ch 10

Card Set Information

ch 10
2013-10-19 04:10:45
lifespan development

test no 2
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  1. the global evaluative dimension of the self. ___ ____ is also referred to as self worth or self image
    self esteem
  2. domain specific evaluations of the self
    self concept
  3. self esteem reflects perceptions that do no always match ____
  4. the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes
  5. deliberate efforts to manage ones behavior, emotions, and thoughts, leading to increased social competence and achievement
    self regulation
  6. interest in how things are made and how they work.
  7. when children are encouraged in their efforts to make, build and work, whether building a model airplane, constructing a tree house, fixing a bicycle, solving an addition problem or cooking. all of this increases a child's sense of ____
  8. consider a child who is slightly below average in intelligence, but are too bright to be in special classes. they often fail in their academic classes. this is an example of
  9. the lowest level in Kohlbergs theory of moral development. the individuals moral reasoning in controlled primarily by external rewards and punishment
    preconventional reasoning
  10. stage 1 of kohlbergs stages:
    moral thinking is ties to punishment
    heteronomous morality
  11. stage 2 of kohlbergs stages:
    individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same. what is right involves an equal exchange
    individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
  12. stage 3 of kohlbergs stages:
    individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgements
    mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
  13. individuals apply certain standards but they are the standards set by others such as parents or the government
    conventional reasoning
  14. stage 4 of kohlbergs stages:
    moral judgements are based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty.
    social systems morality
  15. stage 5 of kohlbergs stages:
    individuals reason that values, rights, and principles transcend the law. a person evaluates the validity of actual laws, and social systems can be examined in terms of the degree to which they preserve and protect fundamental human rights and values
    social contract
  16. stage 6 of kohlbergs stages:
    the person has developed a moral standard based on universal human rights. when faced with a conflict between law and conscience, the person reasons that conscience should be followed, even though the decision might bring risk
    universal ethical principles
  17. the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code
    postconventional reasoning
  18. Kohlberg argued that advances in childrens _____ development did not ensure development of ___ _____
    cognitive; moral reasoning
  19. _____ emphasized that peer interaction an perspective talking are critical aspects of the social stimulation that challenges to change their moral reasoning
  20. ____ stressed that in principle, encounters with any peers can produce _____-taking opportunities that may advance a childs moral reasoning
    Kohlberg; perspective taking
  21. Johlbergs theory is criticized for placing too much emphasis on ____ _____
    moral development. cheaters and thieves may know what is right but still do what is wrong
  22. parent child relationships usually provide children with ____ opportunity for give and take or perspective taking. these opportunities are more likely to provided by _____
    little; peers
  23. an important aspect of childrens emotional lives is learning how to ____ with _____
    cope with stress
  24. as children get older they more accurately appraise a ____ situation and determine how much _____ they have over it.
    stressful; control
  25. broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males
    gender stereotypes
  26. by the time children enter elementary school, they have considerable knowledge about which activities are linked to being ___ or ____-
    male or female
  27. ____ stereotypes were more prevalent on the part of girls while
  28. _____ and trait stereotyping is more commonly engaged in ___
  29. woman have ___x as much body fat as men
  30. on average, males grow to be ____% taller then women
  31. _____ are less likely then ____ to develop physical or _____ disorders
    females; males; mental
  32. men are at __x the risk of coronary disease then females are
  33. an area in the _____ lobe that functions in visuospatial skills is larger in ____
    parietal; males
  34. girls and women have slightly better ____ skills then boys and men
  35. in all cultures, boys tend to be more ____
  36. ____ aggression is more pronounced in ____
    verbal; girls
  37. girls show more relational _____ than boys
  38. the presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual
  39. frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers
    popular children
  40. receive an average number of both positive and negative nomination from their peers
    average children
  41. are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers
    neglected kids
  42. infrequently nominated as somone's best friend and are actively disliked by their peers
    rejected children
  43. frequently nominated both as someones best friend as as being disliked
    controversial children
  44. the best predictor of whether rejected children would engage in delinquent behavior or drop out of school later during adolescence as _____ towards peers in elementary school
  45. being belittled about looks or speech was the most frequent type of ____
  46. children who said they were bullied reported more ____ and _____ in making friends
    loneliness and difficulty
  47. those who do bullying are more likely to have ___ grades and to ____ and _____ alcohol
    low; smoke and drink
  48. ___-___% of victims and their bullies are in the same classroom
  49. a learner centered approach that emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher
    constructivist approach
  50. a structured teacher centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students progress, maximum time spent on learning tasks, and efforts to keep negative effects to the minimum
    direct instruction approach