Biology 172 Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth
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Biology 172 Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth
Biology Plant structure plant growth plants
General Biology: Plant Structure and Growth
Plant Morphology: What functions in absorption of water and minerals?
Transports water and minerals through the xylem to the stem.
The root system transports products of photosynthesis through the ______ from the stem to the parts of the root system
The root system _______ the plant in the soil.
A large vertical root, possibly with smaller lateral roots.
root that is characteristic of eudicots
a mat of threadlike roots
characteristic root of monocots
cellular extensions of epidermal cells of the root
purpose of root hairs is...
greatly increase absorptive surface area of root
roots that grow in an unusual location. e.g. prop roots of mangroves
aerial roots that provide support to tall plants
roots that store starch, sugar and/or water
roots that wrap around a host tree
strangling aerial roots
roots that provide support
This system transports water and minerals through the xylem to the leaves and other organs
this system transports products of photosynthesis through the phloem from the leaves to all other parts of the plant
the shoot system
The shoot system provides ________ ________ for standing upright in the air.
Made up of:
- nodes and internodes (modular structure)
- axillary buds and terminal buds
- leaves (petioles, blade)
- flower (reproductive shoot)
- vegetative shoot vs. floral (reproductive shoot)
the shoot system
What's a stolon?
horizontal stems that grow on the surface of the ground
horizontal stems that grow beneath the ground
swollen ends of rhizomes
vertical underground shoots consisting mainly of leaves
the principle photosynthetic organs of the plant
true leaves do not possess vascular tissue.
arrangement of leaves on stem:
opposite, alternate and whorled
simple vs. compound leaves
leaf margin shape
string-like leaves that provide support by clinging to things
provide protection from herbivores
thick leaves that store materials (e.g. water)
attract potential pollinators to flowers
allow for asexual propagation of new plants
embryonic "seed leaf"
number of cotyledons in monocots
number of cotyledons in eudicots
Endosperm present in mature seed
endosperm usually absorbed into cotyledons
parallel leaf veins
netlike leaf veins
stem vascular tissue dispersed as xylem-phloem bundles through the stem
stem vascular tissue arranged in concentric rings
root cross section contains central pith inside ring of vascular tissues
root cross section contains no central pith; xylem often forms a star-like shape in the center
flower parts arranged in threes or multiples of three
flower parts arranged in fours or fives or multiples thereof
secondary growth is usually seen in some ______ but not in ________.
cell contents exclusive of the cell wall
contains the cell sap, surrounded by the tonoplast
large central vacuole
cytoplasmic connections through the cell walls of adjacent cells
________ cell wall grows as the cell grows.
________ cell wall added only after cell growth ceases.
cements the cell walls of adjacent cells together
_____ tissue system forms the epidermis which may secrete a waxy cuticle
dermal tissue system
contributes to the periderm of woody plants
dermal tissue system
dermal tissue system arises from the...
_______ tissues system makes up the bulk of the plant (includes pith and cortex)
ground tissues system
ground tissues system is composed predominantly of _________, but may also include _________ and __________.
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
ground tissues system arises from the...
_____ ______ _____ is represented by xylem and phloem.
vascular tissue system
vascular tissue system functions in...
transport and support
vascular tissue system arises from the...
least specialized cell type.
parenchyma cell wall structure
only thin primary cell wall is present
which cell type possess a large central vacuole?
parenchyma cells are generally _______ at maturity.
cell type that makes up most of the ground tissues of the plant.
_______ cell type functions in storage.
this cell type functions in photosynthesis
can help repair and replace damaged organs by proliferation and specialization into other cells
possess thicker primary cell walls than that of parenchyma
no secondary cell wall present
no lignin in this cell type
collenchyma cells are generally _________ at functional maturity.
this cell type provides support without restraining growth
this cell type has secondary cell walls strengthened by lignin
this cell type has rigid cells providing support and strength to tissues
these cells are often dead at functional maturity
sclerenchyma cells have two forms:
fibers and sclereids
- long and threadlike
- often used in making rope or cloth
- short and irregular in shape
- impart hardness to seed coats and nutshells
- tapered elongated cells
- connect to each other through pits
- secondary cell walls strengthened with lignin
- dead at functional maturity
- forms part of xylem
tracheids function in: (2)
- trasnport of water plus dissolved minerals
- provide support
vessel elements: (5)
- shorter and wider than tracheids
- thinner cell walls than tracheids
- aligned end-to-end, forming long micropipes
- dead at functional matruity
- form the xylem vessels of the xylem
sieve-tube members: (6)
a. living cells arranged end-to-end to form food-conducting cells of the phloem
b. lack lignin in their cell walls
c. mature cells lack nuclei and other cellular organelles
d. cytoplasm of adjacent cells connected through sieve plates
e. alive at functional maturity
f. supported by companion cells
cork cells (3)
a. box-like cells that are dead at functional maturity
b. cell walls with suberin
c. protect outer surface of the plant as the outermost layer of the bark
growth continues throughout organism’s life
growth ceases after reaching a certain size
plant life cycle completed in one year
plant life cycle completed in two years
plant lives many years
perpetually embryonic tissues
- mitotically active
: generate new cells
- cells are undifferentiated
- meristematic cells remaining at the source called "initials"
- meristematic cells that become displaced called "derivatives"
types of primary meristems (3)
a. protoderm (forms dermal tissue system)
b. procambium (forms vascular tissue system)
c. ground meristem (forms ground tissue system)
apical meristems (2)
1) found at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots
2) contribute to primary growth (growth in length)
1) cylinders of meristematic cells found in the stems and roots
2) contribute to secondary growth (thickening of stems and roots)
a. vascular cambium
: adds secondary xylem and phloem (see below)
b. cork cambium
: adds secondary dermal tissue (see below)
Root System primary growth
a. root cap protects the tip of the root
b. zone of cell division
1) mitosis occurs in the apical meristem
2) apical meristem forms three primary meristems as vertical columns (see above)
c. zone of elongation
d. zone of maturation
root central vascular cylinder composed of xylem and phloem
stele outermost layer
= pericycle, which may become meristematic and produce lateral roots
a central core of parenchyma cells called ______ in roots is found in ________
a pith, in monocots (but not dicots)
stele is formed from...
root cortex (4)
1) outer ring of ground tissue
2) composed mainly of parenchyma cells
3) innermost layer = endodermis
4) formed from the ground meristem
innermost layer of root cortex = endodermis (3)
a) a cylinder of cells forming a barrier between cortex and stele
b) connected into a ring by the Casparian strip (Fig. 36.10, p. 773)
c) controls passage of materials between cortex and stele
root epidermis (4)
1) a single layer of cells covering the root
2) absorbs water and minerals
3) individual cells of the epidermis may possess root hairs
4) formed from the protoderm
1) X-shaped xylem in stele
2) phloem lies between "spokes" of xylem
xylem and phloem arranged in a circle around the pith in roots
composed of both xylem and phloem as well as supporting tissues
fasicular cambium lies between _____ and _____ in vascular bundles of eudicots
xylem and phloem
vascular bundles distributed throughout the ground tissue of the stem
vascular bundles form a ring around a central pith in stem
ground tissue is arranged in a ______ and _____ in dicot stems.
what connects the cortex and pith between vascular bundles in dicot stems? What lies within this?
ray of ground tissue, where interfasicular cambium also lies.
ground tissue is not arranged as a distinct pith and cortex in _______ stems
Secondary Growth of Dicot Stems:
fasicular cambium between primary xylem and phloem proliferates
secondary xylem forms _______ to fasicular cambium in secondary growth of dicot stem
secondary phloem forms ______ to this cambium in secondary growth of dicot stem
The cytoplasmic continuum connecting neighboring cells is called the _____.
The continuum of cell walls connecting neighboring cells is defined as the _____.
Cells that are specialized for the transport of sugar between apoplast and symplast are _____ cells.