APUSH: Jacksonian Vocabulary

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  1. whigs beliefs
    Supported active government programs, reforms, strong central government, the BUS, high tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, political action for social reform, the market economy and interdependence between areas. Were against Jackson’s corruption, monarchy, and expansion
  2. people who were whigs
    common man and were formed by supporters of the American System, southerners against Jackson’s nullificationideas, northern industrialists/merchants, and some Protestants
  3. caucus system
    System where a small, secretive party group would elect candidates with the public having little say in the process and no direct input. Once the candidates were elected, they were unchallenged by the party
  4. national nominating conventions
    Governing authority of the political party which controlled the political party. Created forums where presidential candidates were given the official approval by their parties. Delegates of these were often members of the local party elites
  5. kitchen cabinet
    Small group of Jackson’s friends and advisors who were very influential in the first years of his presidency. Consisted mostly of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders. Jackson consulted with them on current issues instead of his regular cabinet, and this made people upset that he was ignoring official procedures
  6. Maysville Road veto
    Proposed building a road in Kentucky at federal expense. Jackson vetoed this because he didn’t like Clay (KY was Clay’s state), and because Van Buren pointed out the NY and PA paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Acted as a strict interpretation of the Constitution because it implied the federal government could not pay for internal improvements
  7. specie circular
    Jackson issued this as an intent to stop the land speculation that was caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold/silver) backing it. This required that the purchase of land be paid for in specie. In effect, the land speculation and sale of public lands decreased and there was inflation, and the panic of 1837 happened afterward
  8. causes of the Panic of 1837
    • banks issuing paper money and financing speculation
    • specie circular which forced payment of federal lands with gold/silver
    • removal of central bank
    • wheat crops failed and prices rose
    • British banks closed and caused them to call in their foreign loans
  9. government response to the Panic of 1837
    Van Buren passed the Divorce Bill. It was based on the reasoning that part of the cause of the panic was federal funds in the private banks. Thus he separated the government and banking, and put the federal money in independent treasuries so it could not be spent
  10. Dorr's Rebellion
    Dorr and his followers (the Dorrites) were upset over the voting requirements in RI (only landholders could vote). They held a People’s Party” where they wrote a revised constitution and set up a new government with Dorr as the governor, which won popular vote in an election. However, the old state government was still in session so they labeled the Dorrites as rebels and arrested them, plus President Tyler threatened to intervene. Led to changes in RI’s voting policies, and later a new constitution was drafted with expanded suffrage
  11. Independent Treasury Plan
    The independent treasury was a holding place for the government’s money, where money could not be taken out. This did not allow private banks to have the government money or name to use for speculation, also repealed the Distribution Act
  12. Pre-emption Act
    Passed during President Tyler’s term, to specify how public land would be sold and give pre-emption rights to people who were already living on the federal lands (i.e. squatters). Allowed squatters the ability to buy the land they were already on at the same price as everyone else, gave poor settlers a free claim of 160 acres of land
  13. Tariff of 1842
    Protective tariff by Tyler that was called the “Black Tariff.” Sought to reverse the effects of the compromise tariff, which was designed to successively lower the tariff rates from their level under the Tariff of 1832 over time. Whig party claimed that they needed protection because the reductions made them vulnerable to European competition. The Black Tariff restored protection and raised average tariff rates to 40%. In effect, international trade was decreased, imports halved, etc
  14. Orestes Brownson
    NE writer and transcendentalist who converted to Roman Catholicism and then defended it in his publications of the Quarterly Review. He went against organized Christianity and talked about human nature and liberty
  15. Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville
    Explored the U.S.’s history and success with democracy and its effect on people’s lives. Argued that the U.S. was the closest country to equality, praised Americans for not surrendering their liberties to a centralized state, potential dangers of democracy (turning into soft despotism or tyranny of the majority), and that religion played a role in culture because it is not connected to government
  16. Walden, "On Civil Obedience" by Henry David Thoreau
    Was against the government for supporting slavery and engaging in aggressive wars, believed in peacefully not following unjust laws, prioritizing one’s conscience over what laws demand, government is rarely useful and gets its power from the majority, majority is just a number not always what is best, people should refrain from participating in evil (like with government), not much hope for traditional government reform, people should act out peacefully instead
  17. "The Dial" by Margaret Fuller
    Appealed to those who wanted “perfect freedom” and reform in philosophy and theology. Spread transcendentalist ideals such as individuality, rejection of traditional religion, emphasis on nature rather than materialism, people can directly communicate with God and nature, mind beyond matter, power of intuition and emotion, and freedom from social restraints. Also advocated freedom for women and their potential to develop a relationship with God that gave them identity and dignity
  18. federalism
    System where the power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the USA. Both of these exercise direct authority over individuals, and it is based upon democratic rules
  19. Locofocs
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APUSH: Jacksonian Vocabulary
2013-10-18 01:57:12
Quiz 04

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