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a person's subjective experience of the world as a result of brain activity
we cannot determine if two people are experiencing the same stimulus the same way
What 3 purposes do consciousness serve?
1. perform complex tasks involving input from several brain parts
automatic tasks vs controlled tasks
2. interact w/ those around us in a meaningful way (socializing)
- 3. participate in complicated thought
- (problem solving)
What is the global workspace model of consciousness?
consciousness comes from the pattern of brain circuits that are activated
no single brain area is responsible for overall awareness
how does hemineglect support global workspace model?
a patient condition where he/she is unaware that they are not attending to half of their visual field
processing that occurs outside our conscious awareness
a normal pattern that regulate our sleep
environment of light/dark affects it too
What regions of the brain are involved in maintaining circadian rhythms?
- suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
- receives light/dark info from the visual system
- pineal gland
- receives info from the SCN
- releases the hormones of melatonin
what is the role of melatonin?
darkness triggers its release from the pineal gland
lightness inhibits its production and release
it help people fall asleep
help ppl. deal w/ jet lag or shift work
What is the stage of wakefulness and what EEG waves are here?
beta waves: short irregular waves (alert/attentive)
alpha waves: moderate regular waves (relaxed/closed eyes)
What happens during the 1st stage of sleep and what kind of EEG waves are here?
- stage 1
- theta waves
- transition of wakefulness to sleep
- easily awaken
- may "see" geometric shapes, images
What happens during the 2nd stage of sleep and what kind of EEG waves are here?
sleep spindles (bursts of high freq. waves) -occur in stages 1-4
- K-complexes (burst of slower waves)
- -triggered by unexpected noise
- -occur only in stage 2
helps us sleep by having the brain filter out loud noises disruption
What happens during the 3/4 stage of sleep and what kind of EEG waves are here?
- delta waves (large regular waves)
- slow wave sleep
- difficult to awaken
- disoriented if they do wake up
still process relevant info
What happens during the REM sleep stage of sleep and what kind of EEG waves are here?
- Beta waves
- -brain looks similar to wakeful state
most muscles in the body are paralyzed
occurs ~ 90 minutes after falling asleep
Why is REM sleep important?
for neural development and making new brain pathway
In what ways is REM sleep associated with learning?
function to consolidate learned info
REM sleep deprivation
ppl spend more time in REM sleep after deprivation
a certain amount of REM sleep is important and the body will "make up" lost REM sleep
What is the difference in short-term and long-term sleep deprivation?
- short term (2-3 days)
- little affect on physical abilities
- but quiet tasks is often impaired
- long term
- increases in mood disorders
- decreases in cognitive performance, attention and short term memory
How can sleep deprivation be beneficial?
beneficial to people w/ major depressive disorders
causes an increase activation of 5-HT receptors
inability to sleep because a decline in a person's mental health and ability to function
relate to depression
major cause: anxiety over falling asleep
obstructive sleep apnea
the closure of airways during sleep, causing person to wake up briefly to gasp for air
relate to daytime fatigue, problems concentrating, cardiovascular problems and stroke
potential cause in obesity
excessive sleepiness during periods of normal waking hours
has the potential to be very dangerous
- caused by:
- genetic condition(abnormal neural transmitter-orexin)
autoimmune disorder- can be treated with immunoglobulin
what differences do we see between non-REM stage and REM stage dreams?
- Non- REM dreams
- dull & boring
- involve completing mundane tasks
- deactivation of many brain regions
- REM dreams
- include intense emotions, auditory and visual hallucination
- acceptance of illogical events
activation and deactivation of some brain regions
What neural components are involved in REM stage dreams?
activation of areas associated with reward, emotion and motivation
deactivation of prefrontal cortex
pattern of activation allows visual and emotional areas to interact w/o rational thought or control
REM behavior disorder
normal REM sleep paralysis does not occur, causing ppl to act out dreams while asleep
- cause: neurological deficits and neurodegenerative disorders
- mainly in older men
What are the three theories of adaptiveness of sleep?
- restorative theory
- circadian rhythm theory
- facilitation of learning
states that sleep serves to allow the body to rest and repair itself if needed
- restock brain's energy
- restock/strengthen immune system
- repairs damaged tissue through release of hormone
Circadian rhythm sleep
states that animals sleep at times when they are in greatest danger to remain quiet and hidden
how much sleep depend on how much time the animal must obtain food and how easily it can hide and how vulnerable it is
facilitation of learning
neural activations activated during wakeful learning are strengthened during sleep
occurs in slow waves and REM sleep
increased memory/task performance when a period of sleep occurs between initial and subsequent testing
What is Freud's theory of dream?
dreams are made up of hidden content that represent some unconscious conflict
what two types of content did Freud believed dreams had?
manifest content-how a dream is remembered
latent content-what the dream symbolizes
drugs that enhance neurotransmitter actions
increase production of NT
block reuptake of NT from the synapse
- mimic a NT and bind to it's postsynaptic receptors
- activate the receptors
- increase NT effects
drugs that inhibit neurotransmitter actions
decrease production of NT
increase enzymatic deactivation in synapse
- mimic a NT and bind to its postsynaptic receptors
- block NT binding
- decrease NT effects
mental/physical state that includes feelings of anxiety/tension and cravings for the drugs
when the person no longer responds to the drug in the way that person initially responded
thus taking higher level of drug doses to achieve the same result
what are the 3 main classes of psychoactive drugs?
decrease neural activity; slow body function
excite neural activity; speed body function
distort perception and cause sensory images in the absence of sensory input
What other modern theories have been presented?
activation synthesis theory
evolved threat-rehearsal theory
activation synthesis theory
states that while sleeping, the brain tries to make sense of random neural firing by associating it w/ stored memories
evolved threat-rehearsal theory
states that dreams simulate a potential threat and allow for rehearsal of an appropriate response
sees dream as evolutionary adaption
What are the types of depressants?
- morphine, heroin, codeine
- used for pain management
how does depressant drugs such as pain reliever become addictive?
they bind to opiate receptors to increase rewarding plasure of the drug
bind to DA receptors to increase motivation to use the drug
long term use = brain stops making its own opiates, endorphins
what type of psychoactive drugs is alcohol?
stimulates GABA pathway- depressive effects
- biphasic actions:
- stimulates DA pathway- rewarding effects
low doses- slow sympathetic nervous system
- high doses- impaired motor function
- REM sleep supression
What type of psychoactive drugs is caffeine & nicotine?
- caffeine increases activity of ACh, 5-HT, DA, Glu
- decreases GABA activity at high doses
- nicotine activates ACh receptors in the periphery and in the brain
- may increase DA activity in reward areas
What type of psychoactive drugs is cocaine?
increase DA, NE, 5HT in the synapse
antagonists blocks reuptake, leaving the neurotransmitters in the synapse long, giving more time to act
- short lived high, fast crash
- due to depleted DA, NE, 5 H-T supplies
What type of psychoactive drugs is amphetamines?
- increase release of DA from the presynaptic neuron
- blocks reuptake of DA by the presynaptic neuron
- prolonged effects
- long term use = neural damage
- decreased DA production
- physical damage
What type of psychoactive drug is MDMA?
a type of ecstacy
- stimulates DA release
- stimulates 5 HT release and blocks its reuptake
- long term- memory/mood impairments
- circadian rhythm disruption
what type of psychoactive drug is LSD?
- chemically similar to 5-HT
- block 5-HT actions; damage neurons that produce it
tolerance develops quickly; diminish quickly after stopping use
what type of psychoactive drug is marijuana?
depressant, stimulant, hallucinogen
active ingredient is THC
THC binds to THC sensitive receptors (cannabinoid receptors- frontal lobe, hippocampus, motor cortex)
- enhance mental activity
- inhibit pain perception
- impair memory
mental procedure that focuses attention on external object or a sense of awareness
a social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception and voluntary action