Biology 172 Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth

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Biology 172 Chapter 35 Plant Structure and Growth
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2013-11-12 01:28:50
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Biology Plant structure plant growth plants
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General Biology: Plant Structure and Growth
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  1. Plant Morphology: What functions in absorption of water and minerals?
    Root system
  2. Transports water and minerals through the xylem to the stem.
    root system
  3. The root system transports products of photosynthesis through the ______ from the stem to the parts of the root system
    phloem
  4. The root system _______ the plant in the soil.
    anchors
  5. A large vertical root, possibly with smaller lateral roots.
    taproot
  6. root that is characteristic of eudicots
    taproot
  7. a mat of threadlike roots
    fibrous root
  8. characteristic root of monocots
    fibrous root
  9. fibrous root
  10. taproot
  11. cellular extensions of epidermal cells of the root
    root hairs
  12. purpose of root hairs is...
    greatly increase absorptive surface area of root
  13. roots that grow in an unusual location. e.g. prop roots of mangroves
    adventitious roots
  14. aerial roots that provide support to tall plants
    prop roots
  15. roots that store starch, sugar and/or water
    storage roots
  16. roots that wrap around a host tree
    strangling aerial roots
  17. roots that provide support
    buttress roots
  18. air roots
    pneumatophores
  19. This system transports water and minerals through the xylem to the leaves and other organs
    shoot system
  20. this system transports products of photosynthesis through the phloem from the leaves to all other parts of the plant
    the shoot system
  21. The shoot system provides ________ ________ for standing upright in the air.
    structural support
  22. Made up of:
    - stem
    - nodes and internodes (modular structure)
    - axillary buds and terminal buds
    - leaves (petioles, blade)
    - flower (reproductive shoot)
    - vegetative shoot vs. floral (reproductive shoot)
    the shoot system
  23. What's a stolon?
    horizontal stems that grow on the surface of the ground
  24. rhizomes
    horizontal stems that grow beneath the ground
  25. tubers
    swollen ends of rhizomes
  26. bulbs
    vertical underground shoots consisting mainly of leaves
  27. the principle photosynthetic organs of the plant
    leaves
  28. True/false:

    true leaves do not possess vascular tissue.
    false
  29. Leaf morphology:

    arrangement of leaves on stem:
    a.
    b.
    c.
    opposite, alternate and whorled
  30. simple vs. compound leaves
  31. leaf shape
  32. leaf margin shape
  33. leaf venation
  34. tendrils
    string-like leaves that provide support by clinging to things
  35. spines
    provide protection from herbivores
  36. storage leaves
    thick leaves that store materials (e.g. water)
  37. petal-like leaves
    attract potential pollinators to flowers
  38. reproductive leaves
    allow for asexual propagation of new plants
  39. cotyledon
    embryonic "seed leaf"
  40. number of cotyledons in monocots
    one
  41. number of cotyledons in eudicots
    two
  42. Typical bean
  43. Typical corn
  44. Endosperm present in mature seed
    monocots
  45. endosperm usually absorbed into cotyledons
    eudicots
  46. parallel leaf veins
    monocots
  47. netlike leaf veins
    eudicots
  48. stem vascular tissue dispersed as xylem-phloem bundles through the stem
    monocots
  49. stem vascular tissue arranged in concentric rings
    eudicots
  50. root cross section contains central pith inside ring of vascular tissues
    monocots
  51. root cross section contains no central pith; xylem often forms a star-like shape in the center
    eudicots
  52. flower parts arranged in threes or multiples of three
    monocots
  53. flower parts arranged in fours or fives or multiples thereof
    eudicots
  54. secondary growth is usually seen in some ______ but not in ________.
    dicots, monocots
  55. protoplast
    cell contents exclusive of the cell wall
  56. contains the cell sap, surrounded by the tonoplast
    large central vacuole
  57. plasmodesmata
    cytoplasmic connections through the cell walls of adjacent cells
  58. ________ cell wall grows as the cell grows.
    primary
  59. ________ cell wall added only after cell growth ceases.
    secondary
  60. cements the cell walls of adjacent cells together
    middle lamella
  61. _____ tissue system forms the epidermis which may secrete a waxy cuticle
    dermal tissue system
  62. contributes to the periderm of woody plants
    dermal tissue system
  63. dermal tissue system arises from the...
    protoderm
  64. _______ tissues system makes up the bulk of the plant (includes pith and cortex)
    ground tissues system
  65. ground tissues system is composed predominantly of _________, but may also include _________ and __________.
    parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
  66. ground tissues system arises from the...
    ground meristem
  67. _____ ______ _____ is represented by xylem and phloem.
    vascular tissue system
  68. vascular tissue system functions in...
    transport and support
  69. vascular tissue system arises from the...
    procambium
  70. least specialized cell type.
    parenchyma
  71. parenchyma cell wall structure
    only thin primary cell wall is present
  72. which cell type possess a large central vacuole?
    parenchyma
  73. parenchyma cells are generally _______ at maturity.
    alive
  74. cell type that makes up most of the ground tissues of the plant.
    parenchyma
  75. _______ cell type functions in storage.
    parenchyma
  76. this cell type functions in photosynthesis
    parenchyma
  77. can help repair and replace damaged organs by proliferation and specialization into other cells
    parenchyma
  78. possess thicker primary cell walls than that of parenchyma
    collenchyma
  79. no secondary cell wall present
    chollenchyma
  80. no lignin in this cell type
    collenchyma
  81. collenchyma cells are generally _________ at functional maturity.
    alive
  82. this cell type provides support without restraining growth
    collenchyma
  83. this cell type has secondary cell walls strengthened by lignin
    sclerenchyma
  84. this cell type has rigid cells providing support and strength to tissues
    sclerenchyma
  85. these cells are often dead at functional maturity
    sclerenchyma
  86. sclerenchyma cells have two forms:
    fibers and sclereids
  87. sclerenchyma fibers:
    • - long and threadlike
    • - often used in making rope or cloth
  88. sclerenchyma sclereids:
    • - short and irregular in shape
    • - impart hardness to seed coats and nutshells
  89. tracheids
    • - tapered elongated cells
    • - connect to each other through pits
    • - secondary cell walls strengthened with lignin
    • - dead at functional maturity
    • - forms part of xylem
  90. tracheids function in: (2)
    • - trasnport of water plus dissolved minerals
    • - provide support
  91. vessel elements: (5)
    • - shorter and wider than tracheids
    • - thinner cell walls than tracheids
    • - aligned end-to-end, forming long micropipes
    • - dead at functional matruity
    • - form the xylem vessels of the xylem
  92. sieve-tube members: (6)
    • a. living cells arranged end-to-end to form food-conducting cells of the phloem
    • b. lack lignin in their cell walls
    • c. mature cells lack nuclei and other cellular organelles
    • d. cytoplasm of adjacent cells connected through sieve plates
    • e. alive at functional maturity
    • f. supported by companion cells
  93. cork cells (3)
    • a. box-like cells that are dead at functional maturity
    • b. cell walls with suberin
    • c. protect outer surface of the plant as the outermost layer of the bark
  94. indeterminant growth
    growth continues throughout organism’s life
  95. determinant growth
    growth ceases after reaching a certain size
  96. annuals:
    plant life cycle completed in one year
  97. biennials:
    plant life cycle completed in two years
  98. perennials:
    plant lives many years
  99. perpetually embryonic tissues
    meristems
  100. meristems (4)
    • - mitotically active: generate new cells
    • - cells are undifferentiated
    • - meristematic cells remaining at the source called "initials"
    • - meristematic cells that become displaced called "derivatives"
  101. types of primary meristems (3)
    • a. protoderm (forms dermal tissue system)
    • b. procambium (forms vascular tissue system)
    • c. ground meristem (forms ground tissue system)
  102. apical meristems (2)
    • 1) found at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots
    • 2) contribute to primary growth (growth in length)
  103. lateral meristems
    • 1) cylinders of meristematic cells found in the stems and roots
    • 2) contribute to secondary growth (thickening of stems and roots)
    • 3) examples
    • a. vascular cambium: adds secondary xylem and phloem (see below)
    • b. cork cambium: adds secondary dermal tissue (see below)
  104. Root System primary growth
    • a. root cap protects the tip of the root
    • b. zone of cell division
    • 1) mitosis occurs in the apical meristem
    • 2) apical meristem forms three primary meristems as vertical columns (see above)
    • c. zone of elongation
    • d. zone of maturation
  105. stele
    root central vascular cylinder composed of xylem and phloem
  106. stele outermost layer
    = pericycle, which may become meristematic and produce lateral roots
  107. a central core of parenchyma cells called ______ in roots is found in ________
    a pith, in monocots (but not dicots)
  108. stele is formed from...
    the procambium
  109. root cortex (4)
    • 1) outer ring of ground tissue
    • 2) composed mainly of parenchyma cells
    • 3) innermost layer = endodermis
    • 4) formed from the ground meristem
  110. innermost layer of root cortex = endodermis (3)
    • a) a cylinder of cells forming a barrier between cortex and stele
    • b) connected into a ring by the Casparian strip (Fig. 36.10, p. 773)
    • c) controls passage of materials between cortex and stele
  111. root epidermis (4)
    • 1) a single layer of cells covering the root
    • 2) absorbs water and minerals
    • 3) individual cells of the epidermis may possess root hairs
    • 4) formed from the protoderm
  112. Roots
    1) X-shaped xylem in stele
    2) phloem lies between "spokes" of xylem
    eudicots
  113. xylem and phloem arranged in a circle around the pith in roots
    monocots
  114. composed of both xylem and phloem as well as supporting tissues
    vascular bundles
  115. fasicular cambium lies between _____ and _____ in vascular bundles of eudicots
    xylem and phloem
  116. vascular bundles distributed throughout the ground tissue of the stem
    monocots
  117. vascular bundles form a ring around a central pith in stem
    eudicots
  118. ground tissue is arranged in a ______ and _____ in dicot stems.
    cortex, pith
  119. what connects the cortex and pith between vascular bundles in dicot stems? What lies within this?
    ray of ground tissue, where interfasicular cambium also lies.
  120. ground tissue is not arranged as a distinct pith and cortex in _______ stems
    monocot
  121. Secondary Growth of Dicot Stems:
    what proliferates?
    fasicular cambium between primary xylem and phloem proliferates
  122. secondary xylem forms _______ to fasicular cambium in secondary growth of dicot stem
    medially
  123. secondary phloem forms ______ to this cambium in secondary growth of dicot stem
    laterally
  124. The cytoplasmic continuum connecting neighboring cells is called the _____.
    symplast
  125. The continuum of cell walls connecting neighboring cells is defined as the _____.
    apoplast
  126. Cells that are specialized for the transport of sugar between apoplast and symplast are _____ cells.
    companion

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