Micro

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Author:
Angela218
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241374
Filename:
Micro
Updated:
2013-10-18 12:50:43
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Micro test
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Micro test 3
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  1. Pathology:
    the study of disease
  2. Etiology:
    the study of the cause of disease
  3. Pathogenesis:
    the development of disease
  4. Infection:
    colonization of the body by pathogens
  5. Disease:
    abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
  6. Transient microbiota:
    may be present for days, weeks or months
  7. Symbiosis:
    relationship between normal microbiota and the host
  8. Commensalism:
    one organism benefits, other is unaffected
  9. Mutualism:
    Both organisms benefit
  10. Parasitism:
    one organism benefits at the expense of the other
  11. Microbial antagonism:
    competition between microbes
  12. Normal microbiota:
    • protect the host by occupying niches that pathogens might occupy, producing
    • acids, producing bacteriocin
  13. Communicable disease:
    A disease that is spread from one host to another
  14. Contagious disease:
    A disease that is easily spread from one host to another
  15. Noncommunicable disease:
    A disease that not transmitted from one host to another
  16. Incidence
    Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time
  17. Prevalence:
    fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time
  18. Sporadic disease:
    disease that occurs occasionally in a population
  19. Endemic disease:
    disease constantly present in a population
  20. Epidemic disease:
    disease acquire by many hosts in a given area in a short time
  21. Pandemic disease:
    world-wide epidemic
  22. Acute disease:
    symptoms develops rapidly
  23. Chronic disease:
    disease develops slowly
  24. Subacute disease:
    symptoms between acute and chronic
  25. Latent disease:
    disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive
  26. Local infection:
    pathogens are limited to a small area of the body
  27. Systemic infection:
    an infection throughout the body
  28. Focal infection:
    systemic infection that begins as a local infection
  29. Sepsis:
    toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria ortheir toxins, from a focus of infection
  30. Bacteremia:
    Bacteria in the blood
  31. Septicemia:
    growth of bacteria in the blood
  32. Toxemia:
    Toxins in the blood
  33. Viremia:
    Viruses in the blood
  34. Primary Infection:
    acute infection that causes the initial illness
  35. Secondary infection: Opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
    Opportunistic infection after a primary (predisposing) infection
  36. Subclinical disease:
    No noticeable signs or symptoms (inapparent infection)
  37. Nosocomial Infection:
    Hospital acquired infection
  38. List Koch’s Postulates
    • 1) The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
    • 2) The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture
    • 3) The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal
    • 4) The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original pathogen
  39. Be able to discuss and make conclusions about the source, exposure of an outbreak (i.e. like the example of the case study discussed in class)
  40. List aspects of the innate immune system and describe how they protects against pathogens:
    • Intact Skin:
    physical barrier, low pH
  41. List aspects of the innate immune system and describe how they protects against pathogens:
    • Mucous membranes:
    trap microbes, transported away via cilia
  42. List aspects of the innate immune system and describe how they protects against pathogens:
    • Normal Microbiota:
    competitive antagonism ** be sure you are able to describe what this meansand also be aware that normal microbiota can become opportunistic pathogens under certainconditions
  43. List aspects of the innate immune system and describe how they protects against pathogens:
    • Phagocytes:
    Ingest microbes or particles that are foreign to the body
  44. List aspects of the innate immune system and describe how they protects against pathogens:
    • Inflammation:
    microbe is introduced to tissue, followed by vasodilatation and increasedpermeability of blood vessels. Chemicals (histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes andcytokines) are released
  45. List aspects of the innate immune system and describe how they protects against pathogens:
    • Fever:
    Abnormally high temperature; endotoxin causes phagocytes to release interleukin-1-signals hypothalamus to reset body temperature to a higher temperature.
  46. List aspects of the innate immune system and describe how they protects against pathogens:
    • Complement System:
    Cascade of signaling molecules that induce anti-microbial action.
  47. Describe different kinds of white blood cells (leukocytes) involved in the innate immune response:
    • Neutrophils:
    highly phagocytic, motile cells that are involved in the initial stage of infection
  48. Describe different kinds of white blood cells (leukocytes) involved in the innate immune response:
    • Basophils:
    Release histamines (involved in allergic reactions)
  49. Describe different kinds of white blood cells (leukocytes) involved in the innate immune response:
    • Eosinophils:
    Phagocytic cells that can leave the blood. Important in producing toxic proteinsagainst large (multi-cellular) pathogens.
  50. Describe different kinds of white blood cells (leukocytes) involved in the innate immune response:
    • Monocytes:
    Mature into macrophages (phagocytic cells). Dispose of worn out red blood cells.
  51. List the major parts of the lymphatic systems:
    • • Lymph nodes: Site of T and B cell activation (adapative immunity). Also contain reticular fibersthat trap microbes and concentrate macrophages and Dendritic cells.
    • • Tonsils and Peyer’s Patches: Large aggregations of lymph nodes.
    • • Spleen: contains lymphocytes and macrophages
    • • Thymus: site of T cell maturation
  52. Describe the major steps of the complement system:
    • 1) C3 is activated and splits into C3a and C3b
    • 2) C3b results in opsonization (be sure you are able to define this term and others listed in thecomplement system) and splits C5 into C5a and C5b
    • 3) C3a combines with C5a to activate mast cells which release histamine resulting in inflammationand C5a attracts macrophages
    • 4) C5b, C6, C7, C8 and C9 work together to form a membrane attack complex.

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