
Why is a definition of animal welfare needed? (3)
- Scientific study
- Legislative purposes
- Practical use
Describe the welfare vs productivity graph
What does scientific evidence say about animal welfare?
Welfare is not a unitary variable like mass, or length so we use multiple measures
What are the sustainable management practices of animal production/welfare (3)
- Economically feasible
- Socially acceptable
What is the OIE definition of welfare
- Animal welfare means how an animal is coping. It is in a good state of welfare if it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior and if it is not suffering from pain, fear and distress.
- Good animal welfare requires disease prevention
- Refers to the state of the animal
What are the three big specific welfare concerns
What is DFD? What is it an indicator of?
- Dark-Firm-Dry meat
- Indicative of chronic stress
What is PSE? What does it indicate?
- Pale-Soft-Exudative meat
- It is indicative of acute stress
What are challenges of moving forward with the welfare movement?
- Who pays?
- Who should pay?
- Social license
- Progress pay-off
- Market access
- Owning the issue
What is the general model of a behavioural system?
What are the two different coping strategies? What is the distinction?
- Active coping: performance of behavioural vices/stereotypies
- Passive coping: lethargic animals
What are traditional indicators of well-being?
What is productivity in terms of welfare?
An economic measure, more of a measure of well being
What is the withdrawal reflex? What does it occur in the absence of?
- It is when there is no sensation of pain
- Withdraw from the pain in the absence of CNS transmission
What is the relationship between welfare and disease?
- Disease will cause poor welfare
- Poor welfare may make disease more likely often by initiating immune-suppression
What is the stress response (HPA Axis)
What is the stress hormone
- (Coritcosterol in poultry)
What happens to the body during stress?
- Electrolyte imbalance
- Build up of lactic acid
- Adrenal glands secrete cortisol
- Protein imbalance
- Dehydration occurs
What part of the body secretes cortisol?
What defines good enrichment?
- Destructible (always changing)
- Fulfills a behavioural need of the animal
What does enrichment do?
Helps to prevent or reduce the incidence of aberrant behaviours
What is biological relevance?
The enrichment must fulfill a behavioural need
What is CFO? why is it bad?
- CFO is confined feeding operation
- It is bad because it has no environmental enrichment: barren environments, little social interaction, animal has little control over environment
Is a complex environment enriching?
It depends if the environment is biologically relevant.
What is a consequence of a highly complex environment?
Are toys environmental enrichment?
Not if it is not environmentally relevant
What is the definition of a behavioral need
The need to perform a specific behavioral pattern
What is a behavioural need of a cat? pigs? calves?
- Distbathing, Sucking, wallowing
What motivates an animal to perform a specific behavior? (5)
- Other aspect of Environment
Who defined stereotypies?
What are the three requirements of a stereotypie?
- Fixed action pattern
- No obvious goal or function
What are examples of stereotypies or vices in poultry?
- Feather pecking
- Vent pecking
What are examples of stereotypies and vices in cattle
- Tongue rolling
- Eye rolling
- Buller steer syndrome
- Nose pressing
What are examples of stereotypies and vices in horses
- Wood chewing
- Bar biting
What are examples of stereotypies and vices in sheep?
- Fleece pulling
- Wood chewing
What are some examples of common causes for stereotypies?
- Barren environment
What are the traditional indicators of well being?
Does economic performance equal biological performance? explain?
Increasing stocking density might increase mortality per bird, and decrease well being but the total number eggs per cage increases and feed cost decreases.
What is the traditional role of the bet?
- Treat injuries, infections and diseases
- Reduce disease through herd health programs
- Provide pain control
- Advise and educate on nutrition, housing and handling etc.
- Advocate for human care
What is important to consider with animal pain?
- It should not be confused with human pain
- Animal pain serves many of the same purposes as human pain and is important to the animal
- The experiences of pain may not be identical between animal and human
What is the definition of animal pain?
- An aversive sensory experience that elicits protective motor actions
- Results in learned avoidance
- May modify species specific traits (social behavior, behavior) to reduce likelihood of occurrence.
What are the different types of pain classified by duration? (3) describe each
- Acute: Immediate on stimulation of nociceptors
- Chronic inflammatory pain: Occurs when healing persists beyond expected time (inflammation)
- Chronic neuropathic pain: Intractable pain
What is nociception?
The detection of a noxious stimulus
What is pain? Where does it occur?
Pain is an experience which is responsible for the mental processing of noxious stimulus, it occurs in the brain.
What are nociceptors?
Nerves which generate electrical signals that travel along nerve fibers to the spinal cord
What is the peripheral and central mechanisms of nociception?
- Peripheral: skin, bone, muscle and other tissues and consciously occurs
- Central: The grey matter of the spinal cord. Pathway from spine to brain.
What is the difference between reflex and pain sensation?
- Reflex occurs in the absence of CNS transmission
- Pain is achieved through relays in the brain after processing the somato-sensory parts of the cerebral cortex
What is breakthrough pain?
The pain that remains after animals reduce the severity of their own pain through coping mechanisms
Describe the assessment of animal pain?
- Direct measurement of an animals pain is not possible.
- It is a value judgment relying on measurement of physiological and behavioral changes (indices)
What are 6 things we can look at to asses pain in animals?
- Postural responses to pain
- Mental State
- Evoked Behaviour
What are some postural responses to pain? (6)
- Lying on side
- Saw horse stance
- Head pressing
What do we look at regarding gait to asses animal behavior?
- May use scoring (1=sound through 5=severe lameness)
What do we use to measure mental state in an animal?
BAR" Aware, bright, alert and responsive
What is evoked behavior? How can it be used to asses pain in an animal
- It is an animals response to standard stimuli.
- Wildlife that allow humans to approach them exhibit a modified evoked behavior, and may be ill.
How can analgesics be used as a diagnostic tool?
The use of analgesic or anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce or eliminate signs of pain can provide evidence, which confirms the presence of pain
What are some options to relieve pain in animals? (4)
- Local anesthesia
What is the relationship between welfare and disease
- Disease is an indicator of poor welfare
- Poor welfare does not necessarily lead to disease
What is stress
An environmental effect on an individual that overtaxes its control systems and results in adverse consequences and eventually reduced fitness
What is the pre-pathological model? Provide an example using thermal stress.
- Behavior response =>Physiological response => pre-pathological state => pathological state
- Huddling => Shivering => weight loss, disease => death