Law enforcement intelligence analysis 2 (continued)

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Law enforcement intelligence analysis 2 (continued)
2013-10-18 06:21:49
Law enforcement intelligence analysis continued

Law enforcement intelligence analysis 2 (continued)
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  1. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)
    1. Support the police executive
  2. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)
    2. Develop and maintain information organized on criminal groups or suspected terrorists/supporters and their activities.
  3. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)
    3. Support strategic, tactical, operational objective law enforcement operations
  4. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)

    4. Support intelligence and investigative targeting
  5. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)

    5. provide support in crisis situations
  6. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)

    6.  monitor the potential for criminal activity
  7. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)

    7. conduct counterintelligence
  8. What are the purposes of intelligence? (11 p)

    8.  developed indications and warnings( based on criminal competitiveness, violence, criminal enterprise, corruption, suspicious activity.)
  9. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)

    9. Assist criminal groups/organizations potential for violence, economic growth, expansion ( geographic), recruiting, mobility and corruption
  10. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)

    10.  delineate the criminal infrastructure in the context of criminal and terrorist organizations and prioritize for targeting
  11. What are the purposes of intelligence? ( 11 purposes)

    11.  support law enforcement intelligence databases
  12. what are initiators of the intelligence process? Or what initiates the intelligence process? ( five parts)
    1.  the chief Commissioner or designee provides information requests or ask questions to support a policy initiative; or states an imperative concerning a criminological issue

    2. the intelligence unit commander, anticipating the Chiefs interest, generates information requirements or issues imperatives.

    3. The intelligence process may be initiated by criminological and non-criminological events.

    4. The process may be initiated to update earlier generated intelligence information and products (i.e.assessments)  held but believed to be stale. (Remember, intelligence information is not static)

    5.  the process may be initiated as a matter of standard operating procedure.
  13. What do you need to initiate intelligence process?
    To initiate the intelligence process their must be reasonable suspicion or a criminal predicate a criminal predicate is a felony criminal act it is also the lowest legal threshold to initiate an initial investigation
  14. what is the definition of reasonable suspicion?

    reasonable suspicion is (established)  based upon information which establishes sufficient facts to give to a trained law enforcement or criminal investigative agencies officers, investigators, or employees a basis to believe that there is a  reasonable possibility that an individual or organization  is involved in a definable criminal activity or enterprise.
  15. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)
    1. Commander
  16. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)
    2. Deputy commander
  17. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)

    3.  supervisors-  field units
  18. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)
    4.  operations officer ( W/deputy)
  19. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)
    5.  intelligence officers-  collectors
  20. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)
    6.  analysts-   analytical section
  21. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)
    7.  liaison officer-  liaison section
  22. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)
    8. information management
  23. What compiles an intelligence unit? ( nine parts)
    9.  clerical
  24. what is the mission statement?
    the mission of the intelligence ( unit, section, division, component)  is to provide intelligence information, strategic and tactical command elements of the... police department(... state police)  developed intelligence information  will focus on organized criminal behavior, adult and juvenile street gangs, elements engaged in the manufacturing and distribution of controlled dangerous substances, traditional and ethnic criminal organizations, terrorist and a groups, and official corruption.  operational intelligence will be provided to operational elements on an as needed basis, and immediately as a relates to officer survival.
  25. What is an intelligence failure?
    It can be defined as any misunderstanding of the situation that leads to an agency to take actions that are inappropriate and counterproductive to its own interests and that of the community or jurisdiction it serves 

    the worst kind of intelligence failure is surprise attack
  26. What are the reasons for intelligence failures ? ( nine reasons)
    1.  the absence of an intelligence component

    2.  overestimation-  to exceed or surpass; excessive judgment, considered casual; e.g thinking that a specific gang is more thrilling than another

    3.  underestimation-   underrate; to judge less than what is considered actual and size, quality, or number; e.g.  thinking that gang is less threatening than another

    4.  lack of communication-  absence of centralized office; different officials from different bureaus, sections or divisions have their own interpretations of intelligence; operate under different policies and procedures relative to who and how internal and external   communications occur; 

    5.  subordination of intelligence to policy -  this results when judgments ( intelligence products) are made to coincide to what supervisors want to hear instead of what the information indicates

    6.  bias- a settled  and  prejudiced outlook; preconceived judgment or opinion; in on recent distortion of judgment; a deviation introduced to favor one outcome over another.

    7.  Denial-  refusal to knowledge ordinate the indications or to reality; assertion that the findings, even suggestive, or false

    8.  unavailability of information -  restrictive circulation of intelligence information and final products.  Or, there is in fact no intelligence on a specific issue or subject

    9.  received opinion-  also called " conventional wisdom"; a relative consensus about something exists about an issue that is not been sufficiently examined.  akin to a best guess since there maybe limited information.
  27. Intelligence analysis
  28. Define analysis
    It is that activity whereby meaning, actual or suggested, is derived to organizing and systematically examining diverse information.
  29. Define activity
    is a process or procedure; mental and physical process and procedure. 

    • More mental- elements of analysis 
    • less physical -  collection and collation
  30. define meaning
    it is something that is conveyed by language; a logical connotation (suggesting meaning)  of a word or phrase; a logical denotation or extension of a word or phrase ( indirect specific meaning as distinct from an implied or associated idea.)
  31. Define organizing
    it is arranging, collating and integrating diverse information.
  32. define systematically examining
    It is being procedurally methodical, orderly and thorough. This implies  knowing and utilizing accepted methodologies.
  33. What are the purposes of intelligence analysis? (Eight purposes)

    1. assists in managing information
  34. What are the purposes of intelligence analysis? (Eight purposes)

    2. develops intelligence informations
  35. What are the purposes of intelligence analysis? (Eight purposes)

    3. develops models ( criminal networks)
  36. What are the purposes of intelligence analysis? (Eight purposes)
    4. facilitates targeting
  37. What are the purposes of intelligence analysis? (Eight purposes)

    5. identifies information gaps
  38. What are the purposes of intelligence analysis?
    6. facilitate decision-making
  39. What are the purposes of intelligence analysis? (Eight purposes)
    7. facilitates case preparation and presentation
  40. What are the purposes of intelligence analysis? (Eight purposes) After this card continue to card set number 3
    8. facilitates post-investigative analysis
  41. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    1. planning
  42. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    2. researching
  43. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    3. collecting
  44. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    4. requesting
  45. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    5. evaluating ( reliability, relevancy, timeliness, accuracy)
  46. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    6. collating
  47. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    7. examining
  48. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    8. derive meaning
  49. what are the elements of analysis? ( 10 elements)
    9. reporting/briefing
  50. what are the elements of analysis?
    10. recommending
  51. what are the three types of analysis?
    • 1. strategic
    • 2. tactical
    • 3. operational
  52. What are the benefits of strategic analysis? ( Three examples)
    • 1. Supports enforcement policy and plans
    • 2. identifies trends and/or patterns
    • 3. ascertained the scope of criminal organization, infrastructure activities, harms and geography
  53. how do strategic analysis support the purposes of intelligence? ( eight reasons)
    1. Support the police executive

    2. develop and maintain information on OC groups, and suspected terrorists/supporters and their activities

    3. monitor the potential for criminal activity4. developed indications and warnings intelligence ( competitiveness, violence, criminal enterprises, corruption)

    5. assist criminal groups/organizations propensity/potential for violence, economic growth/expansion, recruiting, mobility and corruption

    6.  support intelligence and investigative targeting

    7.  delineate the criminal/terrorist infrastructure and prioritize for targeting

    8. support law enforcement databases
  54. what are the benefits of tactical analysis? ( Two examples)
    1.  supports meaning or inferences about entities ( and persons, businesses, organizations, events) and circumstances.

    2.  Focus is on and supports immediate law enforcement objectives/issues.
  55. how does technical analysis support the purposes of intelligence? (eight reasons)
    1. Supports the police executive

    2. develop and maintain information on OC groups, suspected terror/supporters and their activities in

    3. support intelligence and investigative targeting

    4.  provide support in crisis situations

    5. monitor the potential for criminal activity

    6. conduct counterintelligence

    7. developed indications and warnings ( competitiveness, violence, criminal enterprises, and corruption)

    8.  support law enforcement databases
  56. what are the benefits of operational/investigative analysis? ( Three examples)
    • 1. support major investigations
    • 2. support case management, case preparation, and presentation
    • 3. developed intelligence information ( post seizure analysis)
  57. How does operational/investigative analysis support the purposes of intelligence? ( six examples)
    1. Develop and maintain informational OC groups,  suspected terrorists/supporters and their activities

    2. support intelligence and investigative targeting

    3. provide support in crisis situations

    4. monitor the potential for criminal activity

    5. develop indications and warnings ( competitiveness, violence, criminal enterprises, corruption)

    6. supports law enforcement intelligence databases
  58. What is needed to structure and intelligence analysis unit? ( Eight parts)
    1.Policy and procedure

    2. supervisor

    • 3. analysts
    • -  strategic, tactical, operational/investigative         - education         
    • - training         
    • - core competencies         
    • -  responsibilities         
    • - assignments

    4. equipment -  basic office supplies,  office furniture and space, computers- desktop and laptops, telephone and fax

    5.  files -  research and analysis

    6. Library -  reference and training materials

    7.  access- CJIS  data,  intelligence files reports, invesagative files,  agency personnel,  other law enforcement agencies

    8. professional associations- IALEIA, MAGLEOCLEN, LEIU, ASC
  59. education-  training- core competencies- give examples of core competencies (  three total)
    • 1. analytical
    • 2. judgment
    • 3. research capabilities
  60. what are skills and capacities good analysts possess? ( 11 examples, don't need all examples just a few)
    • 1. good writing skills
    • 2. good oral skills
    • 3. computer skills
    • 4. possess professionalism/liaison
    • 5. flexibility/adaptability
    • 6. capacity/desire to learn
    • 7. possess initiative/motivation
    • 8.  ability to organize, plan and prioritize
    • 9.  knowledge of current events
    • 10.  coaching/teaching skills
    • 11.  to operate under minimum supervision
  61. what are some good traits of an intelligence unit supervisor? ( 10 examples,  do not need all the examples)
    • 1. analytical supervisors must understand intelligence and analysis ( organization, activity, and product)
    • 2. encourage critical thinking ( be evaluative)
    • 3. discourage co-optation but encourage engaging the collectors
    • 4. encourage analysts into the field
    • 5. encourage further education and training
    • 6. monitor and coach analysts
    • 7. create in-house trainers and training
    • 8. demand professionalism
    • 9. develop standards
    • 10. market  your analysis ( must market themselves)
  62. Criminal threat analysis
  63. what is a threat?
    An expression of intention to inflict evil, injury or damage. Something that threatens.
  64. What is an assessment?
    Appraisal; a determination of the importance, size or value; estimate. The evaluation and interpretation of measurements and other information to provide a basis for decision-making.
  65. What is risk?
    The possibility of loss or injury; a dangerous event or factor; the degree of probability of such loss; a person or thing that is a specified hazard; (verb)  to exposed to a hazard or danger.
  66. What are two critical principles of threat assessment?
    • 1. Not all threats are equal.
    • 2.  most partners will not carry out the threat, but all threats are taken seriously
  67. what is the purpose of developing threat assessments?
    • 1. to develop intelligence information, a thorough description of a state of affairs, on threatening entities.
    • 2. to determine physical protection requirements.
    • 3. to determine enforcement action this implies the constant monitoring of intelligence and enforcement sources to keep abreast of the capabilities and intentions of adversaries, both criminal and terrorist.
  68. The threat assessment is a strategic intelligence report that is tactical implications,  What are the technical implications? ( three implications)
    • 1.activate and/or enhance physical protection requirements.
    • 2. Take enforcement action.
    • 3. Aggressively monitor the situation.
  69. There are significant components to look for when reading reports and research,  what are these components? (Nine components)
    • 1. corruption
    • 2. violence
    • 3. sophistication
    • 4. continuity
    • 5. structure
    • 6. discipline
    • 7.  multiple criminal enterprises- supporting infrastructure
    • 8. legitimate business(es)-  supporting infrastructure
    • 9.  bonding( internal and external)
  70. What are the threat levels? (Five levels)
    • 1.  severe threat: encompasses all five harms, emphasis on violence and societal harms.
    • 2.  High threat:  encompasses violence with additional harms.
    • 3. Elevated threat:  encompasses at least societal harms.
    • 4.  Guarded threat:  encompasses any combination of economic, psychological and community harms.
    • 5.  low threat: psychological harm.
  71. What are the four types of threats?
    • 1. direct
    • 2. indirect
    • 3. veiled
    • 4. conditional
  72. what is a direct threat?
    this identifies a specific act against a specific target and it's communicated or delivered in a straightforward, clear and explicit manner. " I'm going to place a bomb in police headquarters"
  73. was an indirect threat?
    this a vague unclear and ambiguous committee case in. The plan, intended victim, motivation and other aspects of the threat are masked or equivocal. " If I wanted to I could kill everyone at police headquarters."
  74. It was a veiled threat?
    this type implies but does not explicitly threaten violence. It clearly hints at a possible violent act, believes to the potential victim to interpret the message. " We would be much better off without you around anymore"
  75. what is a conditional threat?
    this type warns that a violent act will occur unless certain demands or terms are met. This is often observed in extortion and loansharking cases. " If you don't pay me 1000 a week, your deli will be ashes"
  76. What is reason? ( Five examples)
    • 1.( noun)  basis or cause, as for some belief, action, fact or event.
    • 2. A statement presented in justification or explanation of a belief or action
    • 3. sound judgment; good sense.
    • 4. Logic. The premise of an argument.
    • 5. (Verb)  to form conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts premises.
  77. Developing intelligence information implies -
    Taking raw data or information collected and placing it into a context that goes beyond the face value of the collected information
  78. the raw  information/data maybe characterized as _____,________,_________,Or _______.  it is from these elements at the meeting intelligence drawn
    • 1. facts
    • 2. opinions
    • 3. arguments
    • 4. premises
  79. what is an inference?
    An inference is a statement or series of statements, paragraphs, that go beyond the facts, opinions, arguments and premises i.g. raw data, designed to develop specific and accurate knowledge concentrating the past, present future.
  80. what are the four types of inferences?
    • 1. hypothesis
    • 2. conclusion
    • 3. prediction
    • 4. estimate
  81. what is a Hypothesis?
    it is a theory, or tentative assumption. A  Hypothesis has to be tested related to being true or false.
  82. what is a conclusion?
    this is the result of two or more facts or propositions
  83. was a prediction?
    this is a forecast; a statement declaring an event in advance.
  84. What is an estimate?
    this is an appraisal; a tentative judgment or an approximate value, worth or significance
  85. what are two examples of the way inferences are developed?
    inductively and deductively
  86. what is inductive thinking/reasoning?
    this is taking specific information and arriving at a general statement. ( making a mountain out of a mole hill.) 

    Example: if a  Carnation is red, it is a flower. If a rose is red is a flower. Therefore: If a car is red, is also a flower
  87. What is deductive thinking/reasoning?
    this is taking general information and arriving at a specific statement ( identifying the perpetrator of a crime.) 

    Example:  all FDLE  officers where 9mm Sig Sauers while on duty.  John Smith is an FDLE  officer. John Smith was a 9mm Sig Sauer when on duty.
  88. what are the differences between the two?
    • Inductive
    • 1. inferences that go beyond the raw data hence there is opportunity for discovery and prediction.
    • 2.  risk: if the raw data are true, the inference may or may not be true.
    • 3.  Requires a probability assessment.
    • 4. Specific to a general statement.
    • 5. Supports criminal intelligence development 

    • deductive
    • 1. inference does not go beyond the raw data and it cannot arrive at something new.
    • 2. Risk:  if the raw data are true, inference must be true.
    • 3.  Does not require a probability assessment.
    • 4.  General to specific statement.
    • 5.  Supports criminal investigations ( proof beyond a reasonable doubt)
  89. what should you do when developing an inference?  ( seven parts)
    • 1. use applicable and relevant information.
    • 2. Describe, categorize and integrate fragmented information.
    • 3. Evaluate the information for accuracy and timeliness ( goes to the issue of relevancy).
    • 4. Develop premises ( statements of meaning).
    • 5. Formulate (alternative)  inference(s) - hypothesis, conclusion, prediction, estimate.
    • 6. Use a probability statement.
    • 7. Avoid logical fallacies. Remember, when an analyst is involved in tactical or strategic intelligence analysis, s/he uses inductive reasoning for the most part. On the other hand, for operational analysis, the analyst may start thinking inductively,  bubble think more deductively as the investigation progresses.
  90. when disseminating an inference, attempt to communicate with the basic interrogatives -  what are these interrogatives?
    Who, what, where, when, why and how
  91. what is a probability assessment?
    a probability assessment implies a degree of certainty in that an event occurred, is occurring ( or that a condition exists), or will occur.  It also implies a confidence in the information relative to the hypothesis, conclusion, production or estimate that is being presented.
  92. What are the sources of a probability assessment ?
    • 1. relative frequency of past events
    • 2.  theoretical estimation
    • 3.  subjective estimation
  93. what is Relative frequency of past events?
    this type of data is represented by team sports win-loss records, batting averages, pass completions, surveillance data, toll data, and financial data.  For example, how many times was a " bad actor"  observed at specific locations, by date, time of day and duration?  We are interested in patterns of behavior. This facilitates pattern analysis and assists in recognizing trends and is used as a basis in making predictions ( once is happenstance; twice is coincidence; thrice is the beginning of trend.)
  94. What is a theoretical estimation ?
    this is akin to a rolling the dice and hoping for a specific outcome; card counting; predicting burglaries, robberies and rapes for  example based upon the potential targets in a given area, employing temporal data, joint and conditional probability. This is useful in criminal analysis.
  95. What is subjective estimation ?
    First, important to understand, this is not an ball patterns, that frequency data or mathematical formula. Subjective estimation is based on facts, experience and knowledge ( expertise, knowing the actors, the environment, criminal activity and enterprise structure).  it boils down to integrating information making a sound, rational, mature subject to judgment.  Yet, remember, you must still think rationally, i.e.  inductively or deductively.   Being able to employ a subjective judgment confidently implies that one has acquired a body of knowledge about a subject or issue being examined.
  96. What is the "no man's land" of intelligence?
    this is all about sticking your reputation; sticking your neck out; demonstrating your knowledge about the subject or issue being examined. Assigning a probability (assessment) to a statement ( hypothesis, conclusion, prediction, estimate, the informed judgment, the single fact or the best guess),  one is indicating the level of likelihood that a situation exists with a situation/event occurred/existed, or will occur/exist in the future. There is risk involved here.
  97. probability scale
    • 1.00  or 100%  event/situation will occur/does not exist (total certainty) 
    • .90 or 90% 
    • .80 or 80% 
    • .70 or 70%  more likely to occur than not .60 or60% 
    • .50 or 50%  event/situation may/may not occur/exist 
    • .40 or 40% 
    • .30 or 30%  less likely to occur then occur/exist 
    • .20 or 20% 
    • .10 or 10% 
    • 0.00 or 0%  event/situation will occur/does not exist (total certainty)