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Function of urinary system
To maintain the body's state of homeostasis by regulating fluid & electrolytes, removing wastes, & providing hormones involved in RBC production, bone metabolism, & control of blood pressure.
Urinary System structure
- 2 Kidneys
- 2 Ureters
Carries urine from Kidneys to Bladder
Temporary storage of urine and its elimination
Carries urine from Bladder to Exterior
Elimination of urine
- Bilateral tubes about 10-12" (25-30 cm) long
- Sit behind the peritoneum on either side of the spine.
- Right kidney is situated lower than the left because of the liver.
- Highly vascular, bean shaped organs-size of a clenched fist
Known as notch located at the inner concave surface of ea. kidney. where the ureters, renal artery, renal vein, lymphatic vessels, & nerves enter or exit.
A dense layer of connective tissue protects & anchors the kidney.
Each kidney has 3 distinct regions
- Cortex-outer layer contains glomeruli, small clusters of capillaries. The glomeruli are part of the nephrons, the functional unit of the kidney.
- Medulla-inner portion of the kidney, nephrons for the renal pyramids, which channel the urine in to branches of the innermost region, the renal pelvis.
- Pelvis-cavity or inner area. It is hollow & collects urine as it passes out of the collecting ducts (from the medulla) & urine is channeled from the pelvis through the ureters & into the bladder for storage.
- The structural & functional unit of the kidney.
- It processes the blood to make urine.
- Urine is formed in the nephrons (1 million nephrons in ea. kidney)
Two major parts of a nephron
- Renal corpuscle & Renal tubule
- A renal corpuscle consists of a glomerulus (capillary network surrounded by Bowman's capsule) expanded end of a renal tubule & encloses the glomerulus.