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- Our tendency to look for information that confirms our preexisting belief while
- ignoring information contradicts those beliefs
Men as proxy (1st limitation in sociology)
Sociological studies that included only men as research subjects. The prevailing assumption was that either men's and women's experiences were the same or that women's experiences were not important to the larger questions which early sociologists were interested
Private sphere (2nd Limitation in sociology)
The main area within sociology that is the stereotypically feminine world of household, family, and unpaid domestic labor while the public sphere is the stereotypically masculine world of politics and paid employment
A set of mostly unearned rewards and benefits that come with a given status position in society. Privilege can take the form of actual rewards. Privileges provided to heterosexual marriages vs homosexual marriages
Social movement abeyance
A way to keep the basic ideas of a movement alive during a period of decreased activism, often due to increased resistance and hostility to the movement or to a shift in the opportunities that make movements more or less successful
Social movement cycle
A period of increasing frequency and intensity in social movement activities that spread throughout various parts of society and globally across countries. They often involve the development of new social movement tactics such as sit-ins or hunger strikes and new ideologies such as equal rights
Posits that inequality between men and women is rooted in the way existing institutions such as the government treat men and women. When these institutions limit the opportunities for women to compete with men in economic and political arenas, they create inequality.
Master frame of equal rights
Large social movement that includes the early civil rights movement and some but not all versions of the modern women's movement and the gay rights movements
A method of interpreting the world that identifies a particular problem, suggests a particular cause for that problem and proposes a way to resolve the particular problem. The equal rights master frame assumes that diverse groups of individuals in society such as African Americans, women, and gays and lesbians are entitled to the same rights as everyone else in society because we are all fundamentally the same with in the language of basic human rights.
Start with the premise that women and men are fundamentally different and locate this difference in a variety of sources from their treatment as a "Sex class" to early socialization patterns based in women's dominant role in raising children.
Radical feminism is a "current" within feminism that focuses on the theory of patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on an assumption of "male supremacy" used to oppress women. Radical feminism aims to challenge and to overthrow patriarchy by opposing standard gender roles and the male oppression of women, and calls for a radical reordering of society.
- seeks to help women see the connections between their personal experiences with gender exploitation and larger sense of the politics and structure of society.
- For example, consciousness-raising might help a women to realize that er experiences as a victim of sexual harassment is not an isolated personal incident, but a but a fundamental and inevitable product of the patriarchal way our society is structured
Ideology that makes suggestions not just about the way things are , but about the way things should be. If science is to considered objective it should avoid making suggestions about the way things ought to be
- Those problems we face that have to do
- with ourselves and our immediate surroundings, or what Mills called our “milieu". Private troubles are solvable with ourselves individually or within a limited range of people around us.
- exist beyond the individual or her own immediate milieu and they are located within
- the larger structure of our societies – such as social institutions
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency to explain behavior by invoking personal disposition while ignoring the roles of social structure and context (public issues)
- performing the detailed archaeology of our own biography and a learning to identify the
- larger structural forces at work in our lives surrounding issues of gender
Individual (approach to gender)
An individual approach to gender assumes gender works from the inside out. This means that gender exists as something internal to people and individuals that then affects their participation and actions in the outside world
a set of expectations that are attached to a particular status or position in society