respiratory system

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Author:
Renicheal
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241386
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respiratory system
Updated:
2013-10-18 14:31:40
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chapter med term
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respiratory system (in depth)
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  1. Respiratory system is responsible for
    the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  2. Lungs and airways bring in
    • fresh oxygen which provides oxygen to body cells
    • eliminate waste product carbon dioxide
  3. 4 Upper respiratory tract
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
  4. 5 lower respiratory tract
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
    • lungs
    • alveoli
    • breathing muscles
  5. nasal cavity
    chamber lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs (cilia)
  6. air is filtered, heated and moistened to prepare for journey to lungs
    nasal cavity
  7. nasal cavity is divided into right and left side by verticle partition of cartilidge called
    nasal septum
  8. receptors for the sense of smell
    olfactory neurons
  9. pharynx
    a muscular tube that serves as passageway for food and air
  10. 3 sections of pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  11. air passes from the nasal cavity to the
    pharynx
  12. nasopharynx
    posterior to the nose and contains adenoids
  13. oropharynx
    posterior to the mouth and contain the tonsils
  14. laryngopharynx
    superior to larynx
  15. adenoids
    lymphnode tissue
  16. tonsils (palatine tonsils)
    protect opening to respiratory tract from microscopic organisms that may attempt entry
  17. larynx
    contains structure that make vocal sounds possible
  18. epiglottis
    seals off air passage to the lungs during swallowing
  19. trachea
    composed of smooth muscle embedded with C-shape rings of cartilage
  20. trachea provides
    rigidity to keep the air passage open
  21. trachea divides into two branches called
    bronchi
  22. trachea branches lead to
    right and left lung
  23. inner walls of bronchi are composed of
    mucous membranes embedded with cilia
  24. moves entrapped material upward through pharynx where its expelled by coughing, sneezing or swallowing
    cilia
  25. each bronchus divides into smaller and smaller branches called
    bronchioles
  26. alveoli
    tiny air sacs at the end of each bronchiole
  27. pulmonary capillaries
    lie next to tiny tissue membranes of the alveoli
  28. lungs are divided into
    lobes
  29. right lung is divided into
    3 lobes
  30. left lung is divided into
    2 lobes
  31. mediastinum
    space between the right and left lung
  32. 4 items mediastinum contains
    • heart
    • aorta
    • esophagus
    • bronchi
  33. serious membrane that covers lobes of lungs and folds over the walls of the thoracic cavity
    pleura
  34. visceral pleura
    membrane lying closest to lung
  35. parietal pleura
    membranes lining the thoracic cavity
  36. pleural cavity
    space between the 2 membranes, contains small amount of lubrication
  37. large muscular portion that lies between chest and abdominal cavities
    diaphragm
  38. respiration overall process
    is taking oxygen from air and carry to cells for their use, while CO2 and water are returned to environment
  39. 4 separate processes of respiration
    • pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
    • external respiration
    • transport of respiratory gases
    • internal respiration
  40. pulmonary ventilation
    • involuntary action
    • moves air into and out of lungs
  41. external respiration
    exchange of oxygen and CO2 between alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries
  42. transport of respiratory gasses
    transports CO2 to lungs and oxygen to body cells
  43. internal respiration
    exchange of O2 and CO2 between body cells and blood
  44. common signs of respiratory disorders
    • cough
    • chest pain
    • altered breathing patterns
    • shortness of breath
    • cyanosis
    • fever
  45. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    • difficult to breath
    • usually exhibits a chronic cough
  46. asthma
    produces spasms in bronchial passages (broncospasm)
  47. broncospasms
    may be sudden and violent and lead to dyspnea
  48. chronic bronchitis
    inflammation of bronchi
  49. emphysema
    • decreased elasticity of alveoli
    • alveoli expands but doesn't contract
  50. influenza
    acute infectious respiratory viral disease
  51. 3 major types of influenza
    type A,B,C
  52. type A
    world wide epidemics (pandemic), highly infectious
  53. type B
    limited be geographical, less severe
  54. type C
    mild flu not associated with epidemics
  55. pleura effusions
    abnormal fluid in pleura cavity
  56. tuberculosis (TB)
    • disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • spread by sneezing, coughing, etc
  57. tuberculosis can live and is infectious for
    6-8months outside the body
  58. pneumonia
    inflammatory disease of lungs
  59. 4 types of pneumonia
    • aspiration
    • lobar
    • broncho
    • pneomocytis
  60. aspiration
    inhalation of food or liquids
  61. lobar
    affect only one lobe
  62. broncho
    more diffuse than lobar
  63. pneomocytis
    closely related to aids
  64. cystic fibrosis
    hereditary disorder of exocrine glands that cause body to secrete thick mucous
  65. acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
    • Lungs no longer function effectively
    • alveoli fills with fluid, causing them to collapse
  66. infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)
    • common in premature infants and diabetic mothers
    • alveoli collapse making O2 exchange impossible
    • lungs no longer function effectively

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