PSC ch. 5

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PSC ch. 5
2013-10-21 04:00:39

consciousness, dream, drug addictions
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  1. consciousness
    a person's subjective experience of the world as a result of brain activity
  2. subject experience?
    we cannot determine if two people are experiencing the same stimulus the same way
  3. What 3 purposes do consciousness serve?
    1. perform complex tasks involving input from several brain parts

    automatic tasks vs controlled tasks

    2. interact w/ those around us in a meaningful way (socializing)

    • 3. participate in complicated thought
    • (problem solving)
  4. What is the global workspace model of consciousness?
    consciousness comes from the pattern of brain circuits that are activated

    no single brain area is responsible for overall awareness
  5. how does hemineglect support global workspace model?
    a patient condition where he/she is unaware that they are not attending to half of their visual field
  6. subliminal perception
    processing that occurs outside our conscious awareness
  7. circadian rhythm
    a normal pattern that regulate our sleep

    environment of light/dark affects it too
  8. What regions of the brain are involved in maintaining circadian rhythms?
    • suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
    • receives light/dark info from the visual system

    • pineal gland
    • receives info from the SCN
    • releases the hormones of melatonin
  9. what is the role of melatonin?
    darkness triggers its release from the pineal gland

    lightness inhibits its production and release

    it help people fall asleep

    help ppl. deal w/ jet lag or shift work
  10. What is the stage of wakefulness and what EEG waves are here?
    beta waves: short irregular waves (alert/attentive)

    alpha waves: moderate regular waves (relaxed/closed eyes)

  11. What happens during the 1st stage of sleep and what kind of EEG waves are here?
    • stage 1
    • theta waves
    • transition of wakefulness to sleep
    • easily awaken
    • may "see" geometric shapes, images
  12. What happens during the 2nd stage of sleep and what kind of EEG waves are here?
    theta waves   

    sleep spindles (bursts of high freq. waves)                -occur in stages 1-4

    • K-complexes (burst of slower waves)  
    •        -triggered by unexpected noise       
    •             -occur only in stage 2

    helps us sleep by having the brain filter out loud noises disruption
  13. What happens during the 3/4 stage of sleep and what kind of EEG waves are here?
    • delta waves (large regular waves)
    •     slow wave sleep

    • difficult to awaken
    • disoriented if they do wake up

    still process relevant info
  14. What happens during the REM sleep stage of sleep and what kind of EEG waves are here?
    • Beta waves
    •     -brain looks similar to wakeful state

    most muscles in the body are paralyzed


    occurs ~ 90 minutes after falling asleep
  15. Why is REM sleep important?
    for neural development and making new brain pathway
  16. In what ways is REM sleep associated with learning?
    function to consolidate learned info
  17. rebound phenomenon
    REM sleep deprivation

    ppl spend more time in REM sleep after deprivation

    a certain amount of REM sleep is important and the body will "make up" lost REM sleep
  18. What is the difference in short-term and long-term sleep deprivation?
    • short term (2-3 days)
    •     little affect on physical abilities
    •     but quiet tasks is often impaired

    • long term
    •     increases in mood disorders
    •     decreases in cognitive performance, attention and short term memory
  19. How can sleep deprivation be beneficial?
    beneficial to people w/ major depressive disorders

    causes an increase activation of 5-HT receptors
  20. insomnia
    inability to sleep because a decline in a person's mental health and ability to function

    relate to depression

    major cause: anxiety over falling asleep
  21. obstructive sleep apnea
    the closure of airways during sleep, causing person to wake up briefly to gasp for air

    relate to daytime fatigue, problems concentrating, cardiovascular problems and stroke

    potential cause in obesity
  22. narcolepsy
    excessive sleepiness during periods of normal waking hours

    has the potential to be very dangerous

    • caused by:
    • genetic condition(abnormal neural transmitter-orexin)

    autoimmune disorder- can be treated with immunoglobulin
  23. what differences do we see between non-REM stage and REM stage dreams?
    • Non- REM dreams
    •   dull & boring
    •   involve completing mundane tasks
    •   deactivation of many brain regions

    • REM dreams
    •   bizarre
    •   include intense emotions, auditory and visual hallucination
    •   acceptance of illogical events

    activation and deactivation of some brain regions
  24. What neural components are involved in REM stage dreams?
    activation of areas associated with reward, emotion and motivation

    deactivation of prefrontal cortex

    pattern of activation allows visual and emotional areas to interact w/o rational thought or control
  25. REM behavior disorder
    normal REM sleep paralysis does not occur, causing ppl to act out dreams while asleep

    • cause: neurological deficits and neurodegenerative disorders
    • mainly in older men
  26. What are the three theories of adaptiveness of sleep?
    • restorative theory
    • circadian rhythm theory
    • facilitation of learning
  27. restorative theory
    states that sleep serves to allow the body to rest and repair itself if needed

    • restock brain's energy
    • restock/strengthen immune system
    • repairs damaged tissue through release of hormone
  28. Circadian rhythm sleep
    states that animals sleep at times when they are in greatest danger to remain quiet and hidden

    how much sleep depend on how much time the animal must obtain food and how easily it can hide and how vulnerable it is
  29. facilitation of learning
    neural activations activated during wakeful learning are strengthened during sleep

    occurs in slow waves and REM sleep

    increased memory/task performance when a period of sleep occurs between initial and subsequent testing
  30. What is Freud's theory of dream?
    dreams are made up of hidden content that represent some unconscious conflict
  31. what two types of content did Freud believed dreams had?
    manifest content-how a dream is remembered

    latent content-what the dream symbolizes
  32. agonist
    drugs that enhance neurotransmitter actions

    increase production of NT

    block reuptake of NT from the synapse

    • mimic a NT and bind to it's postsynaptic receptors
    • activate the receptors
    • increase NT effects
  33. antagonist
    drugs that inhibit neurotransmitter actions

    decrease production of NT

    increase enzymatic deactivation in synapse

    • mimic a NT and bind to its postsynaptic receptors
    • block NT binding
    • decrease NT effects
  34. withdrawal
    mental/physical state that includes feelings of anxiety/tension and cravings for the drugs
  35. tolerance
    when the person no longer responds to the drug in the way that person initially responded

    thus taking higher level of drug doses to achieve the same result
  36. what are the 3 main classes of psychoactive drugs?


  37. depressants
    decrease neural activity; slow body function
  38. stimulants
    excite neural activity; speed body function
  39. hallucinogens
    distort perception and cause sensory images in the absence of sensory input
  40. What other modern theories have been presented?
    activation synthesis theory

    evolved threat-rehearsal theory
  41. activation synthesis theory
    states that while sleeping, the brain tries to make sense of random neural firing by associating it w/ stored memories
  42. evolved threat-rehearsal theory
    states that dreams simulate a potential threat and allow for rehearsal of an appropriate response

    sees dream as evolutionary adaption
  43. What are the types of depressants?
    • morphine, heroin, codeine
    • used for pain management

  44. how does depressant drugs such as pain reliever become addictive?
    they bind to opiate receptors to increase rewarding plasure of the drug

    bind to DA receptors to increase motivation to use the drug

    long term use = brain stops making its own opiates, endorphins
  45. what type of psychoactive drugs is alcohol?

    • biphasic actions:
    • stimulates DA pathway- rewarding effects

    stimulates GABA pathway- depressive effects

    low doses- slow sympathetic nervous system

    • high doses- impaired motor function
    •                  REM sleep supression
  46. What type of psychoactive drugs is caffeine & nicotine?

    • caffeine increases activity of ACh, 5-HT, DA, Glu
    • decreases GABA activity at high doses

    • nicotine activates ACh receptors in the periphery and in the brain
    • may increase DA activity in reward areas
  47. What type of psychoactive drugs is cocaine?

    increase DA, NE, 5HT in the synapse

    antagonists blocks reuptake, leaving the neurotransmitters in the synapse long, giving more time to act

    • short lived high, fast crash
    • due to depleted DA, NE, 5 H-T supplies
  48. What type of psychoactive drugs is amphetamines?


    • increase release of DA from the presynaptic neuron
    • blocks reuptake of DA by the presynaptic neuron
    • prolonged effects

    • long term use = neural damage
    •                        decreased DA production
    •                        physical damage
  49. What type of psychoactive drug is MDMA?

    a type of ecstacy

    • stimulates DA release
    • stimulates 5 HT release and blocks its reuptake

    • long term- memory/mood impairments
    •                circadian rhythm disruption

    mild hallucinogen
  50. what type of psychoactive drug is LSD?

    • chemically similar to 5-HT
    •    block 5-HT actions; damage neurons that produce it

    tolerance develops quickly; diminish quickly after stopping use
  51. what type of psychoactive drug is marijuana?
    depressant, stimulant, hallucinogen

    active ingredient is THC 

    THC binds to THC sensitive receptors (cannabinoid receptors- frontal lobe, hippocampus, motor cortex)

    • enhance mental activity
    • inhibit pain perception
    • impair memory
  52. meditation
    mental procedure that focuses attention on external object or a sense of awareness
  53. hypnosis
    a social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception and voluntary action